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Technical Paper

Wall Heat Transfer in a Multi-Link Extended Expansion SI-Engine

The real cycle simulation is an important tool to predict the engine efficiency. To evaluate Extended Expansion SI-engines with a multi-link cranktrain, the challenge is to consider all concept specific effects as best as possible by using appropriate submodels. Due to the multi-link cranktrain, the choice of a suitable heat transfer model is of great importance since the cranktrain kinematics is changed. Therefore, the usage of the mean piston speed to calculate a heat-transfer-related velocity for heat transfer equations is not sufficient. The heat transfer equation according to Bargende combines for its calculation the actual piston speed with a simplified k-ε model. In this paper it is assessed, whether the Bargende model is valid for Extended Expansion engines. Therefore a single-cylinder engine is equipped with fast-response surface-thermocouples in the cylinder head. The surface heat flux is calculated by solving the unsteady heat conduction equation.
Journal Article

Virtual Full Engine Development: 3D-CFD Simulations of Turbocharged Engines under Transient Load Conditions

The simulation of transient engine behavior has gained importance mainly due to stringent emission limits, measured under real driving conditions and the concurrently demanded vehicle performance. This is especially true for turbocharged engines, as the coupling of the combustion engine and the turbocharger forms a complex system in which the components influence each other remarkably causing, for example, the well-known turbo lag. Because of this strong interaction, during a transient load case, the components should not be analyzed separately since they mutually determine their boundary conditions. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) simulations of full engines in stationary operating points have become practicable several years ago and will remain a valuable tool in virtual engine development; however, the next logical step is to extend this approach into the transient domain.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Injector Spray Targeting by Coupling 3D-CFD Simulations with Optical Investigations

Further improvements of internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and to face future legislation constraints are strictly related to the study of mixture formation. The reason for that is the desire to supply the engine with homogeneous charge, towards the direction of a global stoichiometric blend in the combustion chamber. Fuel evaporation and thus mixture quality mostly depend on injector atomization features and charge motion within the cylinder. 3D-CFD simulations offer great potential to study not only injector atomization quality but also the evaporation behavior. Nevertheless coupling optical measurements and simulations for injector analysis is an open discussion because of the large number of influencing parameters and interactions affecting the fuel injection’s reproducibility. For this purpose, detailed numerical investigations are used to describe the injection phenomena.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Pressure Ratios, Pressure and Temperature Levels

Engine valve flow coefficients are not only used to characterize the performance of valve/port designs, but also for modelling gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Flow coefficients are usually estimated with small pressure ratios and at ambient air conditions. In contrast, the ranges for pressure ratio, pressure and temperature level during engine operation are much more extensive. In this work the influences of these three parameters on SI engine poppet valve flow coefficients are investigated using 3D CFD and measurements for validation. While former investigations already showed some pressure ratio dependencies by measurement, here the use of 3D CFD allows a more comprehensive analysis and a deeper understanding of the relevant effects. At first, typical ranges for the three mentioned parameters during engine operation are presented.
Technical Paper

Valve Flow Coefficients under Engine Operation Conditions: Piston Influence and Flow Pulsation

Engine valve flow coefficients are used to describe the flow throughput performance of engine valve/port designs, and to model gas exchange in 0D/1D engine simulation. Valve flow coefficients are normally determined at a stationary flow test bench, separately for intake and exhaust side, in the absence of the piston. However, engine operation differs from this setup; i. a. the piston might interact with valve flow around scavenging top dead center, and instead of steady boundary conditions, valve flow is nearly always subjected to pressure pulsations, due to pressure wave reflections within the gas exchange ports. In this work the influences of piston position and flow pulsation on valve flow coefficients are investigated for different SI engine geometries by means of 3D CFD and measurements at an enhanced flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Validity of a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

Due to its high benefit-cost ratio, decreasing mechanical friction losses in internal combustion engines represents one of the most effective and widely applicable solutions for improved engine efficiency. Especially the piston group - consisting of piston, rings and pin - shows significant potential for friction reduction, which can be evaluated through extensive experimental parameter studies. For each investigated variant, the steady-state friction measurements are fitted to an empirical polynomial model. In order to calculate the associated fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in transient driving cycles, the steady-state friction model is used in a map-based vehicle simulation. If transient engine operation entails friction phenomena that are not included in the steady-state model, the simulation could yield erroneous fuel consumption and CO2 predictions.
Technical Paper

Transient Simulation of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions of CI Engines

This paper presents a quasi-dimensional emission model for calculating the transient nitric oxide emissions of a diesel engine. Using conventional and high-speed measurement technology, steady-state and transient emissions of a V6 diesel engine were examined. Based on measured load steps and steady-state measurements a direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions was found. Load steps to and from, as well as steady-state measurements down to almost stoichiometric global combustion air ratios were used to examine the behavior of nitric oxide formation under these operating conditions. An existing emission model was expanded in order to represent the direct influence of the combustion chamber wall temperature on the nitric oxide emissions as well as enabling the forecasting of nitric oxide emissions at low global combustion air ratios: Both particularly important aspects for the simulation of transient emissions.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Simulation of the Piston Group

For basic research on the piston group a new simulation technique is developed using the contact algorithm of a commercial FE-code (MARC). Several improvements were made in order to adapt the MARC solver to the problem of sliding and dynamic contact. The first computations, a real transient analysis simulating the piston group, of both a two-stroke engine and a modern direct injected four-stroke Diesel engine for passenger cars, show that the new method is able to calculate the movements, velocities and accelerations of the piston. The quality of the results is mainly influenced by the hydrodynamic effects.
Technical Paper

The Isochoric Engine

For the gasoline engine, the isochoric process is the ideal limit of the ideal processes. During the project, a combustion engine with real isochoric boundary conditions is built. A “resting time” of the piston for several degrees crank angle in the top dead center (TDC) can be realized with a special crank drive. This crank drive consists of two crankshafts with different strokes, which are combined. The two crankshafts rotate with a ratio of two to one in opposite directions. The total stroke corresponds to the amount of the first crankshaft, so it is possible to investigate different strokes of the second crankshaft in the same crankcase. Different “resting times” can be achieved by different strokes of the second crankshaft. A specific combination of both crankshafts make a stroke possible which corresponds to that of a conventional combustion engine.
Journal Article

The Development of an Highly Modular Designed Zero-Dimensional Engine Process Calculation Code

The main objective of the FVV-project “Cylinder Module” was the development of a profoundly modular designed concept for object-oriented modeling of in-cylinder processes of internal combustion engines. It was designed in such a way, that it can either be used as a stand-alone real working-process calculation tool or in tools for whole vehicle simulations. It is possible to run the “Cylinder Module”-code inside the FVV-“GPA”-software for transient vehicle and driving cycle simulations and it is possible to use the graphical user interface “ATMOS” of the “GPA”-project. The code can also be used as a user-subroutine in 1-D-flow simulation codes. Much effort was spent on the requirements of flexibility and expandability in order to be well prepared to cope with the diversity of both today's and future tasks. The code is freely available for members of the German Research Association for Combustion Engines (FVV).
Technical Paper

The Application of E-Fuel Oxymethylene Ether OME1 in a Virtual Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Ultra-Low Emissions

For long haul transport, diesel engine due to its low fuel consumption and low operating costs will remain dominant over a long term. In order to achieve CO2 neutrality, the use of electricity-based, synthetic fuels (e-fuels) provides a solution. Especially the group of oxymethylene ethers (OME) is given much attention because of its soot-free combustion. However, the new fuel properties and the changed combustion characteristics place new demands on engine design. Meanwhile, the use of new fuels also creates new degrees of freedom to operate diesel engines. In this work, the application of dimethoxymethane (OME1) is investigated by means of 1D simulation at three operating points in a truck diesel engine. The subsystems of fuel injection, air path and exhaust gas are sequentially adjusted for the purpose of low emissions, especially for low nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Journal Article

Some Useful Additions to Calculate the Wall Heat Losses in Real Cycle Simulations

More than 20 years after the first presentation of the heat transfer equation according to Bargende [1,2], it is time to introduce some useful additions and enhancements, with respect to new and advanced combustion principles like diesel- and gasoline- homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). In the existing heat transfer equation according to Bargende the calculation of the actual combustion chamber surface area is formulated in accordance with the work of Hohenberg. Hohenberg found experimentally that in the piston top land only about 20-30% of the wall heat flux values from the combustion chamber are transferred to the liner and piston wall. Hohenberg explained this phenomenon that is caused by lower gas temperature and convection level in charge within the piston top land volume. The formulation just adds the existing piston top land surface area multiplied by a specified factor to the surface of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Quasi-dimensional and Empirical Modeling of Compression-Ignition Engine Combustion and Emissions

Two combustion models are presented: A quasi-dimensional approach, based on the injection shape and an empirical model. Both models have computation times of less than one second per cycle. The quasi-dimensional approach for CI combustion discretizes the injection jet in slices. Pilot-injections are modeled as separate zones. The forecast capability and the limitations of the model are discussed on the basis of measurements. Mentioned above the base of the quasi-dimensional model is the injection rate. Often it is difficult to obtain these data. There is therefore another empirical approach for combustion, which does not need the injection rate as input. Both models have to be calibrated. This can be done by an automatic calibration tool on the basis of the advanced Powell method. The differences and advantages compared with other optimization methods are shown. Emission-simulation models are highly important in simulating CI engines.
Journal Article

Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of CI-Combustion with Multiple Pilot- and Post Injections

A new phenomenological CI combustion model was developed. Within this model the given injection rate may contain an arbitrary number of injections during one cycle. Another target was a short computation time of one second per cycle on average. The new approach should also have the ability to simulate a wide engine spectrum from passenger-car engines through to marine engines. The ignition delay is calculated separately for each single injection. In this way the model depicts the influence of pilot injections on the ignition delay of proximate injections. Each pilot injection is modeled as a single air-fuel mixture cloud with air entrainment. The burn rate of the pilot injection is modeled as a function of flame propagation and of the current local excess air ratio. If the local excess air ratio becomes too lean the pilot combustion stops or does not start at all. Main and post-injections are calculated by means of a slice approach.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Technical Paper

Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and methyl formate (MeFo) mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Spray-Atomization of Various Fuels for an Outwardly Opening Piezo Injector for the Application to a Pilot Injection Passenger Car Gas Engine

Pilot injection gas engines are commonly used as large stationary engines. Often, the combustion is implemented as a dual-fuel strategy, which allows both mixed and diesel-only operation, based on a diesel engine architecture. The current research project focuses on the application of pilot injection in an engine based on gasoline components of the passenger car segment, which are more cost-effective than diesel components. The investigated strategy does not aim for a diesel-only combustion, hence only small liquid quantities are used for the main purpose of providing a strong, reliable ignition source for the natural gas charge. This approach is mainly driven to provide a reliable alternative to the high spark ignition energies required for high cylinder charge densities. When using such small liquid quantities, a standard common-rail diesel nozzle will apparently not be ideal regarding some general specifications.
Technical Paper

Investigation on different Injection Strategies in a Direct-Injected Turbocharged CNG-Engine

Natural gas as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a combustion technology showing great promise for the reduction of CO2 and particulate matter. To demonstrate the potential of natural gas direct injection, especially in combination with supercharging, some experimental investigations were carried out using a single-cylinder engine unit with lateral injector position. For this purpose different injection valve nozzles, piston crown geometries as well as operating strategies were investigated. First experimental results show that it is also possible to better support the combustion process by providing a late injection of a part of the fuel, near ignition point, so that the additional induced turbulence can speed up the flame propagation 1 Mixture formation with gaseous fuels due to its low mass density is more critical than in gasoline engines, because even high injection velocities still produce very low fuel penetration.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Mixture Formation and Combustion Process in a CNG-Engine by Using a Fast Response 3D-CFD-Simulation

The research institute FKFS in cooperation with the IVK Universität Stuttgart has recently presented QuickSim, a 3D-CFD-tool, that works integrated into the commercial 3D-CFD-code Star-CD. QuickSim has been developed to cover a vacancy in the market of simulation programs for engine development. The code introduces a new concept in the 3D-CFD-simulation of internal combustion engines (SI-Manifold-Injection and SI-GDI), that drastically reduces the CPU-time in comparison to a conventional 3D-CFD-simulation. QuickSim, as a 3D-CFD-tool, combines the advantages of local resolution of the fluid-dynamical field of internal combustion engines exactly like that provided by traditional 3D-CFD-simulations and the versatility and clearness of the real working-process analysis (WP) and of the full 1D-flow calculations. The CPU-time always remains in an acceptable range (few hours over a full operating cycle for a single-processor computing simulation).