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Technical Paper

The 1995 HEV Challenge: Results and Technology Summary

The objective of this paper is to analyze and summarize the performance results and the technology used in the 1995 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge. Government and industry are exploring hybrid electric vehicle technology to significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of the vehicles without sacrificing performance. This last in a three-year series of HEV competitions provided the testing grounds to evaluate the different approaches of 29 universities and colleges constructing HEVs. These HEVs competed in an array of events, including: acceleration, emissions testing, consumer acceptance, range, vehicle handling, HVAC testing, fuel economy, and engineering design. The teams also documented the attributes of their vehicles in the technical reports. The strategies and approaches to HEV design are analyzed on the basis of the data from each of the events. The overall performance for promising HEV approaches is also examined.
Technical Paper

Testing Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emission and Fuel Economy at the 1994 DOE/SAE Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

From June 12-20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, we were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Technical Paper

Investigating Steady-State Road Load Determination Methods for Electrified Vehicles and Coordinated Driving (Platooning)

Reductions in vehicle drive losses are as important to improving fuel economy as increases in powertrain efficiencies. In order to measure vehicle fuel economy, chassis dynamometer testing relies on accurate road load determinations. Road load is currently determined (with some exceptions) using established test track coastdown testing procedures. Because new vehicle technologies and usage cases challenge the accuracy and applicability of these procedures, on-road experiments were conducted using axle torque sensors to address the suitability of the test procedures in determining vehicle road loads in specific cases. Whereas coastdown testing can use vehicle deceleration to determine load, steady-state testing can offer advantages in validating road load coefficients for vehicles with no mechanical neutral gear (such as plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles).
Technical Paper

Investigating Possible Fuel Economy Bias Due To Regenerative Braking in Testing HEVs on 2WD and 4WD Chassis Dynamometers

Procedures are in place for testing emissions and fuel economy for virtually every type of light-duty vehicle with a single-axle chassis dynamometer, which is why nearly all emissions test facilities use single-axle dynamometers. However, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) employ regenerative braking. Thus, the braking split between the driven and non-driven axles may interact with the calculation of overall efficiency of the vehicle. This paper investigates the regenerative braking systems of a few production HEVs and provides an analysis of their differences in single-axle (2WD) and double-axle (4WD) dynamometer drive modes. The fuel economy results from 2WD and 4WD operation are shown for varied cycles for the 2000 Honda Insight, 2001 Toyota Prius, and the 2004 Toyota Prius. The paper shows that there is no evidence that a bias in testing an HEV exists because of the difference in operating the same hybrid vehicle in the 2WD and 4WD modes.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Non-Intrusive In-Vehicle Engine Torque Sensor for Benchmarking the Toyota Prius

Vehicle emissions and fuel economy testing applications rely on accurate sensors to track power flow and measure component efficiencies. A non-intrusive in-vehicle torque sensor has been implemented in a hybrid powertrain to directly measure engine torque. Previously used off-the-shelf torque sensors required additional mechanical space, and so chassis modifications were needed to accommodate the sensor, which potentially limited the vehicle to only dynamometer testing. The challenges in implementing this type of sensor in automotive environments are described in detail, as are sensor capabilities and test results.
Technical Paper

HEV Dynamometer Testing with State-of-Charge Corrections in the 1995 HEV Challenge

In the 1995 HEV Challenge competition, 17 prototype Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) were tested by using special HEV test procedures. The contribution of the batteries during the test, as measured by changes in battery state-of-charge (SOC), were accounted for by applying SOC corrections to the test data acquired from the results of the HEV test. The details of SOC corrections are described and two different HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV test methods are explained. The results of the HEV tests and the effects on the test outcome of varying HEV designs and control strategies are examined. Although many teams had technical problems with their vehicles, a few vehicles demonstrated high fuel economy and low emissions. One vehicle had emissions lower than California's ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) emissions rates, and two vehicles demonstrated higher fuel economy and better acceleration than their stock counterparts.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effects of Restraint Systems on Four Wheel Drive Testing Methodologies: A Collaborative Effort between NVFEL and ANL

Testing vehicles for emissions and fuel economy has traditionally been conducted with a single-axle chassis dynamometer. The 2006 SAE All Wheel Drive Symposium cited four wheel drive (4WD) and all wheel drive (AWD) sales as climbing from 20% toward 30% of a motor vehicle market share. With an increasing number of four wheel-drive vehicles being introduced to the market place, certification testing for emissions and fuel economy has been changed to allow both two wheel drive and four wheel drive testing [1]. As manufacturers plan to test these vehicles in this mode, test methods need to be developed to allow for these changes. This paper focuses on the tie down methods available for 4WD testing to determine possible effects of test methodologies on a traditional 4WD Vehicle and a hybrid vehicle.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Fuel Consumption Variability of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Due to Aggressive Driving

Previous studies and on-road driving by consumers have shown that Hybrid Electric Vehicle fuel economy is very dependent on driver demand in both vehicle speed and vehicle acceleration [1]. The emerging technology of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) may prove to also be more sensitivity to aggressive driver demand as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. This is due to the exceptional ability of the PHEV to minimize fuel consumption at mid to low power levels by the significant use of electric propulsion which enables engine downsizing. As vehicle speed and acceleration increase so does the power demand on the powertrain. The fuel consumption is directly affected by this increase in power demand level. To examine the fuel consumption impact of changing driver characteristics on PHEV’s, testing is conducted on two vehicles (parallel PHEV and power-split PHEV) on a four wheel chassis dynamometer at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of Powertrain Component Efficiencies for a Light-Duty Vehicle with a CVT Operating Over a Driving Cycle

In order to determine the factors that affect fuel economy quantitatively, the power flows through the major powertrain components were measured during operation over transient cycles. The fuel consumption rate and torque and speed of the engine output and axle shafts were measured to assess the power flows in a vehicle with a CVT. The measured power flows were converted to energy loss for each component to get the efficiency. Tests were done at Phase 1 and Phase 3 of the FTP and for two different CVT shift modes. The measured energy distributions were compared with those from the ADVISOR simulation and to results from the PNGV study. For both the Hot 505 and the Cold 505, and for both shift modes, the major powertrain loss occurs in the engine, including or excluding standby losses. However, the efficiency of the drivetrain/transmission is important because it influences the efficiency of the engine.
Journal Article

Design of an On-Road PHEV Fuel Economy Testing Methodology with Built-In Utility Factor Distance Weighting

As vehicle technology progresses to new levels of sophistication, so too, vehicle test methods must evolve. This is true for analytical testing in a laboratory and for on-road vehicle testing. Every year since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sponsors have organized a series of competitions featuring advanced hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology to develop and promote DOE goals in fuel savings and alternative fuel usage. The competition has evolved over many years and has included many alternative fuels feeding the prime mover (including hydrogen fuel cells). EcoCAR turned its focus to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and it was quickly realized that to keep using on-road testing methods to evaluate fuel and electricity consumption, a new method needed to be developed that would properly weight depleting operation with the sustaining operation, using the established Utility Factor (UF) method.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Comparison of Two Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) - Honda Insight and Toyota Prius

Two limited-production hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) - a 1988 Japanese model Toyota Prius and a 2000 Honda Insight - were tested at Argonne National Laboratory to collect data from vehicle component and systems operation. The test data are used to analyze operation and efficiency and to help validate computer simulation models. Both HEVs have FTP fuel economy greater than 45 miles per gallon and also have attributes very similar to those of conventional gasoline vehicles, even though each HEV has a unique powertrain configuration and operation control strategy. The designs and characteristics of these vehicles are of interest because they represent production technology with all the compromises for production included. This paper will explore both designs, their control strategies, and under what conditions high fuel economy was achieved.
Technical Paper

Calculating Results and Performance Parameters for PHEVs

As one of the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE's) vehicle systems benchmarking partners, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has tested many plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) conversions and purpose-built prototype vehicles. The procedures for testing follow draft SAE J1711 and California Air Resources Board (CARB) test concepts and calculation methods. This paper explains the testing procedures and calculates important parameters. It describes some parameters, such as cycle charge-depleting range, actual charge-depleting range, electric range fraction, equivalent all-electric range, and utility factor-weighted fuel economy.

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Performance Results from FutureTruck 2001

The 2001 FutureTruck competition involved 15 universities from across North America that were invited to apply a wide range of advanced technologies to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas impact while producing near-zero regulated exhaust emissions in a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. The modified vehicles designated as FutureTrucks demonstrated improvements in greenhouse gas emissions, tailpipe emissions, and over-the-road fuel economy compared with the stock vehicle on which they were based. The technologies represented in the vehicles included ICE-engines and fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle propulsion systems, a range of conventional and alternative fuels, advanced exhaust emissions controls, and light weighting technologies.