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Technical Paper

Worldwide Developments in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control - A 1987 Overview

1987-05-01
871072
Most of the major industrialized areas of the world have been experiencing serious motor vehicle pollution problems over the last decade. The motor vehicle pollution control programs which have have been developed to deal with the effects have led to tremendous advances in gasoline car control technologies. Similar technologies are under intensive development for diesel cars and trucks. Several developing countries are now experiencing similar air pollution problems. This paper surveys the most recent data regarding adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, reviews technologies developed to address these problems, and summarizes the current status around the world.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Developments in Motor Vehicle Diesel Particulate Control

1989-02-01
890168
The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize recent trends around the world regarding diesel vehicles, the health effects associated with diesel particulate, and the actions taken by governments to reduce these emissions. Further, the paper will summarize manufacturer efforts to develop control technologies for diesel particulate.
Technical Paper

Urban Transport and the Environment in the Asia-Pacific Region

1991-11-01
912596
Across the entire globe, motor vehicle usage has increased tremendously. One result is that many areas of the world have been experiencing serious motor vehicle pollution problems. To deal with them, significant motor vehicle pollution control programs have become increasingly common, leading to tremendous advances in petrol car control technologies. At present, similar technologies are under intensive development for diesel cars and trucks and significant breakthroughs are starting to appear with production diesel vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to survey what is presently known about the transportation related environmental problems in Asian cities, to summarize the adverse impacts which result, to review actions underway or planned to address these problems, and to estimate future trends. Potential strategies for ameliorating transportation related environmental problems will be assessed.
Technical Paper

The U.S. Motor Vehicle Emissions Compliance Program-Should Recall be Scrapped?

1985-06-01
851264
This paper examines one aspect of the in-use compliance program - recall. It reviews the existing program and its evolution, evaluates a variety of the modifications which have been suggested and proposes some specific changes which would retain the overall goals while resulting in some increased flexibility and therefore some potential cost savings compared to the existing program.
Technical Paper

The Role of Alternative Fuels in Reducing Emissions from Mobile Sources in Taiwan R.O.C.

1992-10-01
922280
Urban areas in Taiwan frequently experience unhealthy levels of particulate, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, formed in 1987, has begun an aggressive program to improve air quality by addressing all major sources of air pollution. Mobile emissions sources are responsible for over 90 percent of CO, NOx, and HC emissions in the Taipei area. New emissions standards for light-duty vehicles and motorcycles took effect in 1990 and 1991, respectively; these standards are expected to significantly reduce emissions from these vehicle classes as the new models are phased into the vehicle population. However, additional reductions may be needed in Taipei and other urban areas. Alternative fuels-including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas, methanol, ethanol, and electricity-represent a promising strategy for achieving these reductions. Vehicle technology for these fuels is being developed rapidly throughout the world.
Technical Paper

The Internationalization of Vehicle Emissions Control Regulation

1987-11-08
871190
Emission control legislation has been adopted by many countries around the world. Increasingly, countries are choosing “environmentally friendly” motor vehicles. The purpose of this study is to review the basis for environmental concern with motor vehicles, to summarize the status of control programs and to assess the advantages of harmonizing the individual pollution control programs which are being developed.
Technical Paper

The I/M Success Story: Where Do We Go from Here?

1987-02-01
870623
Inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs have increased substantially in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977. Experience has indicated that they can achieve significant reductions in both hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. This paper reviews the experience with existing programs in the US and suggests items which should be improved to increase overall I/M benefits. In addition, it explores the potential expansion of I/M to reduce NOx and diesel particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

The Costs and Benefits of Diesel Particulate Control II

1984-02-01
840177
This study builds upon an earlier diesel particulate cost-benefit analysis and updates it where appropriate based on new soiling and odor information. It does not generate new information but merely reviews and analyzes existing data. In addition, a new section dealing with heavy duty trucks and buses is added.
Technical Paper

The Benefits and Costs of Diesel Particulate Control V Methanol Fuel for the In-Use Urban Bus

1987-02-01
870013
This is the latest in a series of papers on the subject of the costs and benefits of diesel particulate control. The initial focus was on new light duty vehicles with a gradual shift to heavy trucks and in-use urban buses. This latest study continues to focus on in-use urban buses with particular emphasis on the costs and benefits of converting these vehicles to methanol rather than diesel fuel. It concludes that conversion to methanol has the potential to bring about enormous reductions in particulate and is very cost beneficial.
Technical Paper

The Benefits and Costs of Diesel Particulate Control IV-The In-Use Urban Bus

1986-03-01
860295
This is the latest in a series of papers on the subject of the costs and benefits of diesel particulate control. The initial focus was on new light duty vehicles with a gradual shift to heavy trucks and buses. This latest study considers in-use urban buses and explores the relative costs and benefits of three alternative control strategies - retrofit of trap oxidizers, introduction of inspection and maintenance and conversion to methanol fuel. It concludes that retrofit is very cost beneficial and could be made more so by the addition of I/M. Conversion to methanol results in the maximum particulate reduction but is not as cost beneficial for the particulate reduced as is retrofit.
Technical Paper

The Benefits and Costs of Diesel Particulate Control III-The Urban Bus

1985-02-01
850148
This study applies the methodology developed for two earlier evaluations of diesel particulate controls to urban buses. Since these vehicles are used almost exclusively in urban areas where population is most dense, the analysis indicates the net benefits of control are very high.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicles and Long Range Transport of Pollutants-A Growing Global Problem

1985-04-01
851209
Motor vehicles account directly for up to one-sixth of the total H-ion deposition in the Eastern United States and substantially more in the West. Vehicular pollutants may also play an important catalytic and synergistic role in acidic deposition. In addition, however, motor vehicles clearly cause or contribute in a major way to ozone, hydrocarbons, lead, total nitrogen and other transported air pollutants. It is increasingly clear that whether the goal is to reduce acid rain specifically or transported air pollutants generally, increased control of motor vehicle emissions is important and perhaps essential.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Pollution Control in Asia: The Lessons of Europe

1990-02-01
900613
Areas of rapid Industrialization in Asia are now starting to experience unacceptable air quality or are projecting that they will in the relatively near future as a result of rapid growth in their vehicle populations. In addressing these problems, there is much that can be learned from the experience and mistakes of the industrialized world. In addition, however, there are some unique problems of developing countries, especially certain of the smaller ones in Asia, which would seem to benefit from special approaches. The purpose of this paper is to briefly survey the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, to review technologies developed to address these problems, and to summarize the current status around the world. Special focus will be on the development of strategies to address the emerging problems of developing countries in Asia.
Technical Paper

Global Warming: The Implication for Alternative Fuel

1989-05-01
891114
This paper will review the potential need for and environmental gains from the use of alternative fuels in vehicles to address urban air pollution. Then the global warming problem and the role of motor vehicles presently and in the future will be assessed. Finally, the positive and negative consequences of alternative fuels from this perspective will be analyzed. In summary, this paper will show that while there are potentially significant concerns, if appropriate government policies are adopted alternative fuels have the potential to substantially improve both local and global environmental problems and should be a key element of both strategies.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control: Accomplishments To Date and Challenges For the New Millennium

2000-06-12
2000-05-0008
Over the course of the past five decades, as the vehicle population around the world has exploded, a great deal has been learned about the implications for the local, regional and global environment. A great deal of effort has been focused on addressing the local and regional problems with some success but continued growth has offset some of these gains. In recent years, global pollution concerns have increased and the motor vehicle contribution has been found to be increasingly important. The thrust of this paper would be a review of the developments to date around the world and a focus on remaining problems such as toxic emissions, global warming and in use emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control - A 1997 Update

1997-12-31
973122
At the present time, as the world's vehicle population inches over 700 million, countries around the world are continuing to struggle with their motor vehicle pollution problems. Some countries have made great progress in reducing CO and HC emissions from vehicles, and to a lesser extent NOX, in spite of substantial growth in their vehicle populations. While car standards continue to be pushed, the motor vehicle focus is gradually shifting to heavy duty trucks and buses and off road vehicles and engines. Fuels improvements are also playing an increasingly important role. Finally, concerns with CO2 and other greenhouse gases are getting increased attention. The purpose of this paper will be to provide a broad overview of these developments, highlighting the successes achieved to date and the future challenges.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Pollution Control - A 1988 Perspective

1989-02-01
890581
The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize recent trends around the world regarding motor vehicle pollution control. It shows the persistence of and in some cases worsening of motor vehicle related pollution problems, the increasing spread of advanced pollution control technologies including catalytic converters to address these problems, and the push to extend the capability of these advanced technologies to attain even lower pollution levels under a greater variety of actual operating conditions. As the global vehicle population continues to grow, the impact on global warming is assessed.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control

1985-02-01
850383
The purpose of this paper is to survey the adverse environmental impacts resulting from motor vehicles, to review technologies developed to address these problems, and to summarize the current status of pollution control programs around the world.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Diesel Particulate Control, 1993 Update

1993-03-01
930126
As the diesel population continues to grow in various parts of the world, and as concerns regarding diesel particulate effects on public health and the environment increase, more and more countries are adopting tighter and tighter standards. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of such regulation around the world.
Technical Paper

Global Trends in Diesel Emissions Regulation - A 2001 Update

2001-03-05
2001-01-0183
Across the entire globe, there has been tremendous movement toward the further control of diesel vehicle emissions over the past 1 to 2 years. With regard to heavy duty vehicles, the EU in late 1999 finalized requirements for Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5, to be phased in by 2008. These requirements are expected to require the introduction of advanced PM and NOx controls. The US EPA has adopted even more stringent requirements to be introduced in 2007 along with very low sulfur (<15 PPM) diesel fuel. Japan is in the process of an intense review which will likely reduce fuel sulfur levels to at least 50 PPM and introduce substantially tighter PM requirements by 2005. They are also developing a major diesel retrofit program. With regard to light duty vehicles, the California Air Resources Board has established the principle that diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the US EPA followed suit with its Tier 2 program.
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