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Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Measurements of the Interaction of Combusting Diesel Spray and Walls with Elevated Temperatures

The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall at temperatures of 700K and 735K was investigated in a combustion chamber using optical measurement techniques. The temperatures were chosen as they appear in the range of the maximum piston surface temperatures of the latest production engines. Combustion was investigated with a dual camera setup, which is designed to take simultaneous pictures of the UV flame luminosity (FL_UV) and the visible flame luminosity (FL_VIS). The FL_UV is used to measure lean or stoichiometric combustion. The FL_VIS is capable of detecting the thermally excited soot. Mie scattering is used to study the liquid fuel phase. It was found that there is almost no FL_VIS signal visual in the 700K case, but a very strong signal in the 735K case. In general, one might expect that higher wall temperatures lead to an improved mixture formation and, consequently, lower soot production. However, the opposite was detected.
Technical Paper

Time and Spatially Resolved Measurements of the Interaction between Liquid and Combusting Diesel Spray and Walls in Modern Diesel Engine Conditions

Spray- and flame-wall interactions were investigated in a combustion chamber with diesel engine conditions. Several techniques were used to perform time and spatially resolved measurements of the liquid fuel phase, the premixed and diffusion-controlled combustion close to a wall. Different wall and gas temperature variations were investigated. It was found that low temperature variations of 25K have a significant impact on the combustion process: The lower the gas temperatures, the more liquid fuel and larger vortex structures arise. Also, the ignition delay is elongated. Consequently, the premixing period is longer, which can lead to the complete disappearance of sooty combustion. The colder the wall, larger cooling of the spray and larger vortex structures of liquid fuel on the wall develop. The ignition delays again are noticeable longer at the colder wall. Therefore, the premixing period is longer and there is also much less sooty combustion when the wall temperature is lower.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Combustion Chamber Optimization on the Mixture Formation and Combustion in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

A previous study by the authors has shown an efficiency benefit of up to Δηi = 10 % for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine compared to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation with port fuel injection (PFI). While best efficiencies appeared at extremely lean operation at λ = 3.2, minimum HC emissions were found at λ = 2. The increasing HC emissions and narrow ignition time frames in the extremely lean stratified operation have given the need for a detailed analysis. To further investigate the mixture formation and flame propagation und these conditions, an optically accessible single-cylinder engine was used. The mixture formation and the flame luminosity have been investigated in two perpendicular planes inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Systematic Investigation of the Influence of Ethanol Blending on Sooting Combustion in DISI Engines Using High-Speed Imaging and LII

Modern direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine concepts have the drawback of higher particulate matter emission as compared to port fuel injection concepts. Especially, when driven with biofuels, the operation of DISI engines requires a deeper insight into particulate formation processes. In this study a modern optical accessible DISI engine is used. Pure isooctane, ethanol, E20 (20vol% of ethanol in isooctane) and E85 were investigated as fuels. Simultaneous OH*-chemiluminescence and soot radiation imaging was conducted by a high-speed camera system in order to separate premixed combustion with the sooting combustion. Furthermore, a laser-induced incandescence (LII) sensor was used to measure exhaust elementary carbon mass concentration. Systematically, operation points were chosen, which correspondent to the main sooting mechanisms, poolfire, mixture inhomogeneities and global low air-fuel ratio. Furthermore, they were compared to a homogenous charge combustion strategy.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation of Different Diesel-Fuels Investigated by Chemical Luminescence and Laser Induced Incandescence

Differences in thermo-physical parameters of fuels have high impact on the ignition, combustion and emission. Pure rapeseed FAME and diesel fuel with a cetane number of 60 have been compared to reference fuel. In an optical accessible vessel the fuels have been injected in order to investigate the spray, the ignition and soot formation. The high cetane number fuel showed similar behavior in spray phase to the reference fuel but the FAME fuel is more present at all operating points due to low volatile fuel components. The ignition and combustion process was investigated via chemical luminescence (CL) and laser induced incandescence (LII). In engine investigations a reduced ignition delay is detected in case of high cetane-number. The more sensitive optical techniques show differences in the combustion process. The ignition behavior of the reference fuel and the increased cetane number fuel were similar until the cetane increaser of the high cetane fuel came into effect.
Technical Paper

Self-Ignition Calculation of Diesel Spray

This paper describes a computer simulation of Diesel spray formation and the locations of self-ignition nuclei. The spray is divided into small elementary volumes in which the amounts of fuel and fuel vapours, air, mean, maximum and minimum fuel droplet diameter are calculated, as well as their number. The total air-fuel and air-fuel vapour ratios are calculated for each elementary volume. The paper introduces a new criterion for determining self-ignition nuclei, based on assumptions that the strongest self-ignition probability lies in those elementary volumes containing the stoichiometric air ratio, where the fuel is evaporated or the fuel droplet diameter is equal to or lower than 0.0065 mm. The most efficient combustion in regard to consumption and emission will be in those elementary volumes containing stoichiometric air ratio, and fuel droplets with the lowest mean diameters. Measurements of injection and combustion were carried out in a transparent research engine.
Technical Paper

Quantitative DISI Spray Vapor Temperature Study for Different Biofuels by Two-Line Excitation Laser-Induced Fluorescence

Biofuels and alternative fuels are increasingly being blended with conventional gasoline fuel to decrease overall CO₂ emissions. A promising way to achieve this is the use of DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) technology. However, depending on temperature, pressure, chemical composition and the spark timing, unwanted pre-ignition may occur. Despite higher compression ratios, this engine knock can be decreased by lowering the mixing temperature. This results from the larger fuel evaporation enthalpy of certain biofuels which provides a non-homogeneous mixture throughout the combustion chamber. This work focuses on estimating the biofuel evaporation rate from absolute local vapor temperature and concentration. Measurements conducted in a high temperature/pressure cell using a multi-hole injector are carried out by applying planar, 2-line, laser-induced fluorescence and phase doppler interferometry.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigations on Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion for Different Operating Parameters

Combustion processes with partially or fully premixed cylinder load combined with self-ignition provide high combustion efficiency and low emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matter at the same time. Since the number of diesel operated passenger cars is still rising, it would be interesting, if such a combustion concept can be realized in an ordinary DI-Diesel engine which is operated with conventional diesel fuel. In this study, the influence of nozzle geometry, Tintake, pTDC and injection timing on the functioning chain of combustion was analyzed in a transparent single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system by means of optical measurement techniques. Simultaneously, different optical diagnostics (laser-based and non laser-based) were used to study the fuel distribution, ignition and combustion in the combustion chamber of the optically accessible diesel engine. The liquid fuel was visualized by Mie scattering at 532nm.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Pilot Injection and the Ignition Process of a Dual Fuel Injector with Experimental Data from a Combustion Chamber Using Detailed Reaction Kinetics

The introduction of the so called Emission Controlled Areas within the IMO Tier III legislation forces manufacturers of maritime propulsion systems to adherence to stringent emission thresholds. Dual fuel combustion, which is characterized by the injection of a small amount of fuel oil to ignite a premixed natural gas air mixture, constitutes an option to meet this target. At high diesel substitution rates and very short pilot injection events, the injector is operated in the ballistic regime. This influences spray penetration, mixture formation and ignition behavior. In the present work, a seven-hole dual fuel injector was measured in a combustion chamber to provide data for the generation of a CFD model using the commercial code AVL FIRE®. The liquid and the vapor phase of the fuel spray were quantified by Mie-scattering and Schlieren-imaging technique for different chamber conditions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

In a study using a single-cylinder engine a significant potential in fuel efficiency and emission reduction was found for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine. The control of the mixture formation process appeared to be critical to ensure stable inflammation of the mixture. Therefore, optical investigations of the mixture formation were performed on a geometric equivalent, optically accessible single-cylinder engine to investigate the correlation of mixture formation and inflammability. The two optical measurement techniques infrared (IR) absorption and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed. Mid-wavelength IR absorption appeared to be qualified for a global visualization of natural gas injection; LIF allows to quantify the equivalence ratio inside a detection level. While LIF measurements require complex equipment, the IR setup consists merely of a black body heater and a mid-wavelength sensitive IR camera.
Technical Paper

Investigations on an Injector for a Low Pressure Hydrogen Direct Injection

Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells for future energy scenarios based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC). This scenario incorporates LOHCs to store hydrogen from fluctuating renewable energy sources and deliver it to decentralised power generation units. Hydrogen engines were deeply investigated in the past decade and the results show efficiencies similar to CI engines. Due to the low energy density and tendency towards pre-ignition of hydrogen, the key element to reach high efficiency and a safe operation is a direct injection of the hydrogen. Because high injection pressure is not available in practical applications or would reduce the possible driving range, a low injection pressure is favourable. The low density leads to large flow cross sections inside the injector, similar to CNG direct injectors. So far, some research CNG and hydrogen low pressure direct injectors were investigated, but no commercial injector is available.
Technical Paper

Investigations on a New Engine Concept for Small Hydrogen Power Generation Units Using LOHCs

New energy scenarios for decentralised stationary energy supply based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) offer an attractive application for hydrogen engines and are a reason why hydrogen engines become topical again. Since hydrogen stored in LOHCs is released under ambient pressure and temperatures of over 200°C, compression and cooling of the hydrogen is needed, lowering the system's overall efficiency. Direct injection of hydrogen is advantageous due to its low volumetric energy density and the tendency towards pre-ignition. The development objective is an injection and combustion strategy for an engine in the performance category below 15 kW and the described fuel supply scenario. Therefore, an one dimensional simulation model of the engine and the hydrogen supplying compressor was built. The simulation results show a large influence of the injection pressure on engine efficiency due to the hydrogen supplying compressor.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Gasoline Spray Propagation Behaviour Characteristic for Multihole Injectors

Modern concepts of downsized DI gasoline engines set up high requirements on the injection system to meet the emission targets. The fundamental knowledge and understanding of spray propagation physics are essential for the development of nozzles and injection strategies, due to reduced displacements in combination with the continuing trend of elevated fuel pressures. A detailed analysis of micro- and macroscopic spray parameters was carried out using a multihole solenoid driven DI injector. The measurements were performed in a continuously scavenged pressure chamber with full optical access. Fuel pressure up to 38MPa and backpressures in a range from 0.03 - 0.2 MPa were varied. Optical investigations were done by Shadowgraphy imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry. The combination of micro- and macroscopic spray results are used to discuss the propagation behaviour of gasoline spray.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Interaction of Charge Motion and Residual Gas Concentration in an Optically Accessible SI Engine

In spark-ignition engines, high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates have demonstrated their potential in reducing fuel consumption and emissions. However, irregular combustion at high residual gas concentrations limits the EGR rates. The following study presents a strategy that has been developed to investigate the influence of complex charge motion on mixture formation and combustion for high residual gas concentrations with the aim of extending these limits. An optically accessible single-cylinder SI Engine with direct injection was used to measure the charge distribution by means of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). A special device inside the inlet pipe gave the possibility to generate a defined swirl motion overlaying a tumble motion given by the design of the inlet ports.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Spray Atomization and Evaporation Studied for a Multi-hole DISI Injector with a Late Injection Timing

The influence of fuel composition on sprays was studied in an injection chamber at DISI conditions with late injection timing. Fuels with high, mid and low volatility (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane) and a 3-component mixture with similar fuel properties like gasoline were investigated. The injection conditions were chosen to model suppressed or rapid evaporation. Mie scattering imaging and phase Doppler anemometry were used to investigate the liquid spray structure. A spray model was set up applying the CFD-Code OpenFOAM. The atomization was found to be different for n-decane that showed a smaller average droplet size due to viscosity dependence of injected mass. And for evaporating conditions, a stratification of the vapor components in the 3-component fuel spray was observed.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Atomization and Evaporation of a DISI Injector Spray Under Homogeneous Charge Conditions

Understanding the causal loop from injection to combustion in modern direct injection engines is essential to improve combustion and reduce emissions. In this work, the section from injection to fuel-evaporation in this causal loop was investigated using different optical measurement techniques, with a focus on drop size measurements using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). One spray jet of a modern DISI multi-hole injector was investigated using gasoline RON 95 fuel and two single component alkane fuels (n-hexane / n-decane). In a first step the macroscopic spray formation and propagation of this spray jet were studied using a 2D-Mie-scattering technique in an optical injection chamber at homogenous charge DISI conditions. Furthermore, the droplet size distribution and mean diameter were determined spatially and temporally resolved for an ambient pressure of 0.3MPa and different ambient temperature (323K / 423K / 523K) conditions in the optical chamber using Phase Doppler Anemometry.
Technical Paper

Influence of the fuel quantity on the spray formation and ignition under current engine relevant conditions

Flexible and multiple injections are an important strategy to fulfill today's exhaust emission regulations. To optimize injection processes with an increasing number of adjustable parameters knowledge about the basic mechanisms of spray breakup, propagation, evaporation and ignition is mandatory. In the present investigation the focus is set on spray formation and ignition. In order to simulate current diesel-engine conditions measurements were carried out in a high-temperature (1000 K) and high-pressure (10 MPa) vessel with optical accesses. A piezo servo-hydraulic injector pressurized up to 200 MPa was used to compare four single injection durations and four multi-injection patterns in the ignition phase. All measurements were performed with CEC RF-03-06, a legislative reference fuel. For the spray measurements, a program of 16 to 18 different operating points was chosen to simulate engine conditions from cold start to full load.
Technical Paper

GDI Sprays with up to 200 MPa Fuel Pressure and Comparison of Diesel-like and Gasoline-Like Injector Designs

To address stricter emission limits, GDI develops to increased fuel pressure. Current gasoline injectors are already operating at a pressure of up to 35 MPa and an elevation is still promising lower particle emissions and increased efficiency. There have been only few studies of GDI sprays at pressures >50 MPa published. Contrary, in diesel engines injection pressure up to 250 MPa are common. GDI and diesel injector designs limit liquid penetration in different ways to avoid wall wetting, which has a negative impact on emissions in GDI combustion concepts. With elevated fuel pressure the question arises which design concept limits the penetration depth more effectively. To investigate the properties of high pressure sprays, a GDI injector (100 MPa max. fuel pressure) and an injector with diesel-like design are compared. High speed Shadowgraphy and Schlieren technique are used to gather information of liquid and vapor phase propagation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Distribution and Mixture Formation Inside a Direct Injection SI Engine Investigated by 2D Mie and LIEF Techniques

Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray propagation, mixture formation and charge distribution at ignition time inside the combustion chamber of a direct injection SI engine. The results obtained provide the propagation of liquid fuel relative to the piston motion and visualize the charge distribution (liquid fuel and fuel vapor) throughout the engine process. Special emphasis was laid on the charge distribution at ignition time for stratified charge operation. By means of a LIEF technique it was possible to measure cyclic fluctuations in the fuel vapor distributions which explain the occurrence of misfiring.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.