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Technical Paper

Steady and Transient Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the Tumble and Swirl Evolution on a 4V Engine with Independent Intake Valves Actuation

2008-10-06
2008-01-2392
This work aims at analyzing the fluid dynamic characteristics of a Ducati 4 valves SI engine, for racing motorcycle, during the intake and compression strokes, focusing on the correlation between steady state flow test data (experiments and simulations) and transient CFD simulation results, including the effect of variable valve actuation strategies with independent intake valve actuation. Several steady state flow test data were available in terms of maps of the discharge, tumble and swirl coefficients, at any combination of asymmetric lifts of the two intake valves. From these steady state data it can be argued that asymmetric strategies could enhance engine full load and part load operation characteristics, by exploiting favourable trade off occurring between the opposing needs for high mass flow rate and high charge motion intensity.
Journal Article

Prediction of the Nozzle Flow and Jet Characteristics at Start and End of Injection: Transient Behaviors

2015-09-01
2015-01-1850
This paper reports investigations on diesel jet transients, accounting for internal nozzle flow and needle motion. The calculations are performed with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model by coupling the internal and external multiphase flows simultaneously. Short and multiple injection strategies are commonly used in internal combustion engines. Their features are significantly different from those generally found in steady state conditions, which have been extensively studied in the past, however, these conditions are seldom reached in modern engines. Recent researches have shown that residual gas can be ingested in the injector sac after the end-of-injection (EOI) and undesired dribbles can be produced. Moreover, a new injection event behaves differently at the start-of-injection (SOI) depending on the sac initial condition, and the initial spray development can be affected for the first few tens of μs.
Technical Paper

Penetration and combustion characterization of cavitating and non-cavitating fuel injectors under diesel engine conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0860
This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigations on a Multiple Spark Ignition System for Lean Engine Operation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0711
The paper reports on the optical investigation of a multiple spark ignition system carried out in a closed vessel in inert gas, and in an optical access engine in firing condition. The ignition system features a plug-top ignition coil with integrated electronics which is capable of multi-spark discharges (MSD) with short dwell time. First, the ignition system has been characterized in constant ambient conditions, at different pressure levels. The profile of the energy released by the spark and the cumulated value has been determined by measuring the fundamental electrical parameters. A high speed camera has been used to visualize the time evolution of the electric arc discharge to highlight its shape and position variability. The multiple spark system has then been mounted on an optical access engine with port fuel injection (PFI) to study the combustion characteristics in lean conditions with single and multiple discharges.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0870
This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of a New Concept Variable Valve Actuation System

2006-09-14
2006-01-3008
The present work concerns the analysis of a concept for a new variable valve actuation system for internal combustion engines, denoted HVC (Hydraulic Valve Control system). The system is an electro-hydraulic device which aims at minimizing the power consumption required for the valve actuation. Unlike lost motion devices, where the excess pumped oil is wasted in order to control the lift profile, the HVC system uses a reduced quantity of energy to ensure the actual lift profile. For that reason interesting potentialities to increase the global fuel conversion efficiency of the engine are expected, in addition to the benefits deriving from the control flexibility. The HVC system has been modeled by means of an hydraulic simulation tool, useful for the dynamic analysis of mechanical and hydraulic systems. In this work the main elements of the device will be described and their relevant modeling parameters will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Model-based Development of Multi-Purpose Diagnostic Strategies for Gas Vehicles

2009-09-13
2009-24-0125
Engines using compressed natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas are commonly equipped with control systems which are not yet able to completely monitor the gas supply line status. With a particular regard to safety but paying attention even to driving comfort and finally to polluting emissions reduction, two aspects in particular have been taken into account: the first one is the need to detect as soon as possible (and to react consequently) the presence of a problem occurring inside gas supply line (leakages and blocked-valves etcetera); the second one is the ability to detect an unsafe re-fuel operation, done with inserted ignition key, in order to switch off at least as more auxiliary loads as possible. The danger from such a manoeuvre may be identified in the high probability of an eventual electrostatic discharge and/or in the risk that the vehicle may be accidentally moved during the refilling operation.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategies Tuning for the Use of Bio-Derived Fuels in a Common Rail HSDI Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0768
The potentialities in terms of engine performance and emissions reduction of pure biodiesel were examined on a Common Rail HSDI Diesel engine, trying to define a proper tuning of the injection strategies to bio-fuel characteristics. An experimental investigation was therefore carried out on a typical European passenger car Diesel engine, fuelled with a soybean oil derived biodiesel. A standard European diesel fuel was also used as a reference. In particular, the effects of an equal relative air/fuel ratio at full load condition were analysed; further, a sensitivity study on the outcome of the pilot injection timing and duration at part load on engine emissions was performed. Potentialities in recovering the performance gap between fossil fuel and biodiesel and in reducing NOx specific emissions, affecting only to a limited extent the biodiesel emission benefit in terms of CO, HC and FSN, were highlighted.
Journal Article

Injection Pattern Design for Real Time Control of Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission

2017-03-28
2017-01-0596
Upcoming more stringent emission regulations throughout the world pose a real challenge, especially in regard to Diesel systems for passenger cars, where the need of additional after-treatment has a big impact in terms of additional system costs and available packaging space. Therefore, the need for strategies that allow managing combustion towards lower emissions, that require a precise control of the combustion outputs, is definitely increasing. Acoustic emission of internal combustion engines contains a large amount of information related to engine behavior and working conditions. Mechanical noise and combustion noise are usually the main contributions to the noise produced by an engine. In particular, recent research from the same authors of this paper demonstrated that combustion noise can be used as an indicator of the combustion that is taking place inside the combustion chamber and therefore as a reference for the control strategy.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engines Retrofitted to Spark-Ignition Operation Fueled with Natural Gas

2019-09-09
2019-24-0030
Natural gas is a promising alternative gaseous fuel due to its availability, economic, and environmental benefits. A solution to increase its use in the heavy-duty transportation sector is to convert existing heavy-duty compression ignition engines to spark-ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug and injecting the natural gas inside the intake manifold. The use of numerical simulations to design and optimize the natural gas combustion in such retrofitted engines can benefit both engine efficiency and emission. However, experimental data of natural gas combustion inside a bowl-in-piston chamber is limited. Consequently, the goal of this study was to provide high-quality experimental data from such a converted engine fueled with methane and operated at steady-state conditions, exploring variations in spark timing, engine speed and equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Optimization of Euro 6 Compliant Light Commercial Vehicles Equipped with SCR

2014-04-01
2014-01-1356
The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system, installed on the exhaust line, is currently widely used on Diesel heavy-duty trucks and it is considered a promising technique for Euro 6 compliancy for light and medium duty trucks and bigger passenger cars. Moreover, new more stringent emission regulations and homologation cycles are being proposed for Euro 6c stage and they are scheduled to be applied by the end of 2017. In this context, the interest for SCR technology and its application on light-duty trucks is growing, with a special focus on its potential benefit in term of fuel consumption reduction, thanks to combustion optimization. Nevertheless, the need to warm up the exhaust gas line, to meet the required NOx conversion efficiency, remains an issue for such kind of applications.
Technical Paper

Fluid Dynamic 1D Modeling for the Design Optimization of Reed Valve Devices in Secondary Air Injection Applications

2005-09-11
2005-24-080
Modeling and studies on reed valve devices are topics often dealt with when designing internal combustion engine intake and exhaust systems. This paper describes an activity about the modeling and the optimization potentiality of an engine equipped with a secondary air injection system by means of a reed valve device. The first step of the work dealt with the development and tuning of a non-linear Finite Element model of reed valve and with the integration of this model into a one-dimensional fluid-dynamics simulation code. In particular during this phase the potentialities of the method were tested by implementing the FE model both in a 1D University code and in a 1D commercial code (by means of a provided interface for User Defined Elements). In the second step of the work the simulation results were analyzed for different engine operating points.
Technical Paper

Flow Characterization of a High Performance S.I. Engine Intake System - Part 1: Experimental Analysis

2003-03-03
2003-01-0623
In this work an experimental analysis is performed to evaluate the influence of different flow bench test conditions and system configurations on the flow characteristics in the intake system of a high performance 4-valve, SI Internal Combustion Engine: valve lift, test pressure drop, throttle valve aperture, throttle valve opening direction in respect to the intake system layout (i.e. clockwise/counterclockwise), presence of the tumble adaptor. To this aim, experimental tests are performed on a Ducati Corse racing engine cylinder head, by measuring the discharge coefficient and the tumble coefficient. The several experimental data obtained by combining the different operational and geometrical parameters are analysed and discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of an Electro-Hydraulic Camless VVA System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1355
This paper presents the current research activity about an electro-hydraulic camless valve actuation system for internal combustion engines. From a general point of view, this system (Hydraulic Valve Control - HVC) is an open loop device for engine valve fully flexible camless actuation. In the HVC system, the valve actuation timing and duration are controlled by varying the driving signal of the pilot stage, which is governed by a solenoid, fast-acting, three-way valve; the valve lift is adjusted by varying the oil pressure of the power stage. This system uses hydraulic forces to open the engine valve while a mechanical spring is used for its closure. The HVC key element is a spool valve, which operates as a three way / three position valve. This element is designed in order to ensure the synchronization of its own motion with that of the poppet valve mass-spring system.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Early Flame Development Produced by a Corona Igniter

2019-10-07
2019-24-0231
In order to reduce engine emissions and fuel consumption, extensive research efforts are being devoted to develop innovative ignition devices, able to extend the stable engine operating range towards increasing lean conditions. Among these, radio frequency corona ignition systems, which produce a strong electric field at a frequency of about 1 MHz, can create discharges characterized by simultaneous thermal and kinetic effects. These devices can considerably increase the early flame growth speed, initiating the combustion process in a wide region, as opposed to the local ignition generated by traditional sparks. To explore the corona ignition behavior, experimental campaigns were carried out to investigate different operating conditions, in a constant volume calorimeter designed to measure the deposited thermal energy. The present work compares the combustion development generated by a traditional spark and the corona igniter through computational fluid dynamics simulations.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Diesel Spray Momentum Flux

2009-11-02
2009-01-2772
In the present work, an experimental and numerical analysis of high pressure Diesel spray evolution is carried out in terms of spray momentum flux time history and instantaneous injection rate. The final goal of spray momentum and of injection rate analyses is the evaluation of the nozzle outlet flow characteristics and of the nozzle internal geometry possible influences on cavitation phenomena, which are of primary importance for the spray evolution. Further, the evaluation of the flow characteristics at the nozzle exit is fundamental in order to obtain reliable boundary conditions for injection process 3D simulation. In this paper, spray momentum data obtained in ambient temperature, high counter-pressure conditions at the Perugia University Spray Laboratory are presented and compared with the results of 3D simulations of the momentum rig itself.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Charge Motion Characteristics Depending on Intake Valves Actuation Strategies

2005-04-11
2005-01-0242
This present work is aimed to the analysis of the possible advantages that could be obtained exploiting Variable Valve Actuation strategies in an high performance engine head. A set of experimental tests was carried out to obtain maps of the discharge, tumble and swirl coefficients, at any combination of asymmetric lifts of the two intake valves. The results show that asymmetric strategies could allow engine part load operation characterized by enhanced tumble/swirl generation, while keeping the same effective flow area of conventional two valves symmetric lift. Numerical simulations allowed a deeper understanding of the tumble motion characteristics at different lift combinations, and in particular for asymmetric low lifts cases where the lack of the typical abrupt tumble rising zone was noted.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Port Fuel Injected Spark Ignition Engine Fuelled with Variable Mixtures of Hydrogen and Methane

2013-04-08
2013-01-0226
The paper describes an experimental research which addressed the study of a 4-cylinder, spark-ignited, port-fuel-injected, production engine modified for hydrogen-methane blend fueling. The original engine was a 2.8-liter, naturally aspirated, methane-fuelled engine. The engine modifications included two fuel injectors per port and ECU replacement for controlling lean burn combustion and enabling real-time variation of the fuel blend, based on an alpha-N mapping approach. Since hydrogen infrastructures are an issue and its production costs are still today very high, pure hydrogen usage is not a viable solution for near future vehicles. In view of this, in the present paper, the maximum volumetric concentration of hydrogen in methane has been set to 35% (which on a mass basis corresponds to 6.3%). The variability of the fuel mixture has been achieved by installing two separate fuel lines connected to two fuel rails: a total of 8 injectors are installed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray Momentum Flux in Transient Flow Conditions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2244
In the present paper, a detailed numerical and experimental analysis of a spray momentum flux measurement device capability is presented. Particular attention is devoted to transient, engine-like injection events in terms of spray momentum flux measurement. The measurement of spray momentum flux in steady flow conditions, coupled with knowledge of the injection rate, is steadily used to estimate the flow mean velocity at the nozzle exit and the extent of flow cavitation inside the nozzle in terms of a velocity reduction coefficient and a flow section reduction coefficient. In the present study, the problem of analyzing spray evolution in short injection events by means of jet momentum flux measurement was approached. The present research was based on CFD-3D analysis of the spray-target interaction in a momentum measurement device.
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