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Technical Paper

The Prestrain Effect on the Sheared Edge Flangeability of Dual Phase 780 Steels

Edge flanging represents one of the forming modes employed in multistage forming, and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are more prone to edge cracking during sheared edge flanging than the conventional high strength steels (HSS) and mild steels. The performance of the sheared edge in flanging operation depends on the remaining ductility of the material in the sheared edge after the work hardening (WH) and damage produced by blanking and subsequent forming operations. Therefore, it is important to analyze the effect of work hardening produced by blanking and subsequent forming operations prior to edge flanging on the edge flanging performance. In this study, the effect of different forming operation sequences prior to edge flanging on the edge flanging performance was analyzed for a dual phase 780 steel.
Technical Paper

Studies on Edge Strain Hardening Produced by Trimming Operations

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are widely used in the automotive industry for various applications especially for structural and safety parts. One of the concerns for AHSS in stamping operations is edge fracture originating from sheared blanked edges. This type of failure cannot be predicted by computer simulations using the conventional forming limit as the failure criterion. The reason for this is that edge damage produced by the blanking operation is not incorporated into the computer models to properly simulate the material edge formability. This study presents a method to evaluate edge damage in terms of the residual stress at the sheared edge produced by the blanking operation. The method uses the level and distribution of edge strain hardening (ESH) through the material thickness as an index to characterize the edge damage caused by the shearing operation.
Technical Paper

Strain Rate Sensitivity of Automotive Steels

Strain rate sensitivity is an important material property in the formability of sheet metal. In this study, strain rate sensitivity is evaluated for several different grades of steel. Strain rate sensitivity varies from 0.01 to 0.022 for the steels tested. It was found that formable steels such as IF and AKDQ steels have both high n-value (strain hardening) and m-value (strain rate sensitivity). Positive strain rate sensitivity results in a significant increase in the yield strength and tensile strength at higher strain rates. The n-value decreases with strain rate for all of the steels. The total elongation decreases slightly with strain rate for the lower strength steels but is constant or even increases slightly with strain rate for high strength steels. For a typical AKDQ steel, the increase in yield strength can be as high as 43% for an increase in strain rate from 0.002 /s to 2.0 /s.
Technical Paper

Strain Hardening and Forming Limits of Automotive Steels

The formability window of a material depends upon the forming limit and its strain distribution ability. For two materials with the same forming limit, the formability performance is governed by their strain distribution ability. In this study, strain hardening behavior of different strength steels was investigated using a uniaxial tension test and the forming limit was studied using both Marciniak cup and dome tests. The n-value of steels varies with strain. Different strain hardening behaviors are found between mild steels and high strength steels. Strain distribution ability of steels increases with the increase in the overall n-value. The peak n-value at a low strain level enhances the strain distribution ability of the steel. It has been shown from both theoretical and experimental studies that a constant thickness strain line exists on the left side of the forming limit curve.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Material Constitutive Parameters in Sheet Metal Forming Simulations

Material constitutive modeling is an important aspect in the continuous improvement process for sheet metal forming simulation and analysis. In this study, a sensitivity study of material constitutive parameters on forming simulation results is carried out for two different sheet metal parts. Three different yield criteria are evaluated in the simulation including isotropic yield criterion, Hill's 1948 anisotropic yield criterion and Barlat's non-quadratic anisotropic yield criterion. It is found that the forming results depend upon the yield criterion used in the simulation. Both thinning and stress in the formed part are very sensitive to the change in anisotropy value (r-value). Effects of strain rate sensitivity of a material on forming results are demostrated through the use of two different stress and strain data from different tensile speeds. It is also found that forming results such as thinning are very sensitive to the strain hardening behavior of the material.
Technical Paper

Prestrain Effects on Static Dent Resistance of Automotive Steels

In previous investigations, it has been shown that the dent resistance of an auto body panel depends upon the yield strength of the material. However, it is known that the yield strength of steel increases with prestrain due to strain hardening. Panel design and material selection based on the material properties obtained from unstrained sheet steels may lead to inaccurate prediction of the dent resistance of the formed panel. In this study, the effect of prestrain on the static dent resistance of auto body panels was investigated. Using existing empirical relationships between dent resistance and panel properties, it was found that the static dent resistance of an auto panel depends not only on the part geometry and material properties but also on the strain level in the panel. The improvement in dent resistance resulting from a material change from an AKDQ steel to a bake hardenable steel or a high strength steel was determined at different strain levels.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Stretch Flangeability Limits of Advanced High Strength Steels using the Hole Expansion Test

More and more advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual phase steels and TRIP steels are implemented in automotive components due to their superior crash performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. Recent trends show increased applications of higher strength grades such as 780/800 MPa and 980/1000 MPa tensile strength for crash sensitive components to meet more stringent safety regulations in front crash, side impact and roll-over situations. Several issues related to AHSS stamping have been raised during implementation such as springback, stretch bending fracture with a small radius to thickness ratio, edge cracking, etc. It has been shown that the failure strains in the stretch bending fracture and edge cracking can be significantly lower than the predicted forming limits, and no failure criteria are currently available to predict these failures.
Journal Article

Optimized AHSS Structures for Vehicle Side Impact

Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been widely accepted as a material of choice in the automotive industry to balance overall vehicle weight and stringent vehicle crash test performance targets. Combined with efficient use of geometry and load paths through shape and topology optimization, AHSS has enabled vehicle manufacturers to obtain the highest possible ratings in safety evaluations by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). In this study, vehicle CAE side impact models were used to evaluate three side impact crash test conditions (IIHS side impact, NHTSA LINCAP and FMVSS 214 side pole) and the IIHS roof strength test condition and to identify several key components affecting the side impact test performance. HyperStudy® optimization software and LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element software were utilized for shape and gauge optimization.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Effects of Frame Trigger Hole Location on Crash Behavior

The front rail plays a very important role in vehicle crash. Trigger holes are commonly used to control frame crush mode due to their simple manufacturing process and flexibility for late changes in the product development phase. Therefore, a study, including CAE and testing, was conducted on a production front rail to understand the effects of trigger hole shape, size and orientation. The trigger hole location in the front rail also affects crash performance. Therefore, the effect of trigger hole location on front rail crash behavior was studied, and understanding these effects is the main objective of this study. A tapered front rail produced from 1.7 mm thick DP600 steel was used for the trigger hole location investigation. Front rails with different trigger spacing and sizes were tested using VIA sled test facility and the crash progress was simulated using a commercial code RADIOSS. The strain rate, welding and forming effects were incorporated in the front rail modeling.
Technical Paper

Mass Efficient Cross-Sections Using Dual Phase Steels For Axial and Bending Crushes

Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
Journal Article

Fracture Modeling of AHSS in Component Crush Tests

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) have been implemented in the automotive industry to balance the requirements for vehicle crash safety, emissions, and fuel economy. With lower ductility compared to conventional steels, the fracture behavior of AHSS components has to be considered in vehicle crash simulations to achieve a reliable crashworthiness prediction. Without considering the fracture behavior, component fracture cannot be predicted and subsequently the crash energy absorbed by the fractured component can be over-estimated. In full vehicle simulations, failure to predict component fracture sometimes leads to less predicted intrusion. In this paper, the feasibility of using computer simulations in predicting fracture during crash deformation is studied.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Journal Article

Experimental Study of Edge Stretching Limits of DP980IBF Steel in Multistage Forming Process

Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Steels and Aluminum

Body panel performance properties such as denting force, oil canning/critical buckling load, initial and secondary stiffnesses under dynamic loading (drop weight test) were measured for different strength steels and two aluminum alloys using both flat and curved sheets. It was found that all these properties varied with the drop velocity. For the steels, the denting force steadily increased with the increase in drop velocity. For the aluminum alloys, the denting force increased with the drop velocity at lower velocities and decreased or remained unchanged at higher velocities. The oil canning/critical buckling load increased with the increase in drop velocity and initial and secondary stiffnesses decreased with the increase in drop velocity for both steel and aluminum. The dent resistance performance for some aluminum alloys with thicker gauge is comparable to steels dent tested at lower velocities.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Journal Article

Development of Empirical Shear Fracture Criterion for AHSS

The conventional forming limit curve (FLC) has been widely and successfully used as a failure criterion to detect localized necking in stamping. However, in stamping advanced high strength steels (AHSS), under certain circumstances such as stretching-bending over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails much earlier than predicted by the FLC. This type of failure on the die radius is commonly called “shear fracture.” In this paper, the laboratory Stretch-Forming Simulator (SFS) and the Bending under Tension (BUT) tester are used to study shear fracture occurring during both early and later stages of stamping. Results demonstrate that the occurrence of shear fracture depends on the combination of the radius-to-thickness (R/T) ratio and the tension/stretch level applied to the sheet during stretching or drawing. Based on numerous experimental results, an empirical shear fracture limit curve or criterion is obtained.
Technical Paper

Development of Dynamic Dent Resistance Testing Procedures

The dent resistance of an automotive body panel has been used as one of key design parameters for automotive body panels. Quasi-static dent testing procedures have been well documented in North America using A/SP Standard Dent Resistance Test Procedures and numerous publications in static denting are also available. However, test procedures under dynamic denting are not very well documented and limited data exist on dynamic denting performance of automotive body panels. In this paper, dynamic dent tests are carried out using different impact velocities and different test procedures. The advantages and disadvantages of test procedures are discussed. Different ways to characterize the dynamic dent test results are investigated and discussed. Due to higher impact velocity during the dynamic dent testing, the acceleration effect must be considered in the data analysis. Experiments were carried out on a hydraulic controlled dynamic dent tester.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Springback for Dual Phase Steel and Conventional High Strength Steel

An experimental study of springback was conducted for a hat channel section with varying cross sections and controlled gap between punch and die. The channel section was formed in a single step forming process with upper pressure pad. DP590 steel was compared to a group of high strength steels (HSS), e.g. HSLA270, 340 and 420. In addition, sidewall curl phenomenon was studied utilizing bending under tension test. This paper describes methodology of experiment and discusses springback related results. It also offers recommendations that can be applied to die-punch gap control or material substitution situations. The results of this investigation can be used to verify accuracy of springback predictions in finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Dynamic Dent Resistance of Automotive Steels

The effects of sheet thickness, yield strength, strain aging and prestrain on the dynamic dent resistance of sheet steel are investigated using an instrumented drop-weight test. It is found that the dynamic dent resistance is less dependent on the sheet thickness and the yield strength of the material than the static dent resistance. The dent resistance of automotive steels under dynamic loading conditions increases with prestrain in a manner similar to static denting. The relative ranking of different strength steels in the performance of dynamic denting is provided at various strain levels. An empirical relation of dynamic denting force and energy with the sheet thickness and the yield strength of the material is derived for a flat panel. Data confirm that dynamic dent resistance is improved using high strength steels including bake hardenable steels and rephosphorized steels.