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Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Measurements of High Pressure Diesel Sprays

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the fuel distribution very near the nozzle of a high-pressure diesel injector. This technique uses the absorption of synchrotron x-rays to measure the fuel mass with good time and position resolution. The penetrating power of x-rays allows measurements that are difficult with other techniques, such as quantitative measurements of the mass and penetration measurements of the trailing edge of the spray. Line-of-sight measurements were used to determine the fuel density as a function of time. The high time resolution and quantitative nature of the measurement also permit an accurate measure of the instantaneous mass flow rate through the nozzle.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Absorption Measurements of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry

In order to analyze the effects of nozzle geometry on the structure of fuel sprays, quantitative x-ray measurements have been performed on sprays from nozzles with different degrees of hydro-grinding. The two nozzles were measured at injection pressures of 500 and 1000 bar in an ambient environment of 1 bar nitrogen gas. Time-resolved x-radiography was used to measure the two-dimensional mass distributions of the spray as a function of time for the entire spray event. The initial mass flow through the nozzles was determined from the x-ray data, the nozzles showed no appreciable differences in the early part of the injection event. The transverse mass distributions were fit with Gaussian curves, and the assumption of axisymmetry was used to calculate the volume fraction of each spray. It was observed that the nozzle which had undergone extensive hydro-grinding generated a more dense spray than the sharp-edged nozzle at an injection pressure of 1000 bar.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Transient Cavitating Flow Simulations Inside a 2-D VCO Nozzle Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method

Cavitating flows inside a two-dimensional valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle were simulated by using the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) method in conjunction with a homogeneous equilibrium cavitation model. As a validation for present model, cavitation over a NACA0015 hydrofoil was predicted and compared with previous simulation results as well as experimental observations. The model was then used to investigate the effects on internal cavitating flows of different nozzle design parameters, such as the hole size, hole aspect-ratio, hydro-erosion radius, and orifice inclination. Under different conditions, cavitating flows through fuel injectors generated hydraulic flip, supercavitation, full cavitation, and cyclical cavitation phenomena, which are commonly observed in experiments.
Journal Article

Time-resolved X-ray Tomography of Gasoline Direct Injection Sprays

Quantitative measurements of direct injection fuel spray density and mixing are difficult to achieve using optical diagnostics, due to the substantial scattering of light and high optical density of the droplet field. For multi-hole sprays, the problem is even more challenging, as it is difficult to isolate a single spray plume along a single line of sight. Time resolved x-ray radiography diagnostics developed at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have been used for some time to study diesel fuel sprays, as x-rays have high penetrating power in sprays and scatter only weakly. Traditionally, radiography measurements have been conducted along any single line of sight, and have been applied to single-hole and group-hole nozzles with few plumes. In this new work, we extend the technique to multi-hole gasoline direct injection sprays.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements in Transient Port Injector Sprays

A global characterization of the spray distribution of various current and development types of automotive fuel injectors was obtained. Axial and radial measurement of droplet sizes, velocities and volume fluxes were made with a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) for a transient port injector spray in quiescent atmospheric conditions. Time-resolved measurements involving the time-of-arrival of each droplet associated with its size and velocity components were also acquired. Additionally, the liquid sprays emanating from various types of port fuel injectors were visualized, through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, at different time instants. Such detailed study provides an improved understanding of the temporal or unsteady behavior of port injector spray.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved, Three Dimensional Mass Distribution of Diesel Sprays Measured with X-Ray Radiography

Most previous measurements of diesel sprays have yielded few details regarding the near-nozzle structure of the sprays. X-ray radiography measurements have provided quantitative, time-resolved measurements of spray behavior, but the radiography data are projections of the actual fuel distribution. In this study, diesel sprays from two axial, single-hole nozzles are measured using x-ray radiography from several viewing angles. A model-based reconstruction is used to determine the actual density distribution from the projected data. The spray from the hydroground nozzle is eccentric and relatively dense, while the spray from the non-hydroground nozzle is asymmetric and far less dense. Even several mm from the nozzles, the calculated density values are high enough to call into question the assumptions underlying many standard CFD spray models.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel-Line Pressure Perturbation on the Spray Atomization Characteristics of Automotive Port Fuel Injectors

An experimental study was carried out to characterize the spray atomization process of automotive port fuel injectors retrofitted to a novel pressure modulation piezoelectric driver, which generates a pressure perturbation inside the fuel line. Unlike many other piezoelectric atomizers, this unit does not drive the nozzle directly. It has a small size and can be installed easily between regular port injector and fuel lines. There is no extra control difficulty with this system since the fuel injection rate and injection timing are controlled by the original fuel-metering valve. The global spray structures were characterized using the planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS) technique and the spray atomization processes were quantified using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique.
Technical Paper

Systematic Investigation of the Influence of Ethanol Blending on Sooting Combustion in DISI Engines Using High-Speed Imaging and LII

Modern direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine concepts have the drawback of higher particulate matter emission as compared to port fuel injection concepts. Especially, when driven with biofuels, the operation of DISI engines requires a deeper insight into particulate formation processes. In this study a modern optical accessible DISI engine is used. Pure isooctane, ethanol, E20 (20vol% of ethanol in isooctane) and E85 were investigated as fuels. Simultaneous OH*-chemiluminescence and soot radiation imaging was conducted by a high-speed camera system in order to separate premixed combustion with the sooting combustion. Furthermore, a laser-induced incandescence (LII) sensor was used to measure exhaust elementary carbon mass concentration. Systematically, operation points were chosen, which correspondent to the main sooting mechanisms, poolfire, mixture inhomogeneities and global low air-fuel ratio. Furthermore, they were compared to a homogenous charge combustion strategy.
Technical Paper

Spray Targeting Inside a Production-Type Intake Port of a 4-Valve Gasoline Engine

An experimental study was carried out to investigate the spray behavior inside engine intake ports. Production-type intake ports of four-valve gasoline engines were modified for the optical access at directions. The global spray formation process was visualized through laser Mie scattering technique. The spray breakup and atomization processes, spray targeting and fuel dispersing characteristics were investigated as a function of elapse time after fuel injection. The spray interaction with the port wall and port air flow were examined with different types of port fuel injectors including single-stream, multi-stream, and air-shrouded ones. The spray targeting and dispersing characteristics inside two different intake ports were examined. It was found that spray targeting and fuel dispersion inside the intake port are strongly dependent on the spray characteristics, as a result of different injector designs and injector installation positions.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation of Different Diesel-Fuels Investigated by Chemical Luminescence and Laser Induced Incandescence

Differences in thermo-physical parameters of fuels have high impact on the ignition, combustion and emission. Pure rapeseed FAME and diesel fuel with a cetane number of 60 have been compared to reference fuel. In an optical accessible vessel the fuels have been injected in order to investigate the spray, the ignition and soot formation. The high cetane number fuel showed similar behavior in spray phase to the reference fuel but the FAME fuel is more present at all operating points due to low volatile fuel components. The ignition and combustion process was investigated via chemical luminescence (CL) and laser induced incandescence (LII). In engine investigations a reduced ignition delay is detected in case of high cetane-number. The more sensitive optical techniques show differences in the combustion process. The ignition behavior of the reference fuel and the increased cetane number fuel were similar until the cetane increaser of the high cetane fuel came into effect.
Technical Paper

Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays Directly Imaged by X-Radiography

Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.
Technical Paper

Self-Ignition Calculation of Diesel Spray

This paper describes a computer simulation of Diesel spray formation and the locations of self-ignition nuclei. The spray is divided into small elementary volumes in which the amounts of fuel and fuel vapours, air, mean, maximum and minimum fuel droplet diameter are calculated, as well as their number. The total air-fuel and air-fuel vapour ratios are calculated for each elementary volume. The paper introduces a new criterion for determining self-ignition nuclei, based on assumptions that the strongest self-ignition probability lies in those elementary volumes containing the stoichiometric air ratio, where the fuel is evaporated or the fuel droplet diameter is equal to or lower than 0.0065 mm. The most efficient combustion in regard to consumption and emission will be in those elementary volumes containing stoichiometric air ratio, and fuel droplets with the lowest mean diameters. Measurements of injection and combustion were carried out in a transparent research engine.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Journal Article

Quantification of Shot-to-Shot Variation in Single Hole Diesel Injectors

Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions. We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient.
Technical Paper

Predicting Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Characteristics

In diesel injector nozzles, the shape of the orifice entrance and the sac-volume play a significant role in determining the orifice internal flow characteristics and the subsequent spray formation process. The sac-volume of the injector nozzle determines injection characteristics like injection rate shape and discharge coefficients. The sac-volume is also important from emissions point of view, in that it controls the amount of Un-Burnt Hydrocarbons (UBHC). This paper demonstrates the use of commercial dynamic and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) programs in predicting the flow characteristics of various nozzle orifice and sac-volume configurations. Three single orifice nozzle tips with varying sac configurations and orifice entrance shapes are studied. Transient simulations are carried out in order to compare the injection rates, discharge coefficients and internal flow characteristics for the nozzle tips. The simulation results are compared with experimental results.