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Technical Paper

Visualization of Direct-Injection Gasoline Spray and Wall-impingement Inside a Motoring Engine

1998-10-19
982702
Two-dimensional pulse-laser Mie scattering visualization of the direct-injection gasoline fuel sprays and wall impingement processes was carried out inside a single-cylinder optically accessible engine under motoring condition. The injectors have been first characterized inside a pressurized chamber using identical technique, as well as high-speed microscopic visualization and phase Doppler measurement techniques. The effects of injector cone angle, location, and injection timings on the wall impingement processes were investigated. It was found that the fuel vaporization is not complete at the constant engine speed tested. Fuel spray droplets were observed to disperse wider in the motored engine when compared with an isothermal quiescent ambient conditions. The extent of wall-impingement varies significantly with the injector mounting position and spray cone angle; however, its effect can be reduced to some extent by optimizing the injection timing.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of the Impingement Processes of a Narrow-Cone DI Gasoline Spray

2001-05-07
2001-01-2023
The direct injection spray-wall interactions were investigated experimentally using high-speed laser-sheet imaging, shadowgraphy, wetted footprints and phase Doppler interferometry techniques. A narrow-cone high-pressure swirl injector is used to inject iso-octane fuel onto a plate, at three different impact angles inside a pressurized chamber. Heated air and plate conditions were compared with unheated cases. Injection interval was also varied in the heated case to compare dry- and wet- wall impingement behaviors. High-speed macroscopic Mie-scattering images showed that presence of wall and air temperature has only minor effect on the bulk spray structure and penetration speed for the narrow-cone injector tested. The overall bulk motions of the spray plume and its spatial position at a given time are basically unaffected until a few millimeters before impacting the wall.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

2005-09-11
2005-24-093
Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements in Transient Port Injector Sprays

1995-02-01
950509
A global characterization of the spray distribution of various current and development types of automotive fuel injectors was obtained. Axial and radial measurement of droplet sizes, velocities and volume fluxes were made with a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) for a transient port injector spray in quiescent atmospheric conditions. Time-resolved measurements involving the time-of-arrival of each droplet associated with its size and velocity components were also acquired. Additionally, the liquid sprays emanating from various types of port fuel injectors were visualized, through planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, at different time instants. Such detailed study provides an improved understanding of the temporal or unsteady behavior of port injector spray.
Technical Paper

Systematic Investigation of the Influence of Ethanol Blending on Sooting Combustion in DISI Engines Using High-Speed Imaging and LII

2014-10-13
2014-01-2617
Modern direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine concepts have the drawback of higher particulate matter emission as compared to port fuel injection concepts. Especially, when driven with biofuels, the operation of DISI engines requires a deeper insight into particulate formation processes. In this study a modern optical accessible DISI engine is used. Pure isooctane, ethanol, E20 (20vol% of ethanol in isooctane) and E85 were investigated as fuels. Simultaneous OH*-chemiluminescence and soot radiation imaging was conducted by a high-speed camera system in order to separate premixed combustion with the sooting combustion. Furthermore, a laser-induced incandescence (LII) sensor was used to measure exhaust elementary carbon mass concentration. Systematically, operation points were chosen, which correspondent to the main sooting mechanisms, poolfire, mixture inhomogeneities and global low air-fuel ratio. Furthermore, they were compared to a homogenous charge combustion strategy.
Technical Paper

Spray Targeting Inside a Production-Type Intake Port of a 4-Valve Gasoline Engine

1996-02-01
960115
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the spray behavior inside engine intake ports. Production-type intake ports of four-valve gasoline engines were modified for the optical access at directions. The global spray formation process was visualized through laser Mie scattering technique. The spray breakup and atomization processes, spray targeting and fuel dispersing characteristics were investigated as a function of elapse time after fuel injection. The spray interaction with the port wall and port air flow were examined with different types of port fuel injectors including single-stream, multi-stream, and air-shrouded ones. The spray targeting and dispersing characteristics inside two different intake ports were examined. It was found that spray targeting and fuel dispersion inside the intake port are strongly dependent on the spray characteristics, as a result of different injector designs and injector installation positions.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

2010-04-12
2010-01-0601
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation of Different Diesel-Fuels Investigated by Chemical Luminescence and Laser Induced Incandescence

2013-10-14
2013-01-2667
Differences in thermo-physical parameters of fuels have high impact on the ignition, combustion and emission. Pure rapeseed FAME and diesel fuel with a cetane number of 60 have been compared to reference fuel. In an optical accessible vessel the fuels have been injected in order to investigate the spray, the ignition and soot formation. The high cetane number fuel showed similar behavior in spray phase to the reference fuel but the FAME fuel is more present at all operating points due to low volatile fuel components. The ignition and combustion process was investigated via chemical luminescence (CL) and laser induced incandescence (LII). In engine investigations a reduced ignition delay is detected in case of high cetane-number. The more sensitive optical techniques show differences in the combustion process. The ignition behavior of the reference fuel and the increased cetane number fuel were similar until the cetane increaser of the high cetane fuel came into effect.
Technical Paper

Self-Ignition Calculation of Diesel Spray

2012-04-16
2012-01-1262
This paper describes a computer simulation of Diesel spray formation and the locations of self-ignition nuclei. The spray is divided into small elementary volumes in which the amounts of fuel and fuel vapours, air, mean, maximum and minimum fuel droplet diameter are calculated, as well as their number. The total air-fuel and air-fuel vapour ratios are calculated for each elementary volume. The paper introduces a new criterion for determining self-ignition nuclei, based on assumptions that the strongest self-ignition probability lies in those elementary volumes containing the stoichiometric air ratio, where the fuel is evaporated or the fuel droplet diameter is equal to or lower than 0.0065 mm. The most efficient combustion in regard to consumption and emission will be in those elementary volumes containing stoichiometric air ratio, and fuel droplets with the lowest mean diameters. Measurements of injection and combustion were carried out in a transparent research engine.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Direct-Injection Gasoline Fuel Sprays in Near-Nozzle Region Using Synchrotron X-Ray

2001-03-05
2001-01-1293
A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the dense spray structure of direct-injection (DI) gasoline sprays in near-nozzle region. This technique uses the line-of-sight absorption of monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source to measure the fuel mass with time resolution better than 1 μs. The small scattering cross-section of fuel at x-rays regime allows direct measurements of spray structure that are difficult with most visible-light optical techniques. Appropriate models were developed to determine the fuel density as a function of time.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3668
Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

2010-04-12
2010-01-0877
By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

2015-09-06
2015-24-2474
In a study using a single-cylinder engine a significant potential in fuel efficiency and emission reduction was found for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine. The control of the mixture formation process appeared to be critical to ensure stable inflammation of the mixture. Therefore, optical investigations of the mixture formation were performed on a geometric equivalent, optically accessible single-cylinder engine to investigate the correlation of mixture formation and inflammability. The two optical measurement techniques infrared (IR) absorption and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed. Mid-wavelength IR absorption appeared to be qualified for a global visualization of natural gas injection; LIF allows to quantify the equivalence ratio inside a detection level. While LIF measurements require complex equipment, the IR setup consists merely of a black body heater and a mid-wavelength sensitive IR camera.
Technical Paper

Microscopic Characterization of Diesel Sprays at VCO Nozzle Exit

1998-10-19
982542
A long-distance microscope with pulse-laser as optical shutter up to 25kHz was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity onto 35-mm photographic film through a still or a high-speed drum camera. The injectors examined are high-pressure valve-covered-orifice (VCO) nozzles, from unit injector and common rail injection systems. For comparison, a mini-sac injector from a hydraulic unit injector is also investigated. A phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system with an external digital clock was also used to measure the droplet size, velocity and time of arrival relative to the start of the injection event. The visualization results provide very interesting and dynamic information on spray structure, showing spray angle variations, primary breakup processes, and spray asymmetry not observed using conventional macroscopic visualization techniques.
Journal Article

Liquid and Vapor Envelopes of Sprays from a Multi-Hole Fuel Injector Operating under Closely-Spaced Double-Injection Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0462
Liquid and vapor envelopes of sprays from a multi-hole fuel injector operating under closely-spaced double-injection conditions were investigated using a combination of high-speed schlieren and Mie scattering imaging. The effects of mass split ratio and dwell time between injections on liquid and vapor penetration have been investigated under engine-like pressures and temperatures. For the conditions evaluated, the results indicate that closely-spaced double-injection generally reduces liquid and vapor penetration.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Gasoline Spray Propagation Behaviour Characteristic for Multihole Injectors

2014-10-13
2014-01-2732
Modern concepts of downsized DI gasoline engines set up high requirements on the injection system to meet the emission targets. The fundamental knowledge and understanding of spray propagation physics are essential for the development of nozzles and injection strategies, due to reduced displacements in combination with the continuing trend of elevated fuel pressures. A detailed analysis of micro- and macroscopic spray parameters was carried out using a multihole solenoid driven DI injector. The measurements were performed in a continuously scavenged pressure chamber with full optical access. Fuel pressure up to 38MPa and backpressures in a range from 0.03 - 0.2 MPa were varied. Optical investigations were done by Shadowgraphy imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry. The combination of micro- and macroscopic spray results are used to discuss the propagation behaviour of gasoline spray.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on Spray Atomization and Evaporation Studied for a Multi-hole DISI Injector with a Late Injection Timing

2011-08-30
2011-01-1982
The influence of fuel composition on sprays was studied in an injection chamber at DISI conditions with late injection timing. Fuels with high, mid and low volatility (n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane) and a 3-component mixture with similar fuel properties like gasoline were investigated. The injection conditions were chosen to model suppressed or rapid evaporation. Mie scattering imaging and phase Doppler anemometry were used to investigate the liquid spray structure. A spray model was set up applying the CFD-Code OpenFOAM. The atomization was found to be different for n-decane that showed a smaller average droplet size due to viscosity dependence of injected mass. And for evaporating conditions, a stratification of the vapor components in the 3-component fuel spray was observed.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Atomization and Evaporation of a DISI Injector Spray Under Homogeneous Charge Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1597
Understanding the causal loop from injection to combustion in modern direct injection engines is essential to improve combustion and reduce emissions. In this work, the section from injection to fuel-evaporation in this causal loop was investigated using different optical measurement techniques, with a focus on drop size measurements using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). One spray jet of a modern DISI multi-hole injector was investigated using gasoline RON 95 fuel and two single component alkane fuels (n-hexane / n-decane). In a first step the macroscopic spray formation and propagation of this spray jet were studied using a 2D-Mie-scattering technique in an optical injection chamber at homogenous charge DISI conditions. Furthermore, the droplet size distribution and mean diameter were determined spatially and temporally resolved for an ambient pressure of 0.3MPa and different ambient temperature (323K / 423K / 523K) conditions in the optical chamber using Phase Doppler Anemometry.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Primary Break-up and Development for Different Nozzle Geometries

2002-10-21
2002-01-2775
The nozzle configuration for an injector is known to have an important effect on the fuel atomization. A comprehensive experimental and numerical investigation has been performed to determine the influence of various internal geometries on the primary spray breakup and development using the electronically controlled high-pressure diesel injection systems. Different types of multi-hole minisac and VCO nozzles with cylindrical and tapered geometries, and different types of single-hole nozzles with defined grades of Hydro Grinding (HG) were investigated. The global characteristics of the spray, including spray angle, spray tip penetration and spray pattern were measured from the spray images with a high-speed drum camera. A long-distance microscope with a pulsed-laser as the optical shutter was used to magnify the diesel spray at the nozzle hole vicinity. A CFD analysis of the internal flow through various nozzle geometries has been carried out with a commercial code.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Multi-hole DI Sprays with Charge Motion and their Implications to Flexible Valve-trained Engine Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1883
Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
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