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Technical Paper

Variable compression in SI engines

Downsizing is an effective way to further improve the efficiency of SI engines. To make most of this concept, the compression ratio has to be adjusted during engine operation. Thus, the efficiency disadvantages during part load can be eliminated. A fuel consumption reduction of up to 30% can be realized compared to naturally aspirated engines of the same power. After the assessment of several known concepts it turned out that the eccentric crankshaft positioning represents an appropriate solution which meets the requirements of good adjustability, unaltered inertia forces, low power demand of the positioning device and reasonable design effort. The basic challenges posed by the eccentric crankshaft positioning have been tackled, namely the crankshaft bearing and the integration of the newly developed power take-offs which have almost no influence on the base design.
Journal Article

Tomorrows Diesel Fuel Diversity - Challenges and Solutions

Regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good driveability, high reliability and costs, this is the main frame for all future powertrain developments. In this frame, the diesel powertrain, not only for passenger cars, but also for commercial vehicle applications, faces some challenges in order to fulfil the future European and current US emission legislations while keeping the fuel consumption benefit, good driveability and an acceptable cost frame. One of these challenges is the varying fuel qualities of diesel fuel in different countries including different cetane number, volatility, sulphur content and different molecular composition. In addition to that in the future, more and more alternative fuels with various fuel qualities and properties will be launched into the market for economical and environmental reasons. At present, the control algorithms of the injection system applied in most diesel engines is open loop control.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Pollutant Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Using Multiple Interactive Flamelets

Flamelet modeling allows the application of comprehensive chemical mechanisms, which. include all relevant chemical combustion processes that occur in a DI Diesel engine during autoignition, the burnout in the partially premixed phase, the transition to diffusive burning and formation of pollutants like NO, and soot. The highly nonlinear dependencies of the chemistry need not to be simplified, and the complete structure of the flame is preserved. Using the Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) model the one-dimensional unsteady set of partial differential equations is solved online with the 3-D CFD code. The flamelet solution is coupled to the flow and mixture field by the current boundary conditions (enthalpy, pressure, scalar dissipation rate). In return, the flamelet code yields the species concentrations, which are then used by the 3-D CFD code to compute the temperature field.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Modeling of NOx and Soot Formation in DI-Diesel Engines Using Detailed Chemistry Based on the Interactive Flamelet Approach

In Diesel engines combustion proceeds essentially under partially premixed and non-premixed conditions. In this study the flamelet model for non-premixed combustion is derived and its implementation into 3-D codes is discussed. The model is capable of describing auto-ignition, the following burnout of the partially premixed phase, and the transition to diffusive burning. Flamelet modeling has the advantage of separating the numerical effort associated with the resolution of fast chemical time scales from the fluid dynamics' scales occuring in the 3-D computation of the engine combustion cycle. Three additional scalar field equations have to be solved in the 3-D engine code, while the entire chemistry consisting of up to 1000 or more chemical reactions is simultaneously treated in a separate 1-D code describing the flamelet structure. A new aspect proposed here is to use so-called RIFs (Representative Interactive Flamelets), which are solved on-line with the 3D-code.
Journal Article

The Oxidation Potential Number: An Index to Evaluate Inherent Soot Reduction in D.I. Diesel Spray Plumes

A new index to evaluate the inherent soot reduction in a diesel-like spray plume is proposed in this study. The index is named “Oxidation Potential Number” and was derived with the help of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. C8 - C16 n-alkanes, 1-alcohols and di-n-ethers were studied with the help of this index over four part load engine operating conditions, representative of a C-class diesel vehicle. The CFD modelling results have shown that C8 molecules feature a higher potentiality to reduce the soot. Thus, C8 molecules were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine over the same operating conditions. In conclusion, the proposed index is compared with the soot engine out emission.
Technical Paper

System Comparison of Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems to Internal Combustion Engines

Increasing shortages of energy resources as well as emission legislation development is increasing the pressure to develop more efficient, environmentally friendly propulsion systems for vehicles. Alternatives such as fuel cell systems or hybrid propulsion are in discussion or have already been introduced. This paper gives a survey on the present technical status of internal combustion engines, hybrid concepts and current fuel cell vehicles. Different solutions will be presented, so that an evaluation of advantages and drawbacks can be given. The further potentials of each concept, as well as combinations of different systems are discussed, and an outlook into the future is given.
Technical Paper

State Machine-Based Control Strategy for a Gasoline Fueled PEMFC APU System

A fuel cell based Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) represents a rather complex technical system consisting of different subsystems, components and low-level controllers. Particularly in the case of gasoline-fueled systems, a sophisticated supervisory control is needed to manage the sequential control and to achieve fault tolerant and fail-safe operation. In this paper, a state machine-based APU control concept is presented, offering a transparent and modular structure. In addition to a superior control system (top level supervisor) that manages the overall strategies and the interaction of all subsystems, each subsystem is equipped with its own subsystem control (second level supervisor). This controller is responsible for all subsystem specific issues. The APU control concept was implemented using Matlab®/Simulink® and applied on a rapid prototyping controller unit.
Technical Paper

Start-Up Behavior of Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

This paper focuses on start-up technology for fuel processing systems with special emphasis on gasoline fueled burners. Initially two different fuel processing systems, an autothermal reformer with preferential oxidation and a steam reformer with membrane, are introduced and their possible starting strategies are discussed. Energy consumption for preheating up to light-off temperature and the start-up time is estimated. Subsequently electrical preheating is compared with start-up burners and the different types of heat generation are rated with respect to the requirements on start-up systems. Preheating power for fuel cell propulsion systems necessarily reaches up to the magnitude of the electrical fuel cell power output. A gasoline fueled burner with thermal combustion has been build-up, which covers the required preheating power.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Early injection strategies in the case of part-load conditions are offering the possibility to enhance mixing and evaporation. Due to the early injection, ignition and evaporation are separated in time and space for that less rich pockets from where soot is formed are occurring. For reducing NOx, cooled EGR is a method to dilute the intake charge. The combustion is shifted to lower temperatures and less NOx is formed. More, the cooling of the intake charge and the higher heat capacity enhance the evaporation time for that ignition starts at later times and combustion is retarded. For the simulation of such engine cases using high rates of EGR with an early fuel injection, a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code is coupled interactively with the flamelet model that will be applied here as combustion model. That approach, known as RIF (Representative Interactive Flamelet) model, requires a re-evaluation of the chemical reaction mechanism.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Autoignition Delay and Location of Fuel Sprays Under Diesel-Engine Relevant Conditions

The autoignition delay time and location of a n-heptane fueled high pressure and high temperature spray combustion chamber under Diesel engine conditions has been investigated numerically. The conservation equations for the fluid dynamics of sprays have been solved using the KIVA-II code with its standard spray models. A detailed chemical mechanism of 81 elementary reactions and 37 chemical species has been applied to describe the ignition and combustion of n-heptane. The coupling between complex chemistry and turbulence is treated by employing the Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) concept. Unsteady flamelets are computed using a separate flamelet code that interacts with the CFD solver at each time step. The scalar dissipation rate, which is an important parameter for the flamelet, has been studied numerically under different conditions.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Delay and -Duration of Homogeneous Charge Gasoline Engines based on In-Cylinder Flow Simulation

In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
Technical Paper

Optimized Layout of Gasoline Engines for Hybrid Powertrains

Due to the complex powertrain layout in hybrid vehicles, different configurations concerning internal combustion engine, electric motor and transmission can be combined - as is demonstrated by currently produced hybrid vehicles ([1], [2]). At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University a combination of simulation, Design of Experiments (DoE) and numerical optimization methods was used to optimize the combustion engine, the powertrain configuration and the operation strategy in hybrid powertrains. A parametric description allows a variation of the main hybrid parameters. Parallel as well as power-split hybrid powertrain configurations were optimized with regard to minimum fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Besides the definition of the optimum configuration for engine, powertrain and operation strategy this approach offers the possibility to predict the fuel consumption for any modifications of the hybrid powertrains.
Journal Article

Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars

Sustainable and energy-efficient consumption is a main concern in contemporary society. Driven by more stringent international requirements, automobile manufacturers have shifted the focus of development into new technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). These powertrains offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system compared to conventional vehicles, but they also lead to higher complexities in the design process and in the control strategy. In order to obtain an optimum powertrain configuration, each component has to be laid out considering the best powertrain efficiency. With such a perspective, a simulation study was performed for the purpose of minimizing well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a city car through electrification. Three different innovative systems, a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), a Mixed Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) and a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) were compared to a conventional one.
Journal Article

On the Potential of Oxygenated Fuels as an Additional Degree of Freedom in the Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Diesel Engines

The current and future restrictions on pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines require a holistic investigation of the abilities of alternative fuels to optimize the combustion process and ensure cleaner combustion. In this regard, the Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB) Cluster at Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen University aims at designing production processes for biofuels as well as fuels optimal for use in internal combustion engines. The TMFB Cluster's scientific approach considers the molecular structure of the fuels as an additional degree of freedom for the optimization of both the production pathways and the combustion process of such novel biofuels. Thus, the model-based specification of target parameters is of the utmost importance to improve engine combustion performance and to send feedback information to the biofuel production process.
Technical Paper

Objectified Drivability Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles in Automated Longitudinal Vehicle Drive Maneuvers with Engine Load Changes

To achieve global market and brand specific drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition for the increasing number of passenger car derivatives, an objectified evaluation approach for the drivability capabilities of the various cars is required. Thereto, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of different engine concepts in various complex and interlinked powertrain topologies during engine load change maneuvers based on physical criteria. Such an objectification approach enables frontloading of drivability related engineering tasks by the execution of drivability development and calibration work within vehicle subcomponent-specific closed-loop real-time co-simulation environments in early phases of a vehicle development program. So far, drivability functionalities could be developed and calibrated only towards the end of a vehicle development program, when test vehicles with a sufficient level of product maturity became available.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Soot Formation and Oxidation Under Diesel Engine Conditions

Numerical simulations for an n-heptane fueled high pressure and high temperature chamber under Diesel engine conditions have been performed to study soot formation and oxidation processes. A kinetically based soot model has been applied, which accounts for the pyrolysis and oxidation of fuel and formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the use of a detailed kinetic mechanism. PAH growth and oxidation is modeled by a fast polymerization process, coagulation of PAHs leads to particle inception. The soot particles are allowed to coagulate with other particles and PAHs. The interaction of soot particles with the gas phase is modeled by heterogeneous surface reactions leading to particle growth due to acetylene addition and particle oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and molecular oxygen. The conservation equations for the fluid dynamics are solved with the KIVA II code and the coupling with chemistry is treated by employing the flamelet concept.
Journal Article

Nitric Oxide Measurements in the Core of Diesel Jets Using a Biofuel Blend

Maintaining low NOx emissions over the operating range of diesel engines continues to be a major issue. However, optical measurements of nitric oxide (NO) are lacking particularly in the core of diesel jets, i.e. in the region of premixed combustion close to the spray axis. This is basically caused by severe attenuation of both the laser light and fluorescent emission in laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) applications. Light extinction is reduced by keeping absorption path lengths relatively short in this work, by investigating diesel jets in a combustion vessel instead of an engine. Furthermore, the NO-detection threshold is improved by conducting 1-d line measurements instead of 2-d imaging. The NO-LIF data are corrected for light attenuation by combined LIF and spontaneous Raman scattering. The quantified maximum light attenuation is significantly lower than in comparable previous works, and its wavelength dependence is surprisingly weak.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

Modeling DI-Diesel Combustion using the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model (EPFM)

Combustion and pollutant formation in a DI-Diesel engine are numerically investigated using the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model (EPFM). A baseline case for part load operating conditions is considered as well as an EGR variation. The surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. Results are compared to experimental data that has been obtained using real diesel fuel. The effect of multiple flamelets on the simulation of the auto-ignition process and the pollutant formation is discussed and a converging behavior of the model with respect to the number of flamelets is found. The effect of homogenization of the three-dimensional mixture field is investigated and it has been included in the formulation of the scalar dissipation rate.