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Technical Paper

Vehicle Airborne Noise Analysis Using the Energy Finite Element Method

2013-05-13
2013-01-1998
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for computing the structural vibration and the interior noise level of complex structural-acoustic systems by solving numerically governing differential equations with energy densities as primary variables. In this paper a complete simulation process for evaluating airborne noise in an automotive vehicle is presented and validated through extensive comparison to test data. The theoretical elements associated with the important paths of the noise transfer from the exterior of the vehicle to the interior acoustic space are discussed. The steps required for developing an EFEA model for a vehicle are presented. The model is developed based on the physical construction of the vehicle system and no test measurements are utilized for adjusting the numerical model.
Technical Paper

Validation of the EFEA Method through Correlation with Conventional FEA and SEA Results

2001-04-30
2001-01-1618
The Energy Finite Element Analysis(EFEA) is a recent development for high frequency vibro-acoustic analysis, and constitutes an evolution in the area of high frequency computations. The EFEA is a wave based approach, while the SEA is a modal based approach. In this paper the similarities in the theoretical development of the two methods are outlined. The main scope of this paper is to establish the validity of the EFEA by analyzing several complex structural-acoustic systems. The EFEA solutions are compared successfully to SEA results and to solutions obtained from extremely dense conventional FEA models.
Technical Paper

Validation of an EFEA Formulation for Computing the Vibrational Response of Complex Structures

2007-05-15
2007-01-2324
This paper presents a validation case study for an Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) formulation through comparison to test data. The EFEA comprises a simulation tool for computing the structural response of a complex structure and the amount of the radiated power. The EFEA formulation presented in this paper can account for periodic stiffeners, for partial fluid loading effects on the outer part of the structure, and for internal compartments filled with heavy fluid. In order to validate these modeling capabilities of the EFEA two 1/8th scale structures representing an advanced double hull design and a conventional hull design of a surface ship are analyzed. Results for the structural vibration induced on the outer bottom part of the structure are compared to available test data. The excitation is applied at two different locations of the deck structure. Good correlation is observed between the numerical results and the test data.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Mid-Frequency Analysis of Vehicle Structures

2007-05-15
2007-01-2303
The hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) has been developed for performing structure-borne computations in automotive vehicle structures [1, 2 and 3]. The hybrid FEA method combines conventional FEA with Energy FEA (EFEA). Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping and spring or mass elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones. The component mode synthesis method is combined with analytical solutions for determining the driving point conductance at joints between stiff and flexible members and for defining the properties of the concentrated elements which represent the flexible members when analyzing the stiff components.
Journal Article

Uncertainty Propagation in Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Undersea Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0218
In this paper the development of statistical metamodels and statistical fast running models is presented first. They are utilized for propagating uncertainties in a multi-discipline design optimization process. Two main types of uncertainty can be considered in this manner: uncertainty due to variability in design variables or in random parameters; uncertainty due to the utilization of metamodels instead of the actual simulation models during the optimization process. The value of the new developments and their engagement in multi-discipline design optimization is demonstrated through a case study. An underwater vehicle is designed under four different disciplines, namely, noise radiation, self-noise due to TBL excitation, dynamic response due to propulsion impact loads, and response to an underwater detonation.
Technical Paper

Structure-borne Vehicle Analysis using a Hybrid Finite Element Method

2009-05-19
2009-01-2196
The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with the energy FEA (EFEA) for computing the structural vibration in vehicle structures when the excitation is applied on the load bearing stiff structural members. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in the vehicle. In order to account for the effect of the flexible members in the FEA analysis, appropriate damping and spring/mass elements are introduced at the connections between stiff and flexible members. Computing properly the values of these damping and spring/mass elements is important for the overall accuracy of the computations. Utilizing in these computations the analytical solutions for the driving point impedance of infinite or semi-infinite members introduces significant approximations.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Modeling and Optimization of a Submarine Pressure Hull

2019-06-05
2019-01-1498
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been validated in the past through comparison with test data for computing the structural vibration and the radiated noise for Naval systems in the mid to high frequency range. A main benefit of the method is that it enables fast computations for full scale models. This capability is exploited by using the EFEA for a submarine pressure hull design optimization study. A generic but representative pressure hull is considered. Design variables associated with the dimensions of the king frames, the thickness of the pressure hull in the vicinity of the excitation (the latter is considered to be applied on the king frames of the machinery room), the dimensions of the frames, and the damping applied on the hull are adjusted during the optimization process in order to minimize the radiated noise in the frequency range from 1,000Hz to 16,000Hz.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Joints for Incompatible Models in the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2015-06-15
2015-01-2237
In the Energy Finite element Analysis (EFEA) method, the governing differential equations are formulated for an energy variable that has been spatially averaged over a wavelength and time averaged over a period. A finite element approach is used for solving the differential equations numerically. Therefore, a library of elements is necessary for modeling the various wave bearing domains that are present in a structural-acoustic system. Discontinuities between wave bearing domains always exist due to the geometry, from a change in material properties, from multiple components being connected together, or from different media interfacing with each other. Therefore, a library of joints is also necessary for modeling the various types of physical connections which can be encountered in a structural-acoustic system.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Stiffened Panels Using the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2011-05-17
2011-01-1696
Stiffened panels are encountered in many engineering systems since the stiffeners comprise the mechanism which provides support and rigidity to the panel's skin. Either a mechanical excitation or an acoustic load can be applied on a stiffened panel creating vibration that is transmitted in all panel components. Mechanical excitation tends to be localized in nature, originating from operating machinery mounted on the panel, while the acoustic excitation tends to be distributed over the entire panel, since it typically originates from an external acoustic source which creates an acoustic field impinging on the entire panel. In the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) various degrees of fidelity are possible when modeling the response of a stiffened panel. In this paper, the theoretical background and the corresponding implications associated with each alternative modeling approach are presented first.
Technical Paper

Model Update and Statistical Correlation Metrics for Automotive Crash Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1744
In order to develop confidence in numerical models which are used for automotive crash simulations, results are compared with test data. Modeling assumptions are made when constructing a simulation model for a complex system, such as a vehicle. Through a thorough understanding of the modeling assumptions an appropriate set of variables can be selected and adjusted in order to improve correlation with test data. Such a process can lead to better modeling practices when constructing a simulation model. Comparisons between the time history of acceleration responses from test and simulations are the most challenging. Computing accelerations correctly is more difficult compared to computing displacements, velocities, or intrusion levels due to the second order differentiation with time. In this paper a methodology for enabling the update of a simulation model for improved correlation is presented.
Technical Paper

Mid-Frequency Vibration Analysis of Systems Containing One Type of Energy Based on a Hybrid Finite Element Formulation

2001-04-30
2001-01-1620
A hybrid finite element method (hybrid FEA) for computing mid-frequency vibrations for systems that contain one energy type is presented. In the mid-frequency range a system is comprised of both long and short members. Long members contain several wavelengths and they are modeled by the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA). Short members contain a small number of wavelengths and they are modeled by the Finite Element Analysis (FEA). External excitation can be applied on long and/or on short members. Systems are analyzed by both the hybrid FEA method and an analytical solution in order to validate the hybrid FEA developments. The interaction among long and short members is defined by a set of equations between the EFEA and the FEA primary variables at the interfaces between long and short members. The numerical systems of equations for the long and the short members, and the interface equations are solved simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Interior Aircraft Noise Computations due to TBL Excitation using the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2009-05-19
2009-01-2248
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for evaluating the vibro-acoustic behavior of complex systems. In the past EFEA results have been compared successfully to measured data for Naval, automotive, and aircraft systems. The main objective of this paper is to present information about the process of developing EFEA models for two configurations of a business jet, performing analysis for computing the vibration and the interior noise induced from exterior turbulent boundary layer excitation, and discussing the correlation between test data and simulation results. The structural EFEA model is generated from an existing finite element model used for stress analysis during the aircraft design process. Structural elements used in the finite element model for representing the complete complex aircraft structure become part of the EFEA structural model.
Technical Paper

Integration of Finite Element and Boundary Element Methods for Simulating the Noise Radiated From a Flexible Panel Subjected to Boundary Layer Excitation

1999-05-17
1999-01-1795
In this paper an algorithm is developed for combining finite element analysis and boundary element techniques in order to compute the noise radiated from a panel subjected to boundary layer loading. The excitation is presented in terms of the auto and cross power spectral densities of the fluctuating wall pressure. The structural finite element model for the panel is divided into a number of sub-panels. A uniform fluctuating pressure is applied as excitation on each sub-panel separately. The corresponding vibration is computed, and is utilized as excitation for an acoustic boundary element analysis. The acoustic response is computed at any data recovery point of interest. The relationships between the acoustic response and the pressure excitation applied at each particular sub-panel constitute a set of transfer functions.
Journal Article

Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of a Rotorcraft

2013-05-13
2013-01-1995
The Hybrid FEA method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) for mid-frequency computations. The difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the Hybrid FEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior. The excitation is considered to be applied on the conventional FEA model and the vibration analysis is conducted. The power flow through the dynamic impedance elements is computed and applied as excitation to the EFEA model of the flexible panels. The EFEA analysis computes the vibration of the flexible panels.
Technical Paper

Engaging Energy Based Structural-Acoustic Simulations in Multi-Discipline Design

2009-05-19
2009-01-2198
In order to be effective and maximize the weight and cost savings when designing for noise and vibration attributes, the structural-acoustics design effort must be concurrent with the efforts of other engineering disciplines (i.e. durability, crashworthiness, etc.). In this manner, it will be possible to account for the effects of structural changes across disciplines and improve the NVH performance while the structure is being configured rather than attempting to improve NVH characteristics after the structural design has been completed.
Technical Paper

Energy Finite Element Analysis of the NASA Aluminum Testbed Cylinder

2005-05-16
2005-01-2372
An energy finite element analysis (EFEA) formulation is developed for predicting high frequency vibration response of cylindrical shells with periodically axial and circumferential stiffeners. In this method, the structure is modeled using EFEA method. The power transfer coefficients, employed in the joint matrices of the EFEA formulation at the location of the periodic stiffeners are computed based on Periodic Structure (PS) theory. Results from the new simulation method are compared to experimental data for the vibration response of a periodically circumferentially and axially stiffened cylinder (NASA aluminum testbed cylinder). The observed good correlation indicates that the new EFEA formulation captures properly the periodic characteristics for both the axial stringers and ring stiffeners.
Journal Article

Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

2011-05-17
2011-01-1734
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations.
Technical Paper

Design of Rotorcraft Gearbox Foundation for Reduced Vibration and Increased Crashworthiness Characteristics

2011-05-17
2011-01-1704
Vehicle design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as fatigue, strength, noise, safety, etc. Simulation models are employed for assessing and potentially improving a vehicle's performance in individual technical areas. Challenges arise when designing a vehicle for improving mutually competing objectives, satisfying constraints from multiple engineering disciplines, and determining a single set of values for the vehicle's characteristics. It is of interest to engage simulation models from the various engineering disciplines in an organized and coordinated manner for determining a design configuration that provides the best possible performance in all disciplines. The multi-discipline design process becomes streamlined when the simulation methods integrate well with finite element or computer aided design models.
Technical Paper

Coupling of Finite Element and Energy Finite Element Solutions for Calculating the Vibration of Co-linear Beams in the Mid-Frequency Range

1999-05-19
1999-01-1793
The theoretical development of a hybrid finite element method is presented. It combines conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) in order to achieve a numerical solution to mid-frequency vibrations. In the mid-frequency range a system is comprised by some members that contain several wavelengths and some members that contain a small number of wavelengths. The former are considered long members and they are modeled by the EFEA. The latter are considered short and they are modeled by the FEA. The new formulation is based on deriving appropriate interface conditions at the joints between sections modeled by the EFEA and the FEA methods. Since the work presented in this paper constitutes a fundamental step in the development of a hybrid method for mid-frequency analysis, the formulation for one flexural degree of freedom in co-linear beams is presented.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Finite Element and Hybrid Finite Element Results to Test Data for the Vibration of a Production Car Body

2019-06-05
2019-01-1530
The Hybrid Finite Element Analysis (HFEA) method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solutions and energy methods for mid-frequency computations. The method is appropriate for computing the vibration of structures which are comprised by stiff load bearing components and flexible panels attached to them; and for considering structure-borne loadings with the excitations applied on the load bearing members. In such situations, the difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the HFEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior of the panels.
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