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Technical Paper

Weighting of Parameters in Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a predictive tool has been shown to have a broad range of applications. Earlier work by the authors using ANN models to predict carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines and vehicles yielded marginal to excellent results. These ANN models can be a useful tool in inventory prediction, hybrid vehicle design optimization, and incorporated into a feedback loop of an on-board, active fuel injection management system. In this research, the ANN models were trained on continuous engine and emissions data. The engine data were used as inputs to the ANN models and consisted of engine speed, torque, and their respective first and second derivatives over a one, five, and ten second time range. The continuous emissions data were the desired output that the ANN models learned to predict through an iterative training process.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic implications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism

The Stiller-Smith mechanism is a new mechanism for the translation of linear motion into rotary motion, and has been considered as an alternative to the conventional slider-crank mechanism in the design of internal combustion engines and piston compressors. Piston motion differs between the two mechanisms, being perfectly sinusoidal for the Stiller-Smith case. Plots of dimensionless volume and volume rate-change are presented for one engine cycle. It is argued that the different motion is important when considering rate-based processes such as heat transfer to a cylinder wall and chemical kinetics during combustion. This paper also addresses the fact that a Stiller-Smith engine will be easier to configure for adiabatic operation, with many attendant benefits.
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis and Control Methodology for Linear Engine Alternator

Linear engine alternator (LEA) design optimization traditionally has been difficult because each independent variable alters the motion with respect to time, and therefore alters the engine and alternator response to other governing variables. An analogy is drawn to a conventional engine with a very light flywheel, where the rotational speed effectively is not constant. However, when springs are used in conjunction with an LEA, the motion becomes more consistent and more sinusoidal with increasing spring stiffness. This avoids some attractive features, such as variable compression ratio HCCI operation, but aids in reducing cycle-to-cycle variation for conventional combustion modes. To understand the cycle-to-cycle variations, we have developed a comprehensive model of an LEA with a 1kW target power in MATLAB®/Simulink, and an LEA corresponding to that model has been operated in the laboratory.
Technical Paper

Respirable Particulate Genotoxicant Distribution in Diesel Exhaust and Mine Atmospheres

Results of a research effort directed towards identifying and measuring the genotoxic properties of respirable particulate matter involved in mining exposures, especially those which may synergistically affect genotoxic hazard, are presented. Particulate matter emissions from a direct injection diesel engine have been sampled and assayed to determine the genotoxic potential as a function of engine operating conditions. Diesel exhaust from a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine, representative of the ones found in underground mines, rated 100 hp at 2200 rpm is diluted in a multi-tube mini-dilution tunnel and the particulate matter is collected on 70 mm fluorocarbon coated glass fiber filters as well as on 8″ x 10″ hi-volume filters. A six mode steady state duty cycle was used to relate engine operating conditions to the genotoxic potential.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Instantaneous and Measured Emissions in Heavy Duty Applications

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
Technical Paper

Potential Applications of the Stiller-Smith Mechanism in internal Combustion Engine Designs

With few exceptions most internal combustion engines use a slider-crank mechanism to convert reciprocating piston motion into a usable rotational output. One such exception is the Stiller-Smith Mechanism which utilizes a kinematic inversion of a Scotch yoke called an elliptic trammel. The device uses rigid connecting rods and a floating/eccentric gear train for motion conversion and force transmission. The mechanism exhibits advantages over the slider-crank for application in internal combustion engines in areas such as balancing, size, thermal efficiency, and low heat rejection. An overview of potential advantages of an engine utilizing the Stiller-Smith Mechanism is presented.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
Technical Paper

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation for Parametric Study of a Two-Stroke Direct Injection Linear Engine

Research at West Virginia University has led to the development of a novel crankless reciprocating internal combustion engine. This paper presents a time-based model used to investigate the performance of two-stroke direct injection compression ignition linear engines. The two-stroke linear engine consists of two pistons, linked by a connecting rod, that are allowed to move freely in response to changes in the engine's fueling and load across the full operating cycle of the engine. The computer model uses a combination of a series of dynamic and thermodynamic numerical equations, which have been solved to provide a detailed analysis of the two-stroke direct injection linear engine operation. Parameters such as rate of combustion, convection heat transferred inside the cylinders, friction forces, external loads, acceleration, velocity profile, compression ratio, and in-cylinder pressures were modeled.
Technical Paper

Nitric Oxide Conversion in a Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine

Understanding the nitric oxide (NO) conversion process plays a major role in optimizing the Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) technique. SNR has been proven in gasoline and diesel engines, with up to 90% NOX conversion rates being achieved. This technique involves adsorbing NOX from an exhaust stream, then selectively desorbing the NOX into a concentrated NOX stream, which is fed back into the engine's intake, thereby converting a percentage of the concentrated NOX stream into harmless gases. The emphasis of this paper is on the unique chemical kinetic modeling problem that occurs with high concentrations of NOX in the intake air of a spark ignited natural gas engine with SNR. CHEMKIN, a chemical kinetic solver software package, was used to perform the reaction modeling. A closed homogeneous batch reactor model was used to model the fraction of NOX versus time for varying initial conditions and constants.
Technical Paper

Nano Particulate Matter Evolution in a CFR1065 Dilution Tunnel

Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Correlation Study Using Linear Regression of PM and NOX for Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles

When heavy-duty truck emissions rates are expressed in distance-specific units (such as g/mile), average speed and the degree of transient behavior of the vehicle activity can affect the emissions rate. Previous one-dimensional studies have shown some correlation of distance-specific emissions rates between cycles. This paper reviews emissions data sets from the 5-mode CARB Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Schedule, the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and an inspection and maintenance cycle, known as the AC5080. A heavy-duty chassis dynamometer was used for emissions characterization along with a full-scale dilution tunnel. The vehicle test weights were simulated at 56,000 lbs. Two-dimensional correlations were used to predict the emissions rate on one mode or cycle from the rates of two other modes or cycles.
Technical Paper

Measurement of In-Use, On-Board Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles:Mobile Emissions Measurement System

Emissions tests for heavy-duty diesel-fueled vehicles are normally performed using an engine dynamometer or a chassis dynamometer. Both of these methods generally entail the use of laboratory-grade emissions measurement instrumentation, a CVS system, an environment control system, a dynamometer, and associated data acquisition and control systems. The results obtained from such tests provide a means by which engines may be compared to the emissions standards, but may not be truly indicative of an engine's in-vehicle performance while operating on the road. An alternative to such a testing methodology would be to actively record the emissions from a vehicle while it was operating on-road. A considerable amount of discussion has been focused on the development of on-road emissions measurement systems (OREMS) that would provide for such in-use emissions data collection.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation

The key to overcoming Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations is based on suitable control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The proposed alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel, with different autoignition characteristics, is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this paper that the secondary fuel is produced using Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR) with steam/fuel reforming. The steam/fuel mixture is heated by sensible heat from the engine exhaust gases in the recuperative reformer, where the original hydrocarbon reacts with water to form a hydrogen rich gas mixture. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for n-heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures.
Technical Paper

Influences of Real-World Conditions on In-Use Emission from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

The 1998 Consent Decrees between the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States Government require the engine manufacturer to perform in-use emissions testing to evaluate their engine designs and emissions when the vehicle is placed into service. This additional requirement will oblige the manufacturer to account for real-world conditions when designing engines and engine control algorithms and include driving conditions, ambient conditions, and fuel properties in addition to the engine certification test procedures. Engine operation and ambient conditions can be designed into the engine control algorithm. However, there will most likely be no on-board determination of fuel properties or composition in the near future. Therefore, the engine manufacturer will need to account for varying fuel properties when developing the engine control algorithm for when in-use testing is performed.
Technical Paper

Inference of Torque and Power from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines for On-Road Emissions Monitoring

Increased concerns about the emissions produced from mobile sources have placed an emphasis on the in-use monitoring of on- and off-road vehicles. Measuring the emissions emitted from an in-use vehicle during its operation provides for a rich dataset that is generally too expensive and too time consuming to reproduce in a laboratory setting. Many portable systems have been developed and implemented in the past to acquire in-use emissions data for spark ignited and compression ignited engines. However, the majority of these systems only measured the concentration levels of the exhaust constituents and or reported the results in time-specific (g/s) and or distance-specific (g/km) mass units through knowledge of the exhaust flow. For heavy-duty engines, it is desirable to report the in-use emission levels in brake-specific mass units (g/kW-hr) since that is how the emission levels are reported from engine dynamometer certification testing.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure Characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch and Conventional Diesel Fuels in a Heavy Duty CI Engine

The emissions reduction benefits of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel have been shown in several recent published studies in both engine testing and in-use vehicle testing. FT diesel fuel shows significant advantages in reducing regulated engine emissions over conventional diesel fuel primarily to: its zero sulfur specification, implying reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions, its relatively lower aromaticity, and its relatively high cetane rating. However, the actual effect of FT diesel formulation on the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of unmodified modern heavy-duty diesel engines is not well documented. As a result, a Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine, instrumented for in-cylinder pressure measurement, was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to steady-state emissions measurement using both conventional Federal low sulfur pump diesel and a natural gas-derived FT fuel.
Technical Paper

Heat Release and Emission Characteristics of B20 Biodiesel Fuels During Steady State and Transient Operation

Biodiesel fuels benefit both from being a renewable energy source and from decreasing in carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to petroleum diesel. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from biodiesel blended fuels reported in the literature vary relative to baseline diesel NOx, with no NOx change or a NOx decrease found by some to an increase in NOx found by others. To explore differences in NOx, two Cummins ISM engines (1999 and 2004) were operated on 20% biodiesel blends during the heavy-duty transient FTP cycle and the steady state Supplemental Emissions Test. For the 2004 Cummins ISM engine, in-cylinder pressure data were collected during the steady state and transient tests. Three types of biodiesel fuels were used in the blends: soy, tallow (animal fat), and cottonseed. The FTP integrated emissions of the B20 blends produced a 20-35% reduction in PM and no change or up to a 4.3% increase in NOx over the neat diesel.
Journal Article

Fundamental Analysis of Spring-Varied, Free Piston, Otto Engine Device

Conventional crank-based engines are limited by mechanical, thermal, and combustion inefficiencies. The free piston of a linear engine generator reduces frictional losses by avoiding the rotational motion and crankshaft linkages. Instead, electrical power is generated by the oscillation of a translator through a linear stator. Because the free piston is not geometrically constrained, dead center positions are not specifically known. This results in a struggle against adverse events like misfire, stall, over-fueling, or rapid load changes. It is the belief that incorporating springs will have the dual benefit of increasing frequency and providing a restoring force to aid in greater cycle to cycle stability. For dual free piston linear engines the addition of springs has not been fully explored, despite growing interest and literature.