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Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0433
A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Journal Article

Summary of In-use NOx Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1298
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

2002-10-21
2002-01-2873
A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Sampling Strategies for Characterization of the Reactive Components of Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1994-11-01
942262
Techniques have been developed to sample and speciate dilute heavy duty diesel exhaust to determine the specific reactivities and the ozone forming potential. While the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) has conducted a comprehensive investigation to develop data on potential improvements in vehicle emissions and air quality from reformulated gasoline and various other alternative fuels. However, the development of sampling protocols and speciation of heavy duty diesel exhaust is still in its infancy [1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6]. This paper focuses on the first phase of the heavy duty diesel speciation program, that involves the development of a unique set of sampling protocols for the gas phase, semi-volatile and particulate matter from the exhaust of engines operating on different types of diesel fuel. Effects of sampling trains, sampling temperatures, semi-volatile adsorbents and driving cycles are being investigated.
Technical Paper

Research Approach for Aging and Evaluating Diesel Lean-NOx Catalysts

2001-09-24
2001-01-3620
The goal of the Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) program was to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emissions control devices that could lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks and buses. West Virginia University (WVU) performed evaluations of lean-NOx catalysts to determine the effects of fuel sulfur content on emissions reduction efficiency and catalyst durability in the first 250 hours of operation. A Cummins ISM370 engine (10.8 liter, 370 horsepower), typical of heavy -duty truck applications, was utilized to evaluate high-temperature lean-NOX catalyst while a Navistar T444E (7.3 liter, 210 horsepower), typical of medium-duty applications, was used to evaluate low-temperature catalyst. Catalysts were evaluated periodically during the first 250 hours of exposure to exhaust from engines operated on 3ppm, 30ppm, 150ppm and 350ppm sulfur content diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Energy Pathways and Gas Exchange of a Small Port Injection SI Two-Stroke Natural Gas Engine Operating on Different Exhaust Configurations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1278
This paper examines the energy pathways of a 29cc air-cooled two-stroke engine operating on natural gas with different exhaust geometries. The engine was operated at wide-open-throttle at a constant speed of 5400 RPM with ignition adjusted to yield maximum brake torque while the fueling was adjusted to examine both rich and lean combustion. The exhaust configurations examined included an off-the-shelf (OTS) model and two other custom models designed on Helmholtz resonance theory. The custom designs included both single and multi-cone features. Out of the three exhaust systems tested, the model with maximum trapping efficiency showed a higher overall efficiency due to lower fuel short-circuiting and heat transfer. The heat transfer rate was shown to be 10% lower on the new designs relative to OTS model.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

2007-01-23
2007-01-0060
Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
Technical Paper

On-Road Use of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Blends

1999-04-27
1999-01-2251
Alternative compression ignition engine fuels are of interest both to reduce emissions and to reduce U.S. petroleum fuel demand. A Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch gas-to-liquid fuel was compared with California #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from over the road Class 8 tractors with Caterpillar 3176 engines, using a chassis dynamometer and full scale dilution tunnel. The 5-Mile route was employed as the test schedule, with a test weight of 42,000 lb. Levels of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were reduced by an average of 12% and particulate matter (PM) by 25% for the Fischer-Tropsch fuel over the California diesel fuel. Another distillate fuel produced catalytically from Fischer-Tropsch products originally derived from natural gas by Mossgas was also compared with 49-state #2 diesel by characterizing emissions from Detroit Diesel 6V-92 powered transit buses, three of them equipped with catalytic converters and rebuilt engines, and three without.
Technical Paper

Nitric Oxide Conversion in a Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0234
Understanding the nitric oxide (NO) conversion process plays a major role in optimizing the Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) technique. SNR has been proven in gasoline and diesel engines, with up to 90% NOX conversion rates being achieved. This technique involves adsorbing NOX from an exhaust stream, then selectively desorbing the NOX into a concentrated NOX stream, which is fed back into the engine's intake, thereby converting a percentage of the concentrated NOX stream into harmless gases. The emphasis of this paper is on the unique chemical kinetic modeling problem that occurs with high concentrations of NOX in the intake air of a spark ignited natural gas engine with SNR. CHEMKIN, a chemical kinetic solver software package, was used to perform the reaction modeling. A closed homogeneous batch reactor model was used to model the fraction of NOX versus time for varying initial conditions and constants.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of an Over-the-Road Truck

2010-10-05
2010-01-2001
Heavy-duty trucks are an important sector to evaluate when seeking fuel consumption savings and emissions reductions. With fuel costs on the rise and emissions regulations becoming stringent, vehicle manufacturers find themselves spending large amounts of capital improving their products in order to be compliant with regulations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkits (PSAT), developed by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is a simulation tool that helps mitigate costs associated with research and automotive system design. While PSAT has been widely used to predict the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of conventional and hybrid light-duty vehicles, it also may be employed to test heavy-duty vehicles. The intent of this study was to develop an accurate model that predicts emissions and fuel economy for heavy-duty vehicles for use within PSAT.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4074
The key to overcoming Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations is based on suitable control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The proposed alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel, with different autoignition characteristics, is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this paper that the secondary fuel is produced using Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR) with steam/fuel reforming. The steam/fuel mixture is heated by sensible heat from the engine exhaust gases in the recuperative reformer, where the original hydrocarbon reacts with water to form a hydrogen rich gas mixture. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for n-heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures.
Technical Paper

Interim Results from Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

1999-05-03
1999-01-1505
The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. Currently, the project has four sites: Raley's in Sacramento, CA (Kenworth, Cummins L10-300G, liquefied natural gas - LNG); Pima Gro Systems, Inc. in Fontana, CA (White/GMC, Caterpillar 3176B Dual-Fuel, compressed natural gas - CNG); Waste Management in Washington, PA (Mack, Mack E7G, LNG); and United Parcel Service in Hartford, CT (Freightliner Custom Chassis, Cummins B5.9G, CNG). This paper summarizes current data collection and evaluation results from this project.
Technical Paper

Initial Investigations of a Novel Engine Concept for Use with a Wide Range of Fuel Types

1992-02-01
920057
The recent oil crisis has once again emphasized the need to develop both fuel efficient engines and alternately fueled engines, particularly for automotive applications. Engines which burn coal or coal pyrolysis products are attractive, but ignition delay and metal erosion problems continue to limit high speed operation of such engines. Further, the throttled spark ignition engine often used with methanol and natural gas does not prove an efficient or tolerant device for the combustion of a wide range of fuel. Therefore, an novel approach must be taken in order to achieve the efficient and flexible operation of such an engine. A novel design of a fuel tolerant engine suitable for burning coal fuels separates the combustion from the piston in order to have more careful flame control and to exclude the particulate matter from the engine's piston rings.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Combustion Pressure Characteristics of Fischer-Tropsch and Conventional Diesel Fuels in a Heavy Duty CI Engine

1999-05-03
1999-01-1472
The emissions reduction benefits of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel have been shown in several recent published studies in both engine testing and in-use vehicle testing. FT diesel fuel shows significant advantages in reducing regulated engine emissions over conventional diesel fuel primarily to: its zero sulfur specification, implying reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions, its relatively lower aromaticity, and its relatively high cetane rating. However, the actual effect of FT diesel formulation on the in-cylinder combustion characteristics of unmodified modern heavy-duty diesel engines is not well documented. As a result, a Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine, instrumented for in-cylinder pressure measurement, was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to steady-state emissions measurement using both conventional Federal low sulfur pump diesel and a natural gas-derived FT fuel.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Diesel-Electric Heavy Duty Bus Emissions: Benefits Of Regeneration And Need For State Of Charge Correction

2000-10-16
2000-01-2955
Hybrid diesel electric buses offer the advantage of superior fuel economy through use of regenerative braking and lowered transient emissions by reducing the need of the engine to follow load as closely as in a conventional bus. With the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), five Lockheed Martin-Orion hybrid diesel-electric buses were operated on the West Virginia University Transportable Laboratory in Brooklyn, New York. The buses were exercised through a new cycle, termed the Manhattan cycle, that was representative of today's bus use as well as the accepted Central Business District Cycle and New York Bus Cycle. Emissions data were corrected for the state of charge of the batteries. The emissions can be expressed in units of grams/mile, grams/axle hp-hr and grams/gallon fuel. The role of improved fuel economy in reducing oxides of nitrogen relative to conventional automatic buses is evident in the data.
Technical Paper

Heat Release and Emission Characteristics of B20 Biodiesel Fuels During Steady State and Transient Operation

2008-04-14
2008-01-1377
Biodiesel fuels benefit both from being a renewable energy source and from decreasing in carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to petroleum diesel. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from biodiesel blended fuels reported in the literature vary relative to baseline diesel NOx, with no NOx change or a NOx decrease found by some to an increase in NOx found by others. To explore differences in NOx, two Cummins ISM engines (1999 and 2004) were operated on 20% biodiesel blends during the heavy-duty transient FTP cycle and the steady state Supplemental Emissions Test. For the 2004 Cummins ISM engine, in-cylinder pressure data were collected during the steady state and transient tests. Three types of biodiesel fuels were used in the blends: soy, tallow (animal fat), and cottonseed. The FTP integrated emissions of the B20 blends produced a 20-35% reduction in PM and no change or up to a 4.3% increase in NOx over the neat diesel.
Journal Article

Fundamental Analysis of Spring-Varied, Free Piston, Otto Engine Device

2014-04-01
2014-01-1099
Conventional crank-based engines are limited by mechanical, thermal, and combustion inefficiencies. The free piston of a linear engine generator reduces frictional losses by avoiding the rotational motion and crankshaft linkages. Instead, electrical power is generated by the oscillation of a translator through a linear stator. Because the free piston is not geometrically constrained, dead center positions are not specifically known. This results in a struggle against adverse events like misfire, stall, over-fueling, or rapid load changes. It is the belief that incorporating springs will have the dual benefit of increasing frequency and providing a restoring force to aid in greater cycle to cycle stability. For dual free piston linear engines the addition of springs has not been fully explored, despite growing interest and literature.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2005-10-24
2005-01-3769
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

2019-10-22
2019-01-2599
The design optimization and control of Free Piston Linear Engine (FPLE) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alters the alternator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPLE system necessitates an energy balance control algorithm with high-speed dynamic response for stable operation and perhaps optimized system efficiency. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the alternator. This energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor to control the crankshaft rotational speed in a conventional crankshaft driven engine. In addition to that, when stiff springs are added to the FPLE system, the dynamics becomes more sinusoidal and more consistent with increasing spring stiffness.
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