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Technical Paper

Transient Response in a Dynamometer Power Absorption System

In order to obtain meaningful analyses of exhaust gas emissions and fuel economy for a heavy duty vehicle from a chassis dynamometer, the accurate simulation of road load characteristics is crucial. The adjusted amount of power to be absorbed by the chassis dynamometer during road driving of the tested vehicle needs to be calculated. In this paper, the performance of the chassis dynamometer under transient load cycle operations is discussed and the transient response of the power absorption system is presented. In addition, the design criteria of the chassis dynamometer used to test heavy duty vehicles under steady and transient load is described.
Technical Paper

The Linear Engine in 2004

This study summarizes the work that has been done on the linear engine since it's invention. It attempts to highlight some of the major technologies, designs, and old and recent developments in the long history of the linear engine. In this paper, linear engines are grouped and studied from different standpoints such as internal or external combustion, 2-stroke vs. 4-stroke, number and arrangement of pistons, fuel type, the type of the machine the linear engine drives, depth of investigation, and the complexity of modeling the linear engine. This paper concludes that although simulation of the linear engine has been done with varying complexity and accuracy by several research groups and prototypes have run showing experimental results that predict higher efficiency for the linear engine than that of conventional engines, much work has to be done before the linear engine becomes commercially available.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Sinusoidal Piston Motion on the Thermal Efficiency of Engines

A new technique of translating linear to rotary motion, using the Stiller- Smith mechanism, can be applied to the design of internal combustion engines and compressors. This new mechanism produces purely sinusoidal motion of the pistons relative to crank angle, which is a different motion from that produced by a conventional slider-crank mechanism, Influence of this sinusoidal motion on thermodynamic performance of engines and compressors was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Data are presented from a numerical analysis of compression and of spark-ignited combustion. Also, pressure-time curves for a standard and a modified (long connecting rod) spark ignition engine are compared. All data confirm that there is little thermodynamic difference between the Stiller-Smith and slider-crank devices.
Technical Paper

Study on the Use of Springs in a Dual Free Piston Engine Alternator

The free piston engine combined with a linear electric alternator has the potential to be a highly efficient converter from fossil fuel energy to electrical power. With only a single major moving part (the translating rod), mechanical friction is reduced compared to conventional crankshaft technology. Instead of crankshaft linkages, the motion of the translator is driven by the force balance between the engine cylinder, alternator, damping losses, and springs. Focusing primarily on mechanical springs, this paper explores the use of springs to increase engine speed and reduce cyclic variability. A numeric model has been constructed in MATLAB®/Simulink to represent the various subsystems, including the engine, alternator, and springs. Within the simulation is a controller that forces the engine to operate at a constant compression ratio by affecting the alternator load.
Technical Paper

Speed and Power Regressions for Quality Control of Heavy Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Research

When performing a transient test on a heavy-duty engine as outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), defined regression values of engine speed, torque and power must meet specific tolerances for the test to be considered valid. Regression of actual engine feedback data against target points from a schedule defined from an engine map is performed using the method of least squares to determine the slope, intercept, coefficient of regression and standard error of the estimate. To minimize the biasing effects of time lag between actual and schedule data, shifting of the data in the time domain prior to analysis and certain point deletions are permitted. There are presently no regression criteria available for heavy duty chassis testing. This leaves facilities performing these chassis tests with no suitable guidelines to validate individual tests. This study applies the regression analysis used in engine testing to chassis testing and examines the difficulties encountered.
Journal Article

Resonance of a Spring Opposed Free Piston Engine Device

Recent free piston engine research reported in the literature has included development efforts for single and dual cylinder devices through both simulation and prototype operation. A single cylinder, spring opposed, oscillating linear engine and alternator (OLEA) is a suitable architecture for application as a steady state generator. Such a device could be tuned and optimized for peak efficiency and nominal power at unthrottled operation. One of the significant challenges facing researchers is startup of the engine. It could be achieved by operating the alternator in a motoring mode according to the natural system resonant frequency, effectively bouncing the translator between the spring and cylinder, increasing stroke until sufficient compression is reached to allow introduction of fuel and initiation of combustion. To study the natural resonance of the OLEA, a numeric model has been built to simulate multiple cycles of operation.
Technical Paper

Piston Motion and Ignition Delay: Details on Coal-Based Fuel Injection and Effects of Mass Leakage

In a recent study the present authors showed that piston motion in a compression ignition engine can have a small yet significant effect on ignition delay of diesel fuel. In particular, sinusoidal piston motion, or a motion with high dwell near top-dead-center, promotes reduced delay and improved cold starting relative to conventional slider-crank piston motion. This paper extends the analysis to the case of coal-diesel and coal-methanol blends, using experimental data from the thesis available in the literature. Ignition delay was shown again to be reduced with sinusoidal motion. In addition, the effect of piston motion on mass loss was considered. As expected, higher dwell near top-dead-center caused more mass loss, but there is still benefit to ignition delay of unusual piston motions unless the coefficient of leakage past the rings is very large.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Two-Stroke Linear Engine-Alternator Combination

Series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require power-plants that can generate electrical energy without specifically requiring rotary input shaft motion. A small-bore working prototype of a two-stroke spark ignited linear engine-alternator combination has been designed, constructed and tested and has been found to produce as much as 316W of electrical energy. This engine consists of two opposed pistons (of 36 mm diameter) linked by a connecting rod with a permanent magnet alternator arranged on the reciprocating shaft. This paper presents the numerical modeling of the operation of the linear engine. The piston motion of the linear engine is not mechanically defined: it rather results from the balance of the in-cylinder pressures, inertia, friction, and the load applied to the shaft by the alternator, along with history effects from the previous cycle. The engine computational model combines dynamic and thermodynamic analyses.
Technical Paper

Models for Predicting Transient Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions

Heavy duty engine emissions represent a significant portion of the mobile source emissions inventory, especially with respect to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. West Virginia University (WVU) has developed an extensive database of continuous transient gaseous emission levels from a wide range of heavy duty diesel vehicles in field operation. This database was built using the WVU Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratories. Transient driving cycles used to generate the continuous data were the Central Business District cycle (CBD), 5-peak WVU test cycle, WVU 5-mile route, and the New York City Bus cycle (NYCB). This paper discusses continuous emissions data from a transit bus and a tractor truck, each of them powered by a Detroit Diesel 6V-92 engine. Simple correlational models were developed to relate instantaneous emissions to instantaneous power at the drivewheels.
Technical Paper

Measurement Delays and Modal Analysis for a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory

Concern over atmospheric pollution has led to the development of testing procedures to evaluate the hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions from internal combustion engines. In order to perform emissions testing on vehicles, a chassis dynamometer capable of simulating expected driving conditions must be employed. West Virginia University has developed a Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory to perform chassis testing on trucks and buses. Emissions from the vehicle are monitored and recorded over the duration of a testing schedule. Usually the vehicle emissions from the whole test are reported as mass of emissions per unit distance driven. However, there is interest in relating the instantaneous emissions to the immediate conditions at specific points in the test, and in determining the emissions for discrete segments of the test (modal analysis).
Technical Paper

Ideal Computer Analysis of a Novel Engine Concept

A novel engine concept, currently under study, addresses many of the problems commonly associated with conventional internal combustion engines. In its simplest form the novel engine consists of a single crankshaft operating both a piston compressor and a piston expander which are connected by a continuous flame combustion chamber. One might regard this as a Brayton piston engine which is similar to a previous engine investigated by Warren. Also, due to the use of piston cylinders as the compression and expansion devices, this engine varies little mechanically from current engine technology thus allowing for easy implementation. The main improvement from conventional engine design is that the expansion cylinder can have a larger displacement than that of the compression cylinder. This allows more power to be extracted by lowering the loss due to blowdown and this will increase the thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper


Concern over health effects associated with diesel exhaust and debate over the influence of high number counts of particles in diesel exhaust prompted research to develop a methodology for diesel particulate matter (PM) characterization. As part of this program, a tractor truck with an electronically managed diesel engine and a dynamometer were installed in the Old Dominion University (ODU) Langley full-scale wind tunnel. This arrangement permitted repeat measurements of diesel exhaust under realistic and reproducible conditions and permitted examination of the steady exhaust plume at multiple points. Background particle size distribution was characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). In addition, a remote sampling system consisting of a SMPS, PM filter arrangement, and carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer, was attached to a roving gantry allowing for exhaust plume sampling in a three dimensional grid. Raw exhaust CO2 levels and truck performance data were also measured.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Analysis of a Linear Two-Cylinder Internal Combustion Engine

Linear, crankless, internal combustion engines may find application in the generation of electrical power without the need to convert linear to rotary motion. The elimination of the connecting rod and crankshaft would significantly improve the efficiency of the engine and the reduced weight and cost is an added advantage. The case of two opposed cylinders, with two pistons linked by a solid rod, was considered for idealized modeling. The piston/rod assembly was considered to oscillate with only constant frictional drag. The Otto cycle was used to model efficiency, and this in turn determined compression ratio. Dimensionless groups governing the engine working were identified and used in formulating a description of the engine behavior. Two-stroke operation was assumed. Velocity and position can be related analytically to yield a phase plot.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Trucks using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. An overview of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel production and engine emissions testing is presented. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T diesel is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial exhaust emissions reductions can be realized. The authors have performed preliminary tests to assess the real-world performance of F-T diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks. Seven White-GMC Class 8 trucks equipped with Caterpillar 10.3 liter engines were tested using F-T diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Southern California

Few real-world data exist to describe the contribution of diesel vehicles to the emissions inventory, although it is widely acknowledged that diesel vehicles are a significant contributor to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in Southern California. New data were acquired during the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, designed to collect emissions data for source profiling of PM emissions from diesel- and gasoline-powered engines in the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin in 2001. Regulated gases, PM and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured from 34 diesel vehicles operating in the Southern California area. Two were transit buses, 16 were trucks over 33,000 lbs. in weight, 8 were 14,001 lbs. to 33,000 lbs. in weight and 8 were under 14,001 lbs. in weight. The vehicles were also grouped by model year for recruiting and data analysis.
Technical Paper

Emissions Testing of a Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus

The fuel cell bus program at Georgetown University (GU) has directed the operational development and testing of three hybrid fuel cell powered buses for transit operation. These are the world's first liquid-fueled, fuel cell powered road vehicles. This paper describes the emissions testing of one of these buses on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer at West Virginia University (WVU). The tested bus was driven by a 120 kW DC motor and utilized a 50 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) as an energy source with a 100 kW battery for supplemental power. A methanol/water fuel mixture was converted by a steam reformer to a hydrogen rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell stack. Emissions from the reformer, fuel cell stack and startup burner were monitored for both transient and steady-state operation.
Journal Article

Effect of Combustion Timing and Heat Loss on Spring-Assisted Linear Engine Translator Motion

The free piston linear engine has the potential to achieve high efficiency and might serve as a viable platform for robust implementation of low temperature combustion schemes (such as homogeneous charge compression ignition - HCCI) due to its ability to vary compression and stroke in response to cylinder and load events. A major challenge is control of the translator motion. Lack of geometric constraint on the piston leads to uncertainty about its top dead center position and timing. While combustion control depends on knowledge of the piston motion, the combustion event also affects the motion profile of the piston. To advance understanding of this coupled system, a numeric model was developed to simulate multiple cycles of a dual cylinder, spring assisted, 2-stroke HCCI, free piston linear engine generator.
Technical Paper

Diesel and CNG Transit Bus Emissions Characterization by Two Chassis Dynamometer Laboratories: Results and Issues

Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses. It was observed that by varying the rapidity of pedal movement during accelerations in the Central Business District cycle (CBD), CO and PM emissions from the diesel buses could be varied by a factor of three or more.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Energy Consumption by a Chassis Dynamometer

The federal emission standards for heavy duty vehicle engines require the exhaust emissions to be measured and calculated in unit form as grams per break horse-power-hour (g/bhp-hr). Correct emission results not only depend on the precise emission measurement but also rely on the correct determination of vehicle energy consumption. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratory (THDVETL) designed and constructed at West Virginia University provides accurate vehicle emissions measurements in grams over a test cycle. This paper contributes a method for measuring the energy consumption (bhp-hr) over the test cycle by a chassis dynamometer. Comparisons of analytical and experimental results show that an acceptable agreement is reached and that the THDVETL provides accurate responses as the vehicle is operated under transient loads and speeds. This testing laboratory will have particular value in comparing the behavior of vehicles operating on alternative fuels.
Technical Paper

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Class-8 Heavy-duty Diesel Truck Tested in a Wind Tunnel

In an effort to develop engine/vehicle test methods that will reflect real-world emission characteristics, West Virginia University (WVU) designed and conducted a study on a Class-8 tractor with an electronically controlled diesel engine that was mounted on a chassis dynamometer in the Old Dominion University Langley full-scale wind tunnel. With wind speeds set at 88 km/hr in the tunnel, and the tractor operating at 88 km/hr on the chassis dynamometer, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was employed for measuring PM size distributions and concentrations. The SMPS was housed in a container that was attached to a three-axis gantry in the wind tunnel. Background PM size-distributions were measured with another SMPS unit that was located upstream of the truck plume. Ambient temperatures were recorded at each of the sampling locations. The truck was also operated through transient tests with vehicle speeds varying from 65 to 88 km/hr, with a wind speed of 76 km/hr.