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Technical Paper

Two–Dimensional Imaging of Formaldehyde Formed During the Ignition Process of a Diesel Fuel Spray

The time of, and location where ignition first occurs in a diesel fuel spray were investigated in a rapid compression machine (RCM) using the two–dimensional techniques of silicone oil particle scattering imaging (SSI), and the planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde has been hypothesized to be one of the stable intermediate species marking the start of oxidation reactions in a transient spray under compression ignition conditions. In this study, the LIF images of the formaldehyde formed in a diesel fuel spray during ignition process have been successfully obtained for the first time by exciting formaldehyde with the 3rd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. SSI images of the vaporizing spray, and the LIF images of formaldehyde were obtained together with the corresponding time record of combustion chamber pressures at initial ambient temperatures ranging from 580 K to 790 K.
Technical Paper

The Research about Thermal Stratification Effect on Pressure Rise Rate in Supercharged HCCI Engine based on Numerical Analysis

The HCCI engine is a next generation engine, with high efficiency and low emissions. However a rate of pressure rise is a major limitation for high load range. Recently, we are able to reduce the rate of pressure rise using thermal stratification. Nevertheless, this was insufficient to produce high power. Without the higher equivalent ratio, one way to improve the power is to increase the intake boost pressure. It is suggested that the rate of pressure rise is reduced by thermal stratification and the power is increased by boost pressure at the same time. The objective of this work is to understand the characteristics of combustion, knock and emissions for using both thermal stratification and the boost pressure. The calculations are performed by CHEMKIN and modified SENKIN. As a result of increasing the boost pressure, a higher IMEP was attained while the rate of pressure rise increased only slightly in the HCCI with thermal stratification.
Technical Paper

The Research about Engine Optimization and Emission Characteristic of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Natural Gas and Diesel

CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Composition on Ignition Delay and Knocking in Lean Burn SI Engine

Super lean burn technology is conceived as one of methods for improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines[1][2]. For lean burn, reduction of heat loss and the due to decrease in flame temperature can be expected. However, as the premixed gas dilutes, the combustion speed decreases, so the combustion fluctuation between cycles increases. Also, to improve the thermal efficiency, the ignition timing is advanced to advance the combustion phase. However, when the combustion phase is excessively advanced, knocking occurs, which hinders the improvement of thermal efficiency. Knocking is a phenomenon in which unburned gas in a combustion chamber compressed by a piston and combustion gas suffer compression auto-ignition. It is necessary to avoid knocking because the amplitude of the large pressure wave may cause noise and damage to the engine. Also, knocking is not a steady phenomenon but a phenomenon that fluctuates from cycle to cycle.
Technical Paper

Surrounding Gas Effects on Soot Formation and Extinction - Observation of Diesel Spray Combustion Using a Rapid Compression Machine

A single action rapid compression machine was developed to observe the soot formation and oxidation processes in a diesel spray flame. Two color method was applied to analyze the flame temperature and KL factor from the flame image taken by high speed camera. Variation in gas oxygen concentration of the surrounding gas was achieved by adding different quantities of pure oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and argon gases to charged air within a range from 17 to 25 vol.% oxygen to examine the effects of the surrounding gas composition and the temperature, and of the flame temperature on soot formation and extinction. The initial gas temperature has much effect not only on the ignition but on soot formation speed. The higher oxygen concentration gives the higher flame temperature and the faster soot oxidation rate in the flame. Carbon dioxide has a soot reduction effect in spite of its lower flame temperature.
Technical Paper

Study on Local Air Pollution Caused by NOx from Diesel Freight Vehicle

An on-board measurement system that simultaneously measures road traffic, vehicle running conditions and exhaust emissions was installed in a diesel freight vehicle with two tons payload. Actual NOx mass emissions were compared with that measured in a typical test mode for urban cities on a chassis dynamometer. The frequency of vehicle accelerations in actual urban cities was found to exceed that of a typical test mode for urban cities on a chassis dynamometer, which resulted in increased NOx from actual running conditions compared with the typical test mode for urban cities. The dynamics of NOx emissions at an actual roadside was also analyzed. It was observed that NOx emission based on distance with an actual city route test was about two times higher than that of a free way route and a typical test mode for urban cities. The reason for high NOx with the city route was explained by the higher frequency of lower gears at which higher NOx is emitted.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Particulate Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel Engine using a Freezing Method in Sampling Process

Reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engine is an important theme from the view point of air pollution. Experiments were carried out using a four-stroke single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. A new method to measure diesel particulates has been developed. Particulates were sampled with a freezing method just behind an exhaust valve and examined through a scanning electron microscope. Shape and structure of particulates and the size distributions are measured under wide operating conditions obtained with above method. The total mass of particulate emissions was measured using a dilution tunnel sampling system. The heat release processes were analyzed using indicator diagrams and the relation between burning condition and particulate emissions were discussed, after systematic experiments under constant revolution speed of 2000 r/min for several load and injection timing conditions.
Technical Paper

Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Mechanism of HCCI Engine

In the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine, a mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the cylinder and auto-ignition occurs resulting from compression. This method can expand the lean flammability limit, realizing smokeless combustion and also having the potential for realizing low NOx and high efficiency. The optimal ignition timing is necessary in order to keep high thermal efficiency. The Ignition in the HCCI engine largely depends on the chemical reaction between the fuel and the oxidizer. Physical methods in conventional engines cannot control it, so a chemical method is demanded. Combustion duration is maintained properly to avoid knocking. In addition, the amount of HC and CO emissions must be reduced. The objective of this study is to clarify the following through calculations with detailed chemical reactions and through experiment with the 2-stroke HCCI engine: the chemical reaction mechanism, and HC and CO emission mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of SI-HCCI Transition in a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine Fuelled with Propane

A simulation study was conducted to examine the transition from SI combustion to HCCI combustion in a two-stroke free piston engine fuelled with propane. Operation of the free piston engine was simulated based on the combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. The dynamic model included an analysis of the piston motion, based on Newton's second law. The linear alternator model included an analysis of electromagnetic force, which was considered to be a resistance force for the piston motion. The thermodynamic model was used to analysis thermodynamic processes in the engine cycle, including scavenging, compression, combustion, and expansion processes. Therein, the scavenging process was assumed to be a perfect process. These mathematical models were combined and solved by a program written in Fortran.
Technical Paper

Potential of Stratification Charge for Reducing Pressure-Rise Rate in HCCI Engines Based on Multi-Zone Modeling and Experiments by using RCM

The charge stratification has been thought as one of the ways to reduce the sharp pressure rises of HCCI combustion. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications for reducing pressure-rise rate of HCCI combustion. Using rapid compression machine, the stratified pre-mixture is charged, and compressed to analyze the change of in-cylinder gas pressure and temperature traces during compression process. Based on the experiment results, numerical calculations by CHEMKIN are conducted to more specifically analyze the potential of equivalence ratio, initial temperature, and EGR gas stratifications on the reduction of pressure rise rate. Multi-zone model is used to simulate the thermal stratification, fuel stratification and EGR gas stratification of in-cylinder charge as like real engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Auto-Ignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixtures in a 4 Stroke HCCI Engine by Using Elementary Reactions

HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is expected to a new engine to be high efficiency and low emission. But it is difficult to control ignition timing and combustion duration, because ignition and combustion mainly depend on oxidation process of fuel. In this study, the focus is to clear the combustion mechanism of auto-ignition engine. By calculating chemical kinetics of elementary reactions, effects of compression speed, equivalence ratio, initial temperature and compression ratio on auto-ignition were investigated. And also, behaviors of chemical species under auto-ignition process were cleared.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of a Potential of Dedicated EGR System for Increasing Thermal Efficiency of SI Engines Fueled with Methane and Propane

This study tried to find a potential of dedicated EGR (d-EGR) system added to the four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine to decrease heat loss (Qheatloss) and improve thermal efficiency (ηth). Test fuels were chosen by methane and propane. PREMIX code in CHEMKIN-PRO was employed to calculate laminar burning velocity (SL) and flame temperature (Tf). Wiebe function and Wocshni's heat transfer coefficient were considered to calculate ηth. The results show that the d-EGR system increased ηth and it was higher than that of stoichiometric combustion of conventional SI engines due to the low Tf and fast SL.
Technical Paper

Numerical Assessment of Controlling the Interval between Two Heat-Release Peaks for Noise Reduction in Split-injection PCCI Combustion

In PCCI combustion with multiple injections, the mechanism having two heat release peaks which has a favorable characteristic of reducing noise is studied using numerical tool of single- and also multi-zone model of CHEMKIN PRO. In the present investigation, the physical issues, such as variations in the equivalent ratio and temperature caused by the fuel injection are simplified first so that the key issues of chemical reaction occurred in the combustion chamber can be extracted and are discussed in detail. The results show that the interval of two heat-release peaks can be controlled and as the number of zones of the calculation increases, the change in the timing of a heat release peak is increased but over three-zones, it is not affected any more. This indicates that to study about complex diesel combustion phenomena, three-to four-zone model shall give sufficiently accurate results.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Auto Ignition and Combustion of n-Butane and Air Mixture in the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine by Using Elementary Reactions

The combustion mechanism of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine has been investigated by numerical calculations. Calculations were carried out using n-butane/air elementary reactions at 0 dimension and adiabatic condition to simplify the understanding of chemical reaction mechanisms in the HCCI engine without complexities of walls, crevices, and mixture inhomogeneities. n-Butane is the fuel with the smallest carbon number in the alkane family that shows two-stage auto-ignition, heat release with low temperature reaction (LTR) and high temperature reaction (HTR), similar to higher hydrocarbons such as gasoline at HCCI combustion. The CHEMKIN II code, SENKIN and kojima's n-butane elementary reaction scheme were used for the calculations. This paper consists of three main topics. First, the heat release mechanisms of the HCCI engine were investigated. The results show that heat release with LTR is HCHO oxidation reactions.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Combustion Control of a HCCI Engine using External EGR and the Exhaust Rebreathed

To approach realization of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion without external combustion ignition trigger, it is necessary to construct HCCI engine control system. In this study, HCCI research engine equipped with the EGR passage for external EGR and the two-stage exhaust cam for exhaust rebreathed. This system can control the mixing ratio of four gases (air, fuel, rebreathed EGR gas, external EGR gas) of in-cylinder by operating four throttles and fuel injection duration while maintaining acceptable pressure rise rate (PRR) and cycle-to-cycle variation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), closed-loop control system designed by applying feedback variables (equivalence ratio, combustion-phasing, IMEP) for feedback control. Those control inputs (four throttles and fuel injection) has correlation mutually, control inputs cause interference, response become low and hunching occurs.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis of Influence of Engine Speed on HCCI Combustion by using Numerical Calculation

In HCCI Engine, HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the Influence of engine speed was showed. And then, In order to clarified the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetics computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux Flowing Into Metallic and Ceramic Combustion Chamber Walls

Accurate measurements of combustion gas temperature and the coefficient of heat transfer between the gas and the combustion chamber wall of internal combustion engine in cyclic operations are difficult at present. Hence the only method available for determination of states of thermal load and heat loss to the combustion chamber wall in a cycle is to measure the instantaneous temperature on the combustion chamber wall surface accurately and precisely using proper thin-film thermocouples, then to calculate the instantanenous heat flux flowing into the wall surface by means of numerical analysis. However, it is necessary to pay adequate attention to the effects of thermophysical properties of the thermocouple materials on the measured values, since any thermocouple consists of several kinds of materials which are different from those of portions to be measured.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Turbulent Flow in a High-Tumble SI Engine

The thermal efficiency of a spark-ignition (SI) engine must be improved to reduce both environmental load and fuel consumption. Although lean SI engine operation can strongly improve thermal efficiency relative to that of stoichiometric SI operation, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion increases with the air dilution level. Combustion CCV is caused by CCVs of many factors, such as EGR, spark energy, air-fuel ratio, and in-cylinder flow structure related to engine speed. This study focuses on flow structures, especially the influence of a tumble structure on flow fluctuation intensity near ignition timing. We measured the flow field at the vertical center cross section of an optically accessible high-tumble flow engine using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. There are many factors considered to be sources of CCV, we analyzed three factors: the intake jet distribution, distribution of vortex core position and trajectory of the fluid particle near the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Influence of Pilot Injection on Combustion Characteristics and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and DME

This work experimentally investigates how the dwell time between pilot injection and main injection influences combustion characteristics and emissions (NOx, CO, THC and Smoke) in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. Additionally, results from diesel injection are compared with those shown in dimethyl ether (DME) injection under the identical injection strategy to demonstrate the sensitivity of the combustion characteristics and emissions to changes of the fuel type. Two fuel injection systems are applied for this experiment due to the differences of fuel characteristic with regard to physical and chemical properties. The injection strategy is accomplished by varying the dwell time (10°CA, 16°CA and 22°CA) between injections at five main injection timings (-4°CA aTDC, -2°CA aTDC, TDC, 2°CA aTDC and 4°CA aTDC). It was found that pilot injection offers good potential to lower the heat-release rate with reduced pressure traces regardless of the dwell time between injections and fuel type.
Technical Paper

Influence of Compression Speed on HCCI Ignition and Combustion

In HCCI Engine, the HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to the engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the influence of engine speed was showed. And then, in order to clarify the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetic computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.