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Technical Paper

The Research about Engine Optimization and Emission Characteristic of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Natural Gas and Diesel

2012-10-23
2012-32-0008
CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine is using CNG as a main fuel, and injects diesel only a little as an ignition priming. In this study, remodeling an existing diesel engine into dual-fuel engine that can inject diesel with high pressure by CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection), and injecting CNG at intake port for premixing. The results show that CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine satisfied coordinate torque and power with conventional diesel engine. And CNG alternation rate is over 89% in all operating ranges of CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine. PM emission is lower 94% than diesel engine, but NOx emission is higher than diesel engine. The output of dual fuel mode is 95% by the diesel mode. At this time, amount of CO₂ and PM are decreased while CO, NOx, and THC are increased. In NEDC mode, exhaust gases except NOx are decreased.
Technical Paper

Study on Auto-Ignition and Combustion Mechanism of HCCI Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0095
In the HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine, a mixture of fuel and air is supplied to the cylinder and auto-ignition occurs resulting from compression. This method can expand the lean flammability limit, realizing smokeless combustion and also having the potential for realizing low NOx and high efficiency. The optimal ignition timing is necessary in order to keep high thermal efficiency. The Ignition in the HCCI engine largely depends on the chemical reaction between the fuel and the oxidizer. Physical methods in conventional engines cannot control it, so a chemical method is demanded. Combustion duration is maintained properly to avoid knocking. In addition, the amount of HC and CO emissions must be reduced. The objective of this study is to clarify the following through calculations with detailed chemical reactions and through experiment with the 2-stroke HCCI engine: the chemical reaction mechanism, and HC and CO emission mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of a Potential of Dedicated EGR System for Increasing Thermal Efficiency of SI Engines Fueled with Methane and Propane

2015-09-01
2015-01-1883
This study tried to find a potential of dedicated EGR (d-EGR) system added to the four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine to decrease heat loss (Qheatloss) and improve thermal efficiency (ηth). Test fuels were chosen by methane and propane. PREMIX code in CHEMKIN-PRO was employed to calculate laminar burning velocity (SL) and flame temperature (Tf). Wiebe function and Wocshni's heat transfer coefficient were considered to calculate ηth. The results show that the d-EGR system increased ηth and it was higher than that of stoichiometric combustion of conventional SI engines due to the low Tf and fast SL.
Technical Paper

Influence of Pilot Injection on Combustion Characteristics and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and DME

2011-08-30
2011-01-1958
This work experimentally investigates how the dwell time between pilot injection and main injection influences combustion characteristics and emissions (NOx, CO, THC and Smoke) in a single-cylinder DI diesel engine. Additionally, results from diesel injection are compared with those shown in dimethyl ether (DME) injection under the identical injection strategy to demonstrate the sensitivity of the combustion characteristics and emissions to changes of the fuel type. Two fuel injection systems are applied for this experiment due to the differences of fuel characteristic with regard to physical and chemical properties. The injection strategy is accomplished by varying the dwell time (10°CA, 16°CA and 22°CA) between injections at five main injection timings (-4°CA aTDC, -2°CA aTDC, TDC, 2°CA aTDC and 4°CA aTDC). It was found that pilot injection offers good potential to lower the heat-release rate with reduced pressure traces regardless of the dwell time between injections and fuel type.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature-Pressure Time History on Auto-Ignition Delay of Air-Fuel Mixture

2018-09-10
2018-01-1799
When the compression ratio of the spark ignition engine is set high as a method of improving the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, it is often combined with the direct fuel injection system for knock mitigation. In port injection, there are also situations where the fuel is guided into the cylinder while the vaporization is insufficient, especially at the cold start. If the fuel is introduced into the cylinder in a liquid state, the temperature in the cylinder will change due to sensible heat and latent heat of the fuel during vaporization. Further, if the fuel is unevenly distributed in the cylinder, the effect of the specific heat is added, and the local temperature difference is expanded through the compression process. In this research, an experiment was conducted using a rapid compression machine for the purpose of discussing the effect of the temperature-pressure time history of fuel on ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Diameter and EGR Ratio on the Flame Temperature and Soot Formation for Various Fuels

2001-05-07
2001-01-1939
In this study, effects of nozzle hole diameter and EGR ratio on flame temperature (indication of NO formation) and KL value (indication of soot formation) were investigated. Combustion of a single diesel fuel spray in the cylinder of a rapid compression machine (RCM) was analyzed. Three nozzles with different hole diameter were used corresponding to present, near term and long term heavy duty diesel engine specifications. EGR was simulated through 2%vol. CO2 addition to the inlet air and by increase of in-cylinder surrounding gas temperature. Various types of fuels were used in this. The ignition and combustion processes of diesel fuel spray were observed by a high-speed direct photography and by indicated pressure diagrams. Flame temperature and KL factor were analyzed by a two-color method. With larger nozzle hole diameters there are larger high temperature areas. With smaller nozzle hole diameters there is more soot formed. Introduction of 2% vol.
Technical Paper

Effect of Degree of Unmixedness on HCCI Combustion Based on Experiment and Numerical Analysis

2006-11-13
2006-32-0046
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of in-cylinder gas temperature stratification on reducing the pressure-rise rate in HCCI combustion. HCCI combustion was investigated using an optically accessible engine and direct visualization of the combustion chemiluminescence. The engine was fueled with Di-Methyl Ether. Computational work was conducted on the gas compression and expansion strokes in HCCI engine with simple 0-dimensinal multi-zones model. When fuel inhomogeneous charging in experiment, maximum heat release rate decreased. Combustion duration got longer. Maximum pressure-rise rate decreased. Chemiluminescence, of which transition was identified from the side of intake valve to the side of exhaust valve, was observed. It is need for total moderate heat release to get local moderate combustion with not overall but continuous combustion in chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of the Control System Using EGR for the HCCI Engine Running on DME

2005-10-12
2005-32-0062
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine attracts much attention because of its high thermal efficiency and low NOx, PM emissions. On the other hand, Di-Methyl Ether (DME) is expected as one of alternative fuel for the internal combustion engines. In this study, four-stroke HCCI engine running on DME is developed to make it realistic application in production engines. This paper shows construction of the control method using both internal EGR at high temperature and external EGR at low temperature and estimates the performance of developed HCCI engine. Besides combustion characteristics of DME and the effects of EGR are researched with experiment and numerical calculation with elementary reactions. As a result, developed HCCI engine got comparable high thermal efficiency to conventional diesel engine but much lower Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) than that. Meanwhile it can be said that DME is suitable fuel for the HCCI engines in combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Natural Gas in a Four Stroke HCCI Engine Using Experiment and Elementary Reactions Calculation

2003-03-03
2003-01-1089
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is regarded as the next generation combustion regime in terms of high thermal efficiency and low emissions. It is difficult to control autoignition and combustion because they are controlled primarily by the chemical kinetics of air/fuel mixture. In this study, it was investigated the characteristics of autoignition and combustion of natural gas in a four-stroke HCCI engine using experiment and elementary reactions calculation. The influence of equivalence ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure and engine speed on autoignition timing, autoignition temperature, combustion duration and the emissions of THC, CO, CO2 were investigated. And also, to clarify the influence of n-butane on autoignition and combustion of natural gas, it was changed the blend ratio of n-butane from 0 mol% to 10 mol% in methane / n-butane / air mixtures.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Methanol-Fueled Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) Engine Using a Spectroscopic Observation

1994-03-01
940684
To analyze the combustion mechanism of the so-called Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) in a two-stroke S.I. engine, a measuring system to obtain images of radical luminescence in the combustion chamber was developed. The ATAC engine tested was equipped with a quartz windows as the cylinder head. The instantaneous luminescence from radical species was observed using an image intensifier with a single band pass filter for both conventional and ATAC operating conditions. At ATAC operation, emissions from OH radicals were observed before heat release began, and after that, emissions from CH were observed. It was found that the ignition was initiated over the entire area of the combustion chamber and “bulk-like” and/or “non propagating” combustion occurred during ATAC engine operation.
Journal Article

Closed-Loop Combustion Control of a HCCI Engine with Re-Breathing EGR System

2013-10-15
2013-32-9069
This study experimentally investigates the control system and the algorithm after constructing a HCCI combustion control system for the development of a small HCCI engine fuelled with Dimethyl Ether (DME). This system can control four throttles for the mixing ratio of three gases of in-cylinder (stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas). At first, the combustion behavior for combustion phasing retarded operation with cold and hot EGR was examined. Then, the potential of model-based and feed back control for HCCI combustion with change of the demand of IMEP was investigated. In the end, the limit of combustion-phasing retard for IMEP and PRR was explored. Results shows that to get high IMEP with acceptable PRR and low coefficient of variation of IMEP, crank angle of 50% heat release (CA50) should be controlled at constant phasing in the expansion stroke. CA50 can be controlled by changing the ratio of pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas with throttles.
Technical Paper

Basic Research on the Suitable Fuel for HCCI Engine From the Viewpoint of Chemical Reaction

2005-04-11
2005-01-0149
In this study, attention was paid to the method of mixing fuel to solve one of problems of the HCCI engine, which is the avoidance of knocking. The objectives of the work reported in this paper were to research the characteristics of HCCI combustion of the Methane/DME/air pre-mixture in the experiment and to check the oxidation reaction in two cases: when DME was used as an ignition accelerator for the Methane/air pre-picture, and when Hydrogen was used as ignition accelerator. Furthermore, from these results reference was made about basic specifications required fuel for an HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Auto-Ignition and Combustion of n-Butane and DME/Air Mixtures in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1832
Auto-ignition, which is observed in homogeneous and premixed charge compression ignition engines, allows expansion of the lean flammability limit of engine operation and realization of stable ignition and combustion over a range of ultra-lean conditions, where NOx emissions are very low. In this study, the basic combustion mechanism of auto-ignition and combustion was studied with initial mixture temperatures and compression speeds for n-butane and dimethyl ether. A single-mode type heat release process was observed with n-butane in the homogeneous charge compression ignition test engine.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the combustion dispersion mechanism in HCCI Engine

2009-11-03
2009-32-0086
Delaying CA50(Crank Angle of 50% Heat Release) of the HCCI engine to expansion stroke can lead to high indicated thermal efficiency as well as the avoidance of knocking. However, this method could induce the problem of cycle variability. In this study, the cycle-to-cycle variation of a HCCI engine fueled with DME was investigated. Experimental parameters of each cycle, such as in-cylinder temperature, pressure and gas flow rate, were recorded by fast response system, and analyzed consequently. Moreover, the interdependency between the combustion and the performance parameters were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effect of Charge Inhomogeneity on HCCI Combustion by Chemiluminescence Measurement

2004-06-08
2004-01-1902
In the HCCI Engine, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution and temperature in the pre-mixture exists microscopically, and has the possibility of affecting the ignition and combustion process. In this study, the effect of charge inhomogeneity in fuel distribution on the HCCI combustion process was investigated. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured by using a framing camera with an optically accessible engine in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. DME was used as a test fuel. By changing a device for mixing air and fuel in the intake manifold, inhomogeneity in fuel distribution in the pre-mixture was varied. The result shows that luminescence is observed in a very short time in a large part of the combustion chamber under the homogeneous condition, while luminescence appears locally with considerable time differences under the inhomogeneous condition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of DME Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

2003-05-19
2003-01-1825
The characteristics of auto-ignition of DME/Air mixture in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine were investigated by numerical calculation with elementary reactions and experiment. Calculations were carried out using Di-Methyl Ether (DME) elementary reactions at 0 dimension and adiabatic condition. DME is paid attention as the alternative fuel of next generation because of its possibility to take the place of conventional fossil fuels. DME has good characteristics of auto-ignition and combustion with low flame temperature, and makes no soot because of its molecular structure. In autoignition process, DME shows two-stage combustion, heat release with low temperature reaction (LTR) and high temperature reaction (HTR). This characteristic is similar to higher hydrocarbons such as gasoline in auto-ignition process. In this study, analysis of HCCI combustion of DME/Air mixture was carried out by using numerical calculation and comparing with experimental results.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Auto-Ignition of Fuel-Air Mixture Induced by Release of Oil-Fuel Droplets from Cylinder-Liner Using Multi-Zone Model

2014-11-11
2014-32-0094
This study investigated effects of gas inhomogeneity induced by droplets of fuels and oils on the auto ignition timing and temperature in the direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engine by means of detailed numerical calculation using multi zone model. Recent researchers pointed out that droplets are made of fuels and oils which mix on the cylinder liner and released from the cylinder liner [1]. During the compression stroke released droplets reach the auto ignition temperature before flame propagation induced by spark ignition. It is called Pre-ignition. In combustion chamber, there is inhomogeneity caused by temperature and mixture distribution. In this study, the effects of gas inhomogeneity produced by droplet on the auto ignition timing and temperature have been investigated using Multi-Zone model of CHEMKIN-PRO by changing initial temperature and initial equivalence ratio. Especially, the volume of first ignition zone is focused on.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on DME HCCI Engine about Combustion Phase Control using EGR Stratification by Numerical Analysis

2012-10-23
2012-32-0077
This work has been investigated the potential of in-cylinder EGR stratification for reducing the pressure rise rate of DME HCCI engines, and the coupling of both thermal stratification and fuel stratification. The numerical analyses were done by using five-zone version of CHEMKIN-II kinetics rate code, and kinetic mechanics for DME. The effects of inert components were used for the presence of EGR in calculation. Three cases of EGR stratification were tested on both thermal stratification and fuel stratification at the fixed initial temperature, pressure and fueling rate at BDC. In order to explore the appropriate stratification of EGR, EGR width was employed from zero to thirty percent. Firstly, EGR homogeneity case which means EGR width zero was examined. Secondly, EGR is located densely in hotter zone for combining with thermal stratification or in richer zone for a combination with fuel stratification. Lastly, the case was judged inversely with the second case.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Thermal Stratification on HCCI Combustion by using Rapid Compression Machine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1870
A significant drawback to HCCI engines is the knocking caused by rapid increases in pressure. Such knocking limits the capacity for high-load operation. To solve this problem, thermal stratification in the combustion chamber has been suggested as possible solution. Thermal stratification has the potential to reduce the maximum value of the rate of pressure increase combustion by affecting the local combustion start time and extending the duration of combustion. The purpose of this study was to experimentally obtain fundamental knowledge about the effect of thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion process. Experiments were conducted in a rapid compression machine (RCM) equipped with a quartz window to provide optical access to the combustion chamber. The machine was fueled with DME, n-Butane, n-Heptane and iso-Octane, all of which are currently being investigated as alternative fuels and have different low temperature characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Combustion Control Using EGR for Small and Light HCCI Engine Fuelled with DME

2007-07-23
2007-01-1876
The HCCI engine could offer low NOx, PM emissions and high efficiency. However the operation region of the HCCI combustion is limited because of the knocking at high load and the misfire at low load. Moreover the HCCI principle lacks direct combustion control and needs a system to control the combustion phasing with high accuracy. Today there exists various ways to control the HCCI combustion, such as Variable Valve Train, Variable Compression Ratio, Inlet Air Heating and Dual Fuels. However such variable mechanisms and Inlet Air Heating tend to be heavy and complex. Dual Fuels method needs two types of fuels and has a challenge in infrastructure. In this study, in order to develop a small and light HCCI engine, a simple HCCI combustion control system is proposed. DME (Di-methyl Ether) is used as the fuel to keep the structure small and light. In this system, the mixing ratio of three gases: stoichiometric pre-mixture, hot EGR gas and cold EGR gas is changed by only throttles.
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