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Technical Paper

Studying Local Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Creating Phi-T Maps

New measurements have been done in order to obtain information concerning the effect of EGR and a paraffinic hydrotreated fuel for the smoke and NO emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Measured smoke number and NO emissions are explained using detailed chemical kinetic calculations and CFD simulations. The local conditions in the research engine are analyzed by creating equivalence ratio - temperature (Phi-T) maps and analyzing the CFD results within these maps. The study uses different amount of EGR and two different diesel fuels; standard EN590 diesel fuel and a paraffinic hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). The detailed chemical kinetic calculations take into account the different EGR rates and the properties of the fuels. The residence time in the kinetical calculations is used to explain sooting combustion behavior within diesel combustion. It was observed that NO emission trends can be well captured with the Phi-T maps but the situation is more difficult with the engine smoke.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Visualization of Natural Luminosity and Chemiluminescence of Dual Fuel Combustion in an Optically Accessible Engine

The engine fueled with methane/diesel is a promising and highly attractive operation mode due to its high performance-to-cost ratio and clean-burning qualities. However, the combustion process and chemical reactions in dual fuel combustion are highly complex, involving short transient pilot-fuel injection into the premixed gaseous fuel charge, autoignition, and combustion mode transition into premixed flame propagation. The motivation of the current investigation is to gain an insight into the combustion dynamics in dual fuel combustion engine based on chemical radicals and thermal radiation. The chemiluminescence (CL) and natural luminosity (NL) are expected to provide specific characteristics in combustion control and monitoring. To visualize the highly unsteady combustion process in terms of OH*, CH2O* radicals and natural luminous emissions, the band pass filters with 308 nm, 330 nm combined with an image doubler are employed to visualize the OH* and CH2O* CL simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Relating Integral Length Scale to Turbulent Time Scale and Comparing k-ε and RNG k-ε Turbulence Models in Diesel Combustion Simulation

A modified version of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time combustion model and the Hiroyasu-Magnussen soot model have been implemented in the flow solver Star-CD. Combustion simulations of three DI diesel engines, utilizing the standard k-ε turbulence model and a modified version of the RNG k-ε turbulence model, have been performed and evaluated with respect to combustion performance and emissions. Adjustments of the turbulent characteristic combustion time coefficient, which were necessary to match the experimental cylinder peak pressures of the different engines, have been justified in terms of non-equilibrium turbulence considerations. The results confirm the existence of a correlation between the integral length scale and the turbulent time scale. This correlation can be used to predict the combustion time scale in different engines.
Journal Article

Real Gas Effects in High-Pressure Engine Environment

Real gas effects are studied during the compression stroke of a diesel engine. Several different real gas models are compared to the ideal gas law and to the experimental pressure history. Comparisons are done with both 1-D and CFD simulations, and reasons and answers are found out for the observed differences between simulations and experimental data. The engine compression ratio was measured for accurate model predictions. In addition, a 300bar extreme pressure case is also analyzed with the real gas model since an engine capable for this performance level is currently being built at the Aalto University School of Science and Technology. Real gas effects are even more important in these extreme conditions than in normal operating pressures. Finally, it is shown that the predicted pressure history during an engine compression stroke by a real gas model is more accurately predicted than by the ideal gas law.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in a Medium-Speed Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine using Miller Cycle with Very Advanced Valve Timing

The objective of this study is to achieve high reduction of NOx emissions in a medium-speed single-cylinder research engine. The main feature of this research engine is that the gas exchange valve timing is completely adjustable with electro-hydraulic actuators. The study is carried out at high engine load and using a very advanced Miller valve timing. Since the engine has no turbocharger, but a separate charge air system, 1-D simulations are carried out to find the engine setup, which would be close to the operating points of a real engine. The obtained NOx reduction is over 40% with no penalty in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Impact of Alternative Fuel Properties on Light Vehicle Engine Performance and Greenhouse Gases Emissions

The present-day transport sector needs sustainable energy solutions. Substitution of fossil-fuels with fuels produced from biomass is one of the most relevant solutions for the sector. Nevertheless, bringing biofuels into the market is associated with many challenges that policymakers, feedstock suppliers, fuel producers, and engine manufacturers need to overcome. The main objective of this research is an investigation of the impact of alternative fuel properties on light vehicle engine performance and greenhouse gases (GHG). The purpose of the present study is to provide decision-makers with tools that will accelerate the implementation of biofuels into the market. As a result, two models were developed, that represent the impact of fuel properties on engine performance in a uniform and reliable way but also with very high accuracy (coefficients of determination over 0.95) and from the end-user point of view.
Technical Paper

Liquid Spray Data from an Optical Medium-Speed Diesel Engine and Its Comparison with CFD

Experimental spray tip penetrations obtained from a large-bore medium-speed optical diesel engine were compared to CFD simulations. The optical spray results are unique as they are obtained from a running large-bore (200mm) diesel engine. The experimental spray tip penetration measurements were obtained during the early spray development period when the spray evaporation had not yet reached the quasi steady-state phase. The CFD simulations were conducted in both static chamber environment and in engine conditions. The fuel injection boundary conditions were obtained from 1-D simulations. Within the error margins associated with the experimental and computational data, relatively good accuracy was obtained between measured and simulated spray tip penetration. It was also observed that it is very important to have accurate fuel injection mass flow rate data. This was observed after a sensitivity analysis was made for the injection duration and fuel mass quantity.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of the Intake Flow in a Realistic Single Cylinder Configuration

The present paper focuses on gaining a deeper understanding about the turbulent flow inside an engine cylinder using large eddy simulation. While the main motivation of the current study is to gain a deeper understanding of the flow patterns and especially about the swirl, the background motivation of this study is the development and testing of suitable methods for the large eddy simulation of combustion engines and the validation of the used simulation methodology. In particular, we study the swirl and other flow features generated by the intake jets inside the cylinder. The simulated geometry is the Sisu Diesel 84 engine cylinder where the exhaust valves are closed and the intake valves have constant valve lifts. Furthermore, the piston has been removed so that the flow is able to exit from the opposite end of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

LES and RNG Turbulence Modeling in DI Diesel Engines

The one-equation subgrid scale model for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence model has been compared to the popular k-ε RNG turbulence model in very different sized direct injection diesel engines. The cylinder diameters of these engines range between 111 and 200 mm. This has been an initial attempt to study the effect of LES in diesel engines without any modification to the combustion model being used in its Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) form. Despite some deficiencies in the current LES model being used, it already gave much more structured flow field with approximately the same kind of accuracy in the cylinder pressure predictions than the k-ε RNG turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Multiple Fuel Sprays in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This paper aims to study numerically the influence of the number of fuel sprays in a single-cylinder diesel engine on mixing and combustion. The CFD simulations are carried out for a heavy-duty diesel engine with an 8 hole injector in the standard configuration. The fuel spray mass-flow rate was obtained from 1D-simulations and has been adjusted according to the number of nozzle holes to keep the total injected fuel mass constant. Two cases concerning the modified mass-flow rate are studied. In the first case the injection time was decreased whereas in the second case the nozzle hole diameter was decreased. In both cases the amount of nozzle holes (i.e. fuel sprays) was increased in several steps to 18 holes. Quantitative analyses were performed for the local air-fuel ratio, homogeneity of mixture distribution, heat release rate and the resulting in-cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Field of a Diesel Engine

The flow through the valves of an engine cylinder head is very complex in nature due to very high gas velocities and strong flow separation. However, it is also the typical situation in almost every engine related flow. In order to gain better understanding of the flow features after the cylinder head, and to gain knowledge of the performance level that can be expected from CFD analysis, flow field measurements and computations were made in an engine rig. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and paddle wheel measurements have been conducted in a static heavy-duty diesel engine rig to characterize the flow features with different valve lifts and pressure differences. These measurements were compared with CFD predictions of the same engine. The simulations were done with the standard k-ε turbulence model and with the RNG turbulence model using the Star-CD flow solver.
Technical Paper

Improving the Accuracy of 1-D Fuel Injection Modeling

In this study, one-dimensional fluid dynamics simulation software was utilized in producing common rail diesel fuel injection for varying injection parameters with enhanced accuracy. Injection modeling refinement is motivated by improved comprehension of the effects of various physical phenomena within the injector. In addition, refined injection results yield boundary conditions for three-dimensional CFD simulations. The criteria for successful simulation results were evaluated upon experimental test run data that have been reliably obtained, primarily total injected mass per cycle. A common rail diesel fuel delivery system and its core mechanics were presented. System factors most critical to fuel delivery were focalized. Models of two solenoid-type common rail injectors of different physical sizes and applications were enhanced.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection System Simulation with Renewable Diesel Fuels

Renewable diesel-type fuels and their compatibility with a single-cylinder medium-speed research diesel engine were studied. The report consists of a literature study on the fuels, introduction of the simulation model designed and simulations made, and of the results and summary sections. The fuels studied were traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuels and dimethyl ether (DME). According to the simulations, the behaviors of different renewable diesel fuels in the fuel injection system are quite similar to one another, with the greatest deviations found with DME. The main differences in the physical properties are fuel densities and viscosities and especially with DME compressibility, which have some predictable effect. The chemical properties of the fuels are more critical for a common rail fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Turbulence Boundary Conditions to CFD Simulation

The CFD simulation of diesel combustion needs as accurate initial values as possible to be reliable. In this paper the effect of spatial distribution of state and turbulence values at intake valve closure to those distributions prior to SOI is studied. Totally five cases of intake and compression stroke simulations are run. The only change between cases is the intake boundary condition of turbulence. In the last case the average values of p, T, k, ε and swirl number at intake valve closure are used as initial values to compression simulation. The turbulence in the engine cylinder is mainly generated in the very fast flow over the intake valves. In this paper the effect of boundary conditions of turbulence to its level at intake valve closure is studied. Several cases are simulated with different boundary conditions of turbulence. Also the swirl number is compared to experimental value.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Channel Design to Cylinder Charge and Initial Swirl

Two different medium-speed diesel engine cylinder head designs have been studied. The focus of the study has been the effect of intake channel design in the in-cylinder flow. The study has been carried out by CFD. The first cylinder head is a standard Wärtsilä 20 cylinder head and the second one is a specially designed head for a single cylinder research engine, called Extreme Value Engine (EVE). The CFD boundary conditions have been simulated by the help of a 1-d simulation code. In the full load cases the maximum cylinder pressure was 300 bar. Simulations have been done at lower load level too. One simulation with the new cylinder head was carried out with one intake valve closed in order to get an idea of the swirl to be generated by this approach. In the study the in-cylinder flow field, the cylinder charge and turbulence kinetic energy have been examined.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Combustion Characterization on Lean Conditions and High Loads

Dual-fuel technology is suggested as a solution for effectively utilizing alternative fuel types in the near future. Charge air mixed methane combined with a compression ignition engine utilizing a small diesel pilot injection seems to form a worthwhile compromise between good engine efficiency and low emission outcome. Problems concerning dual-fuel technology profitableness seems to be related to fully control the combustion in relation to lean conditions. Lean operating conditions solves the problems concerning pumping losses, but brings challenges in controlling the slow heat release of the premixed methane-air mixture. In the present work, a single cylinder ‘free parameter’ diesel engine was adapted for dual-fuel (diesel-methane) usage. A parameter study related to lambda window widening possibilities was carried out.
Technical Paper

Conjugate Heat Transfer in CI Engine CFD Simulations

The development of new high power diesel engines is continually going for increased mean effective pressures and consequently increased thermal loads on combustion chamber walls close to the limits of endurance. Therefore accurate CFD simulation of conjugate heat transfer on the walls becomes a very important part of the development. In this study the heat transfer and temperature on piston surface was studied using conjugate heat transfer model along with a variety of near wall treatments for turbulence. New wall functions that account for variable density were implemented and tested against standard wall functions and against the hybrid near wall treatment readily available in a CFD software Star-CD.
Technical Paper

Computational Considerations of Fuel Spray Mixing in an HCCI Operated Optical Diesel Engine

Fuel spray mixing has been analyzed numerically in a single-cylinder optical research engine with a flat piston top. In the study, a narrow spray angle has been used to align the sprays towards the piston top. Fuel spray mass flow rate has been simulated with 1-D code in order to have reliable boundary condition for the CFD simulations. Different start of fuel injections were tested as well as three charge air pressures and two initial mixture temperatures. Quantitative analysis was performed for the evaporation rates, mixture homogeneity at top dead center, and for the local air-fuel ratios. One of the observations of this study was that there exists an optimum start of fuel injection when the rate of spray evaporation and the mixture homogeneity are considered.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Single-Step and Two-Step Chemistry in a Compression Ignition Free Piston Engine

The focus of this paper is to compare results from 3D combustion simulations when using either a single-step or a two-step description of the chemistry of combustion in a two stroke free piston diesel engine. To reduce the computational cost, only one sector of the whole cylinder is computed, i.e. one fuel spray. The simulation starts after the exhaust ports are closed and ends before the exhaust ports opening. The fuel injection is described by a Lagrangian method where the break up and interaction of the droplets are taken into account as well as droplet wall interaction and evaporation. Turbulence is modeled using the standard high Reynolds number k-ε model. The combustion of fuel vapor is modeled by the the Eddy Dissipation Combustion Model (EDCM). In the case of two-step chemistry, the combustion of CO is taken into account. The kinetic rate of CO combustion is determined from a global expression.
Technical Paper

Comparing Single-Step and Multi-Step Chemistry Using The Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion Model In Two Diesel Engines

Three-dimensional diesel engine combustion simulations with single-step chemistry have been compared with two-step and three-step chemistry by means of the Laminar and Turbulent Characteristic Time Combustion model using the Star-CD program. The second reaction describes the oxidation of CO and the third reaction describes the combustion of H2. The comparisons have been performed for two heavy-duty diesel engines. The two-step chemistry was investigated for a purely kinetically controlled, for a mixing limited and for a combination of kinetically and mixing limited oxidation. For the latter case, two different descriptions of the laminar reaction rates were also tested. The best agreement with the experimental cylinder pressure has been achieved with the three-step mechanism but the differences with respect to the two-step and single-step reactions were small.