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Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Heat Release Modeling Framework for Gasoline Compression-Ignition Engines with Multiple Injection Events

2019-09-09
2019-24-0083
A zero-dimensional heat release model was developed for compression ignition engines. This type of model can be utilized for parametric studies, off-line optimization to reduce experimental efforts as well as model-based control strategies. In this particular case, the combustion model, in a simpler form, will be used in future efforts to control the combustion in compression ignition engines operating on gasoline-like fuels. To allow for a realistic representation of the in-cylinder combustion process, a spray model has been employed to allow for the quantification of fuel distribution as well as turbulent kinetic energy within the injection spray. The combustion model framework is capable of reflecting premixed as well as mixing controlled combustion. Fuel is assigned to various combustion events based on the air-fuel mixture within the spray.
Technical Paper

Transient Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions Analysis of a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Pick-up Truck

2006-10-16
2006-01-3430
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers. There are several challenges that must be overcome in order to establishing a “hydrogen economy”, including the development of a practical, efficient, and cost-effective power conversion device. Using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a huge step toward developing a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. This paper summarizes the testing of a hydrogen powered pick-up truck on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle is powered by a port-injected 8-cylinder engine with an integrated supercharger and intercooler. The 4-wheel drive chassis dynamometer is equipped with a hydrogen delivery, metering and safety system as well as hydrogen specific instrumentation. This instrumentation includes numerous sensors, includes a wide-band lambda sensor and an exhaust gas hydrogen analyzer. This analyzer quantifies the amount of unburned hydrogen in the exhaust indicating the completeness of the combustion.
Journal Article

Time-Resolved X-Ray Radiography of Spark Ignition Plasma

2016-04-05
2016-01-0640
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. Light emission can be used to measure an average temperature, but micron spatial resolution is required to make localized measurements.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines in a Future Mobility Scenario

2003-06-23
2003-01-2267
Focus is pointed on the highly favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) with regard to its combustion characteristics in internal combustion engines. Thereby it will be shown in how far the performance of next generation hydrogen engines can be improved by implementing a direct fuel injection system instead of the conventional port injection approach. Results from numerical as well as from experimental investigations will be used to clearly give a vision of the overall future potential of hydrogen for combustion engines in comparison to fuel cell systems.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Blending Hydrogen with Methane on Engine Operation, Efficiency, and Emissions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0474
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane blends (5% and 20% methane [by volume] in hydrogen equal to 30% and 65% methane [by mass] in hydrogen) and compare them to those of pure hydrogen as a reference. The study confirms that only minor adjustments in spark timing and injection duration are necessary for an engine calibrated and tuned for operation on pure hydrogen to run on hydrogen/methane blends.
Journal Article

Study of Basic Injection Configurations using a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1418
The application of hydrogen (H2) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for fuel cells as well as IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The potential of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can be optimized by direct injection (DI) as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently the engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. This paper studies a single-hole nozzle and examines the effects of injection strategy on engine efficiency, combustion behavior and NOx emissions. The experiments for this study are done on a 0.5 liter single-cylinder research engine which is specifically designed for combustion studies and equipped with a cylinder head that allows side as well as central injector location.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2000-06-19
2000-01-1890
A computational optimization study is performed for a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine using the recently developed KIVA-GA computer code. KIVA-GA performs full cycle engine simulations within the framework of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness is determined using a one-dimensional gas -dynamics code for calculation of the gas exchange process, and a three-dimensional CFD code based on KIVA-3V for spray, combustion and emissions formation. The performance of the present Genetic Algorithm is demonstrated using a test problem with a multi-modal analytic function in which the optimum is known a priori. The KIVA-GA methodology is next used to simultaneously investigate the effects of six engine input parameters on emissions and performance for a high speed, medium load operating point for which baseline experimental validation data is available.
Technical Paper

Prospects on Fuel Economy Improvements for Hydrogen Powered Vehicles

2008-10-06
2008-01-2378
Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field

1999-03-01
1999-01-0496
To model sprays from pressure-swirl atomizers, the connection between the injector and the downstream spray must be considered. A new model for pressure-swirl atomizers is presented which assumes little knowledge of the internal details of the injector, but instead uses available observations of external spray characteristics. First, a correlation for the exit velocity at the injector exit is used to define the liquid film thickness. Next, the film must be modeled as it becomes a thin, liquid sheet and breaks up, forming ligaments and droplets. A linearized instability analysis of the breakup of a viscous, liquid sheet is used as part of the spray boundary condition. The spray angle is estimated from spray photographs and patternator data. A mass averaged spray angle is calculated from the patternator data and used in some of the calculations.
Technical Paper

Predictions of Residual Gas Fraction in IC Engines

1996-10-01
962052
It is well known that the accuracy of simulations of combustion processes in diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines depends on the initial conditions within the cylinder at intake valve closure (IVC). Residual gas affects the engine combustion processes through its influence on charge mass, temperature and dilution. In SI engines, there is little oxygen in the residual gas, and thus the dilution effect on flame propagation is more significant than in compression ignited (CI) engines. However, in CI engines, the ignition delay depends strongly on the in-cylinder gas temperature, which is proportional to the gas temperature at IVC. Furthermore, ignition delay is significantly affected by how much oxygen is present, which is also partly determined by the residual gas fraction. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to determine residual gas concentrations accurately.
Technical Paper

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Evaluation of a Supercharged, Hydrogen-Powered, 4-Cylinder Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0016
This paper presents the results of efficiency, emissions, and performance testing of a supercharged, hydrogen-powered, four-cylinder engine. Tests were run at various speeds, loads, and air/fuel ratios in order to identify advantageous operating regimes. The tests revealed that a maximum thermal brake efficiency of 37% could be achieved and that certain operating regimes could achieve NOx emissions as low as 1 ppm without aftertreatment. Measurement of cylinder pressure traces in all four cylinders allowed a detailed assessment of cylinder-cylinder deviation. Several measures to further increase hydrogen engine performance in order to reach the goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy are being discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

2014-10-13
2014-01-2694
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Thermal Efficiency of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with E85 Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0557
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NOx and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high temperature combustion with reduced amounts of EGR appears more practical. Previous studies with 93 AKI gasoline demonstrated that the port and direct injection strategy exhibited the best performance, but the premature combustion event prevented further increase in the premixed gasoline fraction and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0675
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

2016-04-05
2016-01-0870
This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Combustion in a Lean Burn Gasoline Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0029
This research effort focuses on lean-burn combustion in gasoline internal combustion engines. Gasoline is largely known to be characterized by narrow flammability range, which makes the use of ultra-lean mixtures very challenging. In order to fully explore the gasoline lean burn potential, a promising strategy should combine advanced intake geometries, injection strategies, and ignition technologies. In this paper, a CFD methodology is developed in order to provide proper insight into lean-burn gasoline combustion. A baseline homogenous/lean case is analyzed and numerical results are validated against engine data. Two critical issues are addressed. First, a relatively large detailed mechanism is validated against the experimental data for extreme operating conditions (low pressure values, lean mixtures). The large cycle-to-cycle variation characterizing lean combustion is shown experimentally.
Technical Paper

Multi-dimensional Modeling of Non-equilibrium Plasma for Automotive Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0198
While spark-ignition (SI) engine technology is aggressively moving towards challenging (dilute and boosted) combustion regimes, advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma are being considered by the automotive industry as a potential replacement for the conventional spark-plug technology. However, there are currently no models that can describe the low-temperature plasma (LTP) ignition process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are typically used in the multi-dimensional engine modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the plasma characteristics. A key challenge is also represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Mode Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Combustion Chamber Geometry for Low Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0958
The present study extends the recently developed KIVA-GA computer code to incorporate a generalized piston bowl geometry parameterization and multi-mode optimization. The new code was used to optimize the combustion chamber geometry of a small-bore automotive Diesel engine. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) merit function, which was calculated with a modified version of the KIVA-3V engine simulation code, included NOx, unburned HC, soot, and fuel consumption. A novel parameterization was included in KIVA-GA that allows for a variable number of parameters to define the bowl shape. The in-house G-Smooth grid generation package was used to create the KIVA grids with a specified compression ratio and mesh resolution. The improved KIVA-GA methodology was used to optimize engine emissions and performance simultaneously for two operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Spray Liquid Length and Flame Lift-off Length using CFD and Parallel Detailed Chemistry

2003-03-03
2003-01-1043
Recent measurements by Siebers et al. have shown that the flame of a high pressure Diesel spray stabilizes under quiescent conditions at a location downstream of the fuel injector. The effects of various ambient and injection parameters on the flame “lift-off” length have been investigated under typical Diesel conditions in a constant-volume combustion vessel. In the present study, the experiments of Siebers et al. have been modeled using a modified version of the KIVA-3V engine simulation code. Fuel injection and spray breakup are modeled using the KH-RT model that accounts for liquid surface instabilities due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor mechanisms. Combustion is simulated using Convergent Thinking's recently developed detailed transient chemistry solver (SAGE) that allows for any number of chemical species and reactions to be modeled.
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