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Technical Paper

Use of Renewable Oxygenated Fuels in Order to Reduce Particle Emissions from a GDI High Performance Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0628
The use of oxygenated and renewable fuels is nowadays a widespread means to reduce regulated pollutant emissions produced by internal combustion engines, as well as to reduce the greenhouse impact of transportation. Besides PM, NOx and HC emissions, also the size distribution of particles emitted at the engine exhaust represent meaningful information, considering its adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this work, the results of a comprehensive investigation on the combustion characteristics and the exhaust emissions of a GDI high performance engine, fuelled with pure bio-ethanol and European gasoline, are shown. The engine is a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, 1750 cm₃ displacement, and turbocharged. The engine was operated at different speed/load conditions and two fuel injection strategies were investigated: homogeneous charge mode and stratified charge mode.
Technical Paper

Study of E10 and E85 Effect on Air Fuel Mixing and Combustion Process in Optical Multicylinder GDI Engine and in a Spray Imaging Chamber

2013-04-08
2013-01-0249
The aim of the present work is the study of the combustion process in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine fuelled with ethanol mixed with gasoline at percentages of 10 and 85. The characterization has been made in terms of performance and emission for different injection pressure conditions and the results correlated to the unperturbed non-evaporating evolution of the fuel injected in a pressurized quiescent vessel. Measurements were performed in the optically accessible combustion chamber made by modifying a real 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, high performance GDI engine. The cylinder head was instrumented by using an endoscopic system coupled to high spatial and temporal resolution camera in order to allow the visualization of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The engine is equipped with solenoid-actuated six-hole GDI injectors, 0.14 mm hole diameter, 9.0 g/s @ 10 MPa static flow.
Technical Paper

Split Injection in a GDI Engine Under Knock Conditions: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation

2015-09-06
2015-24-2432
Present work investigates both experimentally and numerically the benefits deriving from the use of split injections in increasing the engine power output and reducing the tendency to knock of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The here considered system is characterized by an optical access to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window placed in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones of the mixture, where undesired self-ignition may occur under some circumstances. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure oscillations on a cycle resolved basis.
Technical Paper

Particle Formation and Emissions in an Optical Small Displacement SI Engine Dual Fueled with CNG DI and Gasoline PFI

2017-09-04
2017-24-0092
Fuel depletion as well as the growing concerns on environmental issues prompt to the use of more eco-friendly fuels. The compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered one of the most promising alternative fuel for engine applications because of the lower emissions. Nevertheless, recent studies highlighted the presence of ultrafine particle emissions at the exhaust of CNG engines. The present study aims to investigate the effect of CNG on particle formation and emissions when it was direct injected and when it was dual fueled with gasoline. In this latter case, the CNG was direct injected and the gasoline port fuel injected. The study was carried out on a transparent single cylinder SI engine in order to investigate the in-cylinder process by real time non-intrusive diagnostics. In-cylinder 2D chemiluminescence measurements from UV to visible were carried out.
Technical Paper

Optical Characterization of Methane Combustion in a Four Stroke Engine for Two Wheel Application

2012-04-16
2012-01-1150
In the urban area the internal combustion engines are the main source of CO₂, NO and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The reduction of these emissions is no more an option, but a necessity highlighted by the even stricter emission standards. In the last years, even more attention was paid to the alternative fuels. They allow both reducing the fuel consumption and the pollutant emissions. With regards to the gaseous fuels, methane is considered one of the most interesting in terms of engine application. It represents an immediate advantage over other hydrocarbon fuels because of the lower C/H ratio. In this paper the effect of the methane on the combustion process, the pollutant emissions and the engine performance was analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible single-cylinder, Port Fuel Injection, four-stroke SI engine equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine and fuelled both with gasoline and methane.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Investigation in a Small GDI Optical Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol

2011-04-12
2011-01-0140
The aim of this paper is the experimental investigation of the effect of direct fuel injection on the combustion process and pollutant formation in a spark ignition (SI) two-wheel engine. The engine is a 250cc single cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignition firstly equipped with a four-valve PFI head and then with GDI one operating with European commercial gasoline and Bio-ethanol. It is equipped with a wide sapphire window in the bottom of the chamber and quartz cylinder. In the combustion chamber, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the injection and flame propagation and spectroscopic measurements were carried out in order to evaluate the main radical species. Radical species such as OH and CH were detected and used to follow the chemical phenomena related to the fuel quality. Measurements were carried out at different engine speeds and combustion strategies based on different injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Knock Onset Detection Methods Evaluation by In-Cylinder Direct Observation

2019-10-07
2019-24-0233
Improvement of performance and emission of future internal combustion engine for passenger cars is mandatory during the transition period toward their substitution with electric propulsion systems. In middle time, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines could offer a good compromise between fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion and particularly knock and super-knock are some of the most important obstacles to the improvement of SI engines efficiency. Although knock has been studied for many years and its basic characteristics are clear, phenomena involved in its occurrence are very complex and are still worth of investigation. In particular, the definition of an absolute knock intensity and the precise determination of the knock onset are arduous and many indexes and methodologies has been proposed. In this work, most used methods for knock onset detection from in- cylinder pressure signal have been considered.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Combustion Process in a Small Optically Accessible Two Stroke SI Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0131
The improvement in engines efficiency and reduction of emissions is the permanent aim of engine industry in order to meet European standards regulation. To optimize small internal combustion engines it is necessary to improve the basic knowledge of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion. This paper describes the combustion process in an optically accessible two-stroke spark-ignition engine used in a commercial 43 cm3 chainsaw. Two different feeding systems were tested: standard and CWI one. The engine head was modified in order to allow the visualization of the combustion using endoscopic system coupled with a high spatial resolution ICCD camera. Flame front propagation was evaluated through an image processing procedure. The image visualization and chemiluminence allowed to follow the combustion process from the spark ignition to the exhaust phase at high engine speed. All the optical data were correlated with engine parameters and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Soot Formation and Exhaust Particle Emissions in a Small Displacement Spark Ignition Engine Operating with Ethanol Mixed and Dual Fueled with Gasoline

2017-03-28
2017-01-0653
This paper aims to correlate the in-cylinder soot formation and the exhaust particle emissions for different methods of gasoline/ethanol fueling in spark ignition engine. In particular, the engine was fueled with gasoline and ethanol separately and not, in this latter case both blended (E30) and dual fueled (EDF). For E30 the bend was direct injected and for EDF, the ethanol was injected in the combustion chamber and the gasoline into the intake duct. For both the injection configurations, the same percentage of ethanol in gasoline was supplied: 30%v/v. The measurements were carried out at 2000 and 4000 rpm, under full load, and stoichiometric condition, in small single cylinder optical engine. 2D-digital imaging was performed to follow the combustion process with a high spatial and temporal resolution through a full-bore optical piston. The two-color pyrometry was applied for the analysis of the in cylinder soot formation in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

High Spatial Resolution Visualization and Spectroscopic Investigation of the Flame Front Propagation in the Combustion Chamber of a Scooter Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0351
The match between the increasing performance demands and stringent requirements of emissions and fuel consumption reduction needs a strong evolution in the 2-wheel vehicle technology. In particular many steps forward should be taken for the optimization of modern small motorcycle and scooter at low engine speeds and low temperature start. To this aim, the detailed understandings of thermal and fluid-dynamic phenomena that occur in the combustion chamber are fundamental. In this work, experimental activities were realized in the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder 4-stroke optical engine. The engine was equipped with a four-valve head of a commercial scooter engine. High spatial resolution imaging was used to follow the flame kernel growth and flame front propagation. Moreover, the effects of an abnormal combustion due to firing of fuel deposition near the intake valves and on the piston surface were investigated.
Journal Article

Full-Cycle CFD Modeling of Air/Fuel Mixing Process in an Optically Accessible GDI Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0024
This paper is focused on the development and application of a CFD methodology that can be applied to predict the fuel-air mixing process in stratified charge, sparkignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the spray evolution together with a liquid film model that properly takes into account its effects on the fuel-air mixing process into account. However, numerical simulation of stratified combustion in SI engines is a very challenging task for CFD modeling, due to the complex interaction of different physical phenomena involving turbulent, reacting and multiphase flows evolving inside a moving geometry. Hence, for a proper assessment of the different sub-models involved a detailed set of experimental optical data is required. To this end, a large experimental database was built by the authors.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection Effect on In-cylinder Formation and Exhaust Emission of Particulate from a 4-Stroke Engine for 2-Wheel Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0354
The small engine for two-wheel vehicles has generally high possibility to be optimized at low speeds and high loads. In these conditions fuel consumption and pollutants emission should be reduced maintaining the performance levels. This optimization can be realized only improving the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. It is known that, during the fuel injection phase in PFI SI engines, thin films of liquid fuel can form on the valves surface and on the cylinder walls. Successively the fuel films interact with the intake manifold and the combustion chamber gas flow. During the normal combustion process, it is possible to achieve gas temperature and mixture strength conditions that lead to fuel film ignition. This phenomenon can create diffusion-controlled flames that can persist well after the normal combustion event. These flames induce the emission of soot and unburned hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Idle Operating Engine Condition for a GDI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0031
The paper investigates the idle operating condition of a current production turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injected (GDI) high performance engine both from an experimental and a numerical perspective. Due to the low engine speed, to the low injection pressure and to the null contribution of the turbocharger, the engine condition is far from the standard points of investigation. According to the low heat flux due to combustion, temperature levels are low and reduced fuel evaporation is expected. Consequently, fuel spray evolution within the combustion chamber and spray/wall interaction are key points for the understanding of the combustion process. In order to properly investigate and understand the many complex phenomena, a wide set of engine speeds was experimentally investigated and, as far as the understanding of the physics of spray/wall interaction is concerned, many different injection strategies are tested.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Idle Operating Engine Condition for a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1144
The increased limitations to both NOx and soot emissions have pushed engine researchers to rediscover gasoline engines. Among the many technologies and strategies, gasoline direct injection plays a key-role for improving fuel economy and engine performance. The paper aims to investigate an extremely complex task such as the idle operating engine condition when the engine runs at very low engine speeds and low engine loads and during the warm-up. Due to the low injection pressure and to the null contribution of the turbocharger, the engine condition is far from the standard points of investigation. Taking into account the warm-up engine condition, the analyses are performed with a temperature of the coolant of 50°C. The paper reports part of a combined numerical and experimental synergic activity aiming at the understanding of the physics of spray/wall interaction within the combustion chamber and particular care is used for air/fuel mixing and the combustion process analyses.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation in a Turbocharged GDI Engine Under Knock Condition by Means of Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods

2015-04-14
2015-01-0397
The present paper deals with a comprehensive analysis of the knocking phenomenon through experiments and numerical simulations. Conventional and non-conventional measurements are performed on a 4-stroke, 4-cylinder, turbocharged GDI engine. The engine exhibits optical accesses to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure-based indicated analyses in a cycle resolved approach.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of a Pre-Chamber Turbulent Jet Ignition Combustion System

2019-09-09
2019-24-0018
Recent needs of reducing pollutant emissions of internal combustion engines have pushed the development of non-conventional ignition systems. One of the most promising techniques appears to be the so-called pre-chamber turbulent jet ignition combustion system in which a jet of hot combusting gases is employed to initiate the combustion in the main chamber. In the present study, the combustion process related to this ignition system has been experimentally investigated in an optically accessible single cylinder spark-ignition engine. The pre-chamber was composed of a gas injector and a spark-plug, embedded in a small annular chamber connected to the cylinder through a four-hole pipette. A small amount of methane is injected within the pre-chamber for initiating the combustion. The flame reaches the combustion chamber through four narrow orifices and rapidly consumes a homogeneous mixture of port injected methane and air.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Sources of Particulate Emission within a Natural Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0141
The aim of the present work is to provide further guidance into better understanding the production mechanisms of soot emissions in Spark-Ignition SI engines fueled with compressed natural gas. In particular, extensive experimental investigations were designed with the aim to isolate the contribution of the fuel from that of lubricant oil to particle emissions. This because the common thought is that particulate emerging from the engine derives mainly from fuel, otherwise the contribute of lubricant oil cannot be neglected or underestimated, especially when the fuel itself produces low levels of soot emissions, such as in the case of premixed natural gas. The fuel-derived contribution was studied by analyzing the influence that natural gas composition has on soot emitted from a single cylinder Spark-Ignition (SI) engine. To achieve this purpose, methane/propane mixtures were realized and injected into the intake manifold of a Single-Cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Methane-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0046
In this paper the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion was investigated. Gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel), while methane was injected in the combustion chamber (DI fuel), in order to reproduce a stratified combustion. The combustion process and the related engine performance and pollutant emissions were analyzed. The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the flame front propagation and the soot and temperature concentration in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Fueled Prechamber Combustion in an Optical Small Displacement SI Methane Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0170
The constant aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of engine efficiency and the simultaneous reduction of the exhaust emissions. In order to optimize the internal combustion engines it is necessary to further improve the basic knowledge of the thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion process. In this context, the application of optical diagnostic techniques permits a deep insight into the fundamental processes such as flow development, fuel injection, and combustion process. In this paper the analysis of the combustion process of gaseous fuel ignited by the plasma jets coming from a prechamber was performed. The investigation was carried out in an optically accessible small Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DI SI) engine fueled with Methane. The ignition was obtained with a properly designed fueled prechamber prototype.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Methane Direct Injection from an Outward-Opening Poppet-Valve Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0135
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas can be a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines (ICE). However, the injector design and its characterization, both experimentally and by numerical simulation, is challenging because of the complex fluid dynamics related to gas compressibility and the small length scale. In this work, the under-expanded flow of methane from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been experimentally characterized by high-speed schlieren imaging. The investigation has been performed at ambient temperature and pressure and different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 10 to 18. The gaseous jet has been characterized in terms of its macroscale parameters. A scaling-law analysis of the results has been performed. The gas-dynamic structure at the nozzle exit has been also investigated.
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