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Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 3

The paper presents the test results relating to the influence of carbonate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069) and maleates (SAE Paper 2008-01-1813), the authors decided to use carbonates to obtain an even greater reduction in PM emissions. The significant effectiveness of carbonates on PM emission reduction was confirmed in tests performed by the authors. Diethyl carbonate was the most effective oxygenated compound with regard to PM emission reduction among all the 11 oxygenates which have been tested so far. Moreover, it is important to note that diethyl carbonate caused only a small increase in NOx emissions, thus it allowed for an essential improvement in the PM/NOx trade-off. A significant increase in the CO and HC emissions was, however, a negative effect of the use of carbonates.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 2

The paper presents the test results of the influence of maleate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069), the authors decided to use maleates as oxygenates to obtain greater changes in PM/NOx trade-off than the changes obtained as a result of the use of glycol ethers. It was found that in the NEDC maleates at the same concentration as in the case of glycol ethers ensure more favourable changes of PM/NOx trade-off and, as a matter of fact, caused greater reduction in PM emissions without the growth of NOx emissions, however, at the cost of CO and HC emissions. The tests performed in the FTP-75 confirmed a significantly weaker influence of maleates, both positive (PM) and negative (CO, HC) than in the NEDC. They did not find in both cycles any influence of maleates at the tested concentration upon fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions

In the year 2005, the EURO IV fuel specification came into effect and the requirements for diesel fuel properties have become even more stringent. In this way, the potential of diesel fuel for emissions reduction has already been to a large extent exploited and the most emissions-sensitive fuel parameters can now be changed in a narrow range only. The shortfall in NOx and PM emissions control in diesel engines is, however, so great that more drastic fuel changes will be needed. One of the most promising fuel modifications for exhaust emissions control seems to be oxygenated additives. The objective of the study described in this paper was to analyze under transient conditions the influence of synthetic oxygenated fuel additives on exhaust emissions. The tests were conducted on a Euro IV passenger car. Six oxygenated additives were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).
Technical Paper

The Influence of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels on a Diesel Vehicle PM/NOx Emission Trade-Off

Research on the influence of oxygenated diesel fuels on the PM/NOx emission trade-off was carried out with use of 11 different synthetic oxygenated compounds, representing 3 chemical groups (glycol ethers, maleates, carbonates). Each of oxygenates were evaluated as a fuel additive at a concentration of 5% v/v in the same base diesel fuel. The tests were conducted on a passenger car equipped with a common rail turbocharged diesel engine over the European cycle NEDC and US FTP-75 cycle. All the tested oxygenates caused a reduction in PM emissions and most of them caused a certain increase in NOx emissions. The changes in emissions depended on the oxygenate type and cycle. In general, the favorable and unfavorable influence of oxygenated compounds was more intensive during the NEDC, which is a softer and less transient cycle than the FTP-75. The most favorable changes in the PM/NOx emission trade-off were obtained for maleates and carbonates.
Journal Article

The Impact of Fuel Ethanol Content on Particulate Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Featuring Spark Ignition Engines

Ethanol has long been a fuel of considerable interest for use as an automotive fuel in spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. In recent years, concerns over oil supplies, sustainability and geopolitical factors have lead multiple jurisdictions to mandate the blending of ethanol into standard gasoline. The impact of blend ethanol content on gaseous emissions has been widely studied; particulate matter emissions have received somewhat less attention, despite these emissions being regulated in the USA. Currently, in the EU particulate matter emissions from SI engines are partially regulated - only vehicles featuring direct injection SI engines are subject to emissions limits. A range of experiments was conducted to determine the impact of fuel ethanol content on the emissions of solid pollutants from Euro 5 passenger cars.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends on Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption of an Unmodified Light-Duty SI Vehicle

Due to limited fossil fuel resources and a need to reduce anthropogenic CO₂ emissions, biofuel usage is increasing in multiple markets. Ethanol produced from the fermentation of biomass has been of interest as a potential partial replacement for petroleum for some time; for spark-ignition engines, bioethanol is the alternative fuel which is currently of greatest interest. At present, the international market for ethanol fuel consists of E85 fuel (with 85 percent ethanol content), as well as lower concentrations of ethanol in petrol for use in standard vehicles (E5, E10). The impact of different petrol-ethanol blends on exhaust emissions from unmodified vehicles remains under investigation. The potential for reduced exhaust emissions, improved security of fuel supply and more sustainable fuel production makes work on the production and usage of ethanol and its blends an increasingly important research topic.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pure RME and Biodiesel Blends with High RME Content on Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

The use of biofuels (biodiesel and gasoline-alcohol blends) in vehicle powertrains has grown in recent years in European Union, the United States, Japan, India, Brazil and many other countries due to limited fossil fuel sources and necessary reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. European car manufacturers have approved up to 5 percent of biodiesel blend in diesel fuel (B5 biodiesel blend) which meets European fuel standards EN 14214 and EN 590. The goal for research is to achieve higher biodiesel content in diesel fuel B10 and B20, without resorting to larger diesel engines and fuel feed system modernization. This paper evaluates the possibility of using higher FAME content in biodiesel blends (mixture of diesel fuel and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) in modern Euro 4 vehicle with direct-injection, common-rail and turbocharged light-duty diesel engine with standard engine ECU calibration and standard injection equipment (not tuned for biodiesel).
Technical Paper

The Comparison of the Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle in On-road and NEDC Tests

The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles have been carried out on a chassis dynamometer (NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US). Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions and that is why we should analyze the correlation of the laboratory versus on-road test results. The paper presents the on-road test results obtained in an urban and extra urban cycles. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS has been used. The device is an analyzer enabling an on-line measurement of the emission gases concentration in a real driving cycle under real road conditions. The road tests were performed on road portions of several kilometers each. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained for the same vehicle during the NEDC test on a chassis dynamometer. The comparative analysis was performed including the urban and extra-urban cycles.
Journal Article

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from CNG Fueled Vehicles in Light of Euro 6 Regulations and the New WLTP/GTR 15 Test Procedure

The aim of this paper was to explore the influence of CNG fuel on emissions from light-duty vehicles in the context of the new Euro 6 emissions requirements and to compare exhaust emissions of the vehicles fueled with CNG and with gasoline. Emissions testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer according to the current EU legislative test method, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Additional tests were also performed on one of the test vehicles over the World Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) according to the Global Technical Regulation No. 15 test procedure. The focus was on regulated exhaust emissions; both legislative (CVS-bag) and modal (continuous) analyses of the following gases were performed: CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbons), CH4 (methane), NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons), NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and CO2 (carbon dioxide).
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions, Unregulated Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Two Vehicles Tested on Various Petrol-Ethanol Blends

Ethanol has a long history as an automotive fuel and is currently used in various blends and formats as a fuel for spark ignition engines in many areas of the world. The addition of ethanol to petrol has been shown to reduce certain types of emissions, but increase others. This paper presents the results of a detailed experimental program carried out under standard laboratory conditions to determine the influence of different quantities of petrol-ethanol blends (E5, E10, E25, E50 and E85) on the emission of regulated and unregulated gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. The ethanol-petrol blends were laboratory tested in two European passenger cars on a chassis dynamometer over the New European Driving Cycle, using a constant volume sampler and analyzers for quantification of both regulated and unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

RDE Testing of Passenger Cars: The Effect of the Cold Start on the Emissions Results

This paper discusses the importance of the inclusion of emissions from the cold start event during legislative on-road tests on passenger cars (RDE - real driving emissions tests conducted under real-world driving conditions, as defined by EU legislation). Results from a recently-registered gasoline-powered vehicle are presented, with the main focus on the comparison of exhaust emission results: excluding/including the cold start during the initial phase of the RDE test. Cold start is the most challenging aspect of emissions control for vehicles with spark ignition engines and the inclusion of the cold start event in RDE test procedure has wide-ranging implications both for the testing process and compliance with RDE legislation via optimisation of aftertreatment systems and the engine calibration. In addition to some theoretical arguments, the results of an RDE-compliant test performed using the aforementioned procedures are presented.
Journal Article

Performance of Particle Oxidation Catalyst and Particle Formation Studies with Sulphur Containing Fuels

The aim of this paper is to analyze the quantitative impact of fuel sulfur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulfur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulfur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulfur level. The Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC.
Journal Article

Particulate Emissions from European Vehicles Featuring Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Tested Under Laboratory Conditions

Direct injection gasoline engines have been gaining popularity for passenger car applications, particularly in the EU. It is well known that emissions of particulate matter are an inherent disadvantage of spark ignition engine with direct injection. Direct injection of gasoline can lead to the formation of substantial numbers of particulates, a proportion of which survive to be emitted from the vehicle's exhaust. EU legislation limits particle mass (PM) emissions; particle number (PN) is soon to be limited, although an opt-out means that dedicated filters will not be required immediately. A range of tests were conducted on a pool of Euro 5 passenger cars in BOSMAL's climate controlled emissions laboratory, using EU legislative test methodology. In addition, further measurements were performed (particle size distribution, tests at multiple ambient temperatures).
Journal Article

Low Ambient Temperature Cold Start Emissions of Gaseous and Solid Pollutants from Euro 5 Vehicles featuring Direct and Indirect Injection Spark-Ignition Engines

Spark ignition (SI) engines are susceptible to excess emissions at low ambient temperatures. Direct injection leads to the formation of particulate matter (PM), and direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines should show greater PM emissions at low ambient temperatures. This study compares excess emissions of gaseous and solid pollutants following cold start at a low ambient temperature and the standard test temperature. Euro 5 passenger cars were tested on a chassis dynamometer within BOSMAL's climate-controlled test chamber, according to European Union legislation (−7°C over the urban driving cycle (UDC), and at 25°C). Two vehicles were also tested over the entire New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Emissions of regulated compounds and carbon dioxide were analyzed; particulate emissions (both mass and number) were also measured, all using standard procedures.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Particulate Emissions from Euro 5 Passenger Cars with DISI Engines Tested at Multiple Ambient Temperatures

Particulate matter in vehicular exhaust is now under great scrutiny. In the EU, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines running on petrol now have limits for particulate emissions set for both mass and number. Current legislative test procedures represent a best-case scenario - more aggressive driving cycles and lower ambient temperatures can increase particulate emissions massively. Ambient temperature is generally the environmental parameter of most importance regarding particulate emissions from an engine, particularly for the reasonably brief periods of operation typical for passenger cars operating from a cold start. Two Euro 5 vehicles with DI SI engines were laboratory tested at three ambient temperatures on two different commercially available fuels, with particulate emissions results compared to results from the same fuels when the vehicles were tested at 25°C.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Multiple Vehicle Types Running on Two Chassis Dynamometer Driving Cycles

This paper reports testing conducted on multiple vehicle types over two European legislative driving cycles (the current NEDC and the incoming WLTC), using a mixture of legislative and non-legislative measurement devices to characterise the particulate emissions and examine the impact of the test cycle and certain vehicle characteristics (engine/fuel type, idle stop system, inertia) on particulate emissions. European legislative measurement techniques were successfully used to quantify particle mass (PM) and number (PN); an AVL Microsoot sensor was also used. Overall, the two driving cycles used in this study had a relatively limited impact on particulate emissions from the test vehicles, but certain differences were visible and in some cases statistically significant.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Exhaust Emissions from DI Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

This paper reviews the emissions from direct injection (DI) diesel engine in the initial period of controlled engine operation following start-up. The tests were undertaken in „cold start” mode (temperature of cooling water and lube oil equal to ambient temperature) and „warm start” mode* (after attaining a state of equilibrium). Both results were compared.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions of Gaseous and Solid Pollutants Measured over the NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Driving Cycles

Concern over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air quality has made exhaust emissions from passenger cars a topic interest at an international level. This situation has led to the re-evaluation of testing procedures in order to produce more “representative” results. Laboratory procedures for testing exhaust emissions are built around a driving cycle. Cycles may be developed in one context but later used in another: for example, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) was not developed to measure fuel consumption, but has ended up being used to that end. The new Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test cycle (the WLTC) will sooner or later be used for measuring regulated exhaust emissions. Legal limits for emissions of regulated pollutants are inherently linked to the test conditions (and therefore to the driving cycle); inter-cycle correlations for regulated pollutants are an important research direction.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission from Passenger Cars During Engine Cold Start and Warm-Up

An increased of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions from gasoline engines in ambient temperatures at or below 0°C is a key issue, not only in Scandinavia or northern parts of the USA and Canada, but also in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is typical of Poland and neighbouring countries that for six to seven months (from October to April) air temperature fails to about 0°C at night, while in winter months this temperature often fails below -10 to even -20°C. Due to this, in these countries the cars are started in the morning when the engine and all other parts of the car are considerably cool. This paper presents a special climatic conditions in view of their effect on the actual exhaust emission from a car with SI engine and results of emission tests for such gaseous pollutants as CO, HC and NOx, achieved during tests performed on a chassis dynamometer according to ECE and FTP 75 cycles.
Technical Paper

Excess Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Modern Spark Ignition Passenger Cars at Low Ambient Temperatures

Cold starts are demanding events for spark-ignition (SI) internal combustion engines. When the temperatures of the engine oil, coolant and the engine block are close to the ambient temperature, start-up can be difficult to achieve without fuel enrichment, which results in significant excesses in exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. In general, the lower the ambient temperature, the more substantial these problems are. Many nations frequently experience sub-zero ambient temperatures, and the European Union (among others) has specified an emissions test at low ambient temperature (-7°C). Passenger cars typically experience one to two cold start events per day, and so both cold starts and the warm-up period that follows are significant in terms of exhaust emissions. This paper examines emissions at low ambient temperatures with a special focus on cold start; emissions are also compared to start-up at a higher ambient temperature (24°C).