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Technical Paper

Unregulated and Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0889
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0599
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
Technical Paper

The Secondary Organic Carbon (SOC) Formation from a CRDI Automotive Diesel Engine Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-0642
Condensed soot coming out of vehicular exhaust is commonly classified as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). OC can be directly emitted to the atmosphere in the particulate form (primary carbon) from the tailpipe or can be produced by gas-to-particle conversion process (secondary organic carbon, SOC). Under typical atmospheric dilution conditions, most of the semi-volatile material is present in the form of soot. SOC holds wider implications in terms of their adverse health and climate impact. Diesel exhaust is environmentally reactive and it has long been understood that the ambient interaction of exhaust hydrocarbons and NOx results in the formation of ozone and other potentially toxic secondary organic carbon species. The current emission norms look at the primary emissions from the engine exhaust. Also, research efforts are geared towards controlling the emissions of primary carbon.
Technical Paper

Ricebran Oil Biodiesel's Performance, Emission and Endurance Test on a CIDI Transport Engine

2008-01-09
2008-28-0066
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop alternative fuels that are environmentally more acceptable. Fatty acids esters (biodiesel) are known to be good alternative fuels. Due to economic reasons, the use of cheap raw materials for biodiesel production is preferred. In this case, ricebran oil, non-edible grade is used. Base catalyzed transesterification of ricebran oil is investigated and process parameters for ricebran biodiesel production are optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point, calorific value of biodiesel thus prepared are characterized as per ASTM D6751 and found comparable to mineral diesel. Steady state engine dynamometer test at 1800 rpm has been carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a medium duty transportation DI diesel engine. Emission tests with all the fuel blends have also been carried out using European 13 MODE test (ECE R49).
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends in a Direct Injection CI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0947
Vegetable oils have energy content suitable to be used as compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. However, several operational and durability problems of using straight vegetable oils in CI engines are reported in the literature, which are primarily caused by their higher viscosity and low volatility compared to mineral diesel. The viscosity can be brought in acceptable range by (i) chemical process of transesterification, (ii) blending of oil with mineral diesel or (iii) by heating the vegetable oil using exhaust gas waste heat. Reduction of viscosity by blending or exhaust gas heating saves the chemical processing cost of transesterification. Present experimental investigations were carried out for evaluating combustion, performance and emission behavior of Jatropha oil blends in unheated conditions in a direct injection CI engine at different load and constant engine speed (1500 rpm).
Technical Paper

Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel (Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Ester) Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1384
Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) is a non-toxic and biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources. A major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel from virgin oil, in comparison to petroleum-based diesel, is its cost of production, primarily the raw material cost. Used cooking oils or waste cooking oils are economical sources for biodiesel production, which can help in commercialization of biodiesel. However, the products formed during cooking/frying (such as free fatty acids and various polymerized triglycerides) affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. In present experimental investigations, wastecooking oil obtained from restaurant was used to produce biodiesel through transesterification process and the chemical kinetics of biodiesel production was studied. Biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel in different proportions.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of a Biodiesel (Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester) Fuelled Transport Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1730
This experimental study was undertaken to investigate the use of vegetable oil derivatives to substitute mineral diesel fuel. Straight vegetable oils pose some problems like injector coking, carbon deposits etc., when used as a fuel in an engine. These problems are due to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of vegetable oils. Transesterified vegetable oil derivative called “biodiesel” appear to be most convenient way of utilizing vegetable oil as a substitute fuel in diesel engines. In present investigation, rice bran oil (non-edible) was transesterified to methyl ester and reaction conditions for transeterifcation process for rice bran oil were optimized. Various properties like viscosity, density, flash point of the biodiesel thus prepared are comparable to diesel and found to be in acceptable range as per ASTM norms (ASTM D6751). Experimental investigations were carried out on a four stroke, four cylinders, transportation DI diesel engine.
Journal Article

Particulate Morphology and Toxicity of an Alcohol Fuelled HCCI Engine

2014-04-15
2014-01-9076
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are attracting attention as next-generation internal combustion engines mainly because of very low NOx and PM emission potential and excellent thermal efficiency. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible however recent studies suggest that PM number emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected. This study is therefore conducted on a modified four cylinder diesel engine to investigate this aspect of HCCI technology. One cylinder of the engine is modified to operate in HCCI mode for the experiments and port fuel injection technique is used for preparing homogenous charge in this cylinder. Experiments are conducted at 1200 and 2400 rpm engine speeds using gasoline, ethanol, methanol and butanol fuels. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the particulates emitted on a pre-conditioned filter paper.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characterization of Biodiesel Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine

2009-12-13
2009-28-0018
Environmental concerns have increased significantly world over in the past decade. Regulatory agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions as the health and environmental effects are getting understood better due to rapid development in instrumentation. Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternative diesel fuels, which is getting global acceptability among the automotive/ engine manufactures as well as users due to numerous benefits it offers over the conventional diesel. While much of literature is available on particulate emitted by diesel fuelled engine, little is known by particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine. This study concentrates on the characterization of particulate emissions from mineral diesel vis-à-vis biodiesel (B100) and its optimum blend (20%, B20) with mineral diesel.
Journal Article

Oxidation Stability, Engine Performance and Emissions Investigations of Karanja, Neem and Jatropha Biodiesel and Blends

2011-04-12
2011-01-0617
Poor oxidation stability is the central problem associated with the commercial acceptance of the biodiesel. The EU standard (EN14214) specifies a minimum value of 6 h for biodiesel induction period at 110°C, measured with Rancimat instrument. Most of the freshly prepared biodiesel generally have lower induction periods than prescribed by the standards. Anti-oxidants are therefore added to enhance the oxidation/ storage stability of biodiesel. Oxidation is an exothermic process, and the reaction heat evolved makes it possible to use thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). In the present study, the oxidation stability of methyl esters derived from Karanja oil and Neem oil, stabilized with anti-oxidant pyrogalol (PY) was studied by DSC. Onset temperature of freshly prepared Karanja biodiesel (KOME) and Neem biodiesel (NOME) was observed to be 148 and 153°C respectively. The stability increases with increasing anti-oxidant dosage.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Produced from Non-Edible Oils of African Origin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1202
Mono alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oils or animal fats, also known as biodiesel are well positioned to replace mineral diesel. The outstanding technical problem with biodiesel is that it is more susceptible to oxidation owing to its exposure to oxygen present in the air and high temperature. This happens mainly due to the presence of varying numbers of double bonds in the free fatty acid molecules. The chemical reactivity of esters can therefore be divided into oxidative and thermal instability, which can be determined by the amount and configuration of the olefinic unsaturation in the fatty acid chains. Many of the plant-derived fatty oils contain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are more prone to oxidation. Increasing production of biodiesel from vegetable oils (edible) places strain on food production, availability and price and leads to food versus fuel conflict.
Technical Paper

Novel Methodology to Utilise Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine: Performance and Emissions Characterization

2009-12-13
2009-28-0039
The world energy demand has witnessed uncertainties in two dimensions. The scarcity and depletion of conventional petroleum sources are causes of great concern worldwide. Combustion of fossil fuels has led to unprecedented rise in the global CO2 level, leading to global warming. Therefore, efforts are underway in several countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Vegetable oils of non-edible nature are such alternative fuels, which can form part of potential solution. Vegetable oils, due to their agricultural origin, are able to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere along with import substitution of petroleum products In the present research, experiment were designed to study the effect of reducing Neem oil's high viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature and thereby its effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine.
Technical Paper

Noise, Vibrations and Combustion Investigations of Preheated Jatropha Oil in a Single Cylinder Genset Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1668
High viscosity of vegetable oil causes ignition problems when used in compression ignition engines. There is a need to reduce the viscosity before using it as engine fuel. Preheating and pre-treating of vegetable oils using waste heat of exhaust gases is one of the techniques, which reduces the viscosity and makes it possible to use it as alternate fuel for some niche applications, without requiring major modifications in the engine hardware. Several applications such as decentralized power generation, agricultural engines, and water pumping engines, can use vegetable oils as an alternative fuel. In present investigation, performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine using preheated 20% blend of Jatropha oil with mineral diesel (J20) has been evaluated at a constant speed (1500 rpm) in a single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Near Nozzle Flow and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels

2017-10-08
2017-01-2327
Fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing processes play a dominant role on engine performance and emission characteristics in a direct injection compression ignition engine. Understanding of microscopic spray characteristics is essential to predict combustion phenomena. The present work investigated near nozzle flow and atomization characteristics of biodiesel fuels in a constant volume chamber. Waste cooking oil, Jatropha, and Karanja biodiesels were applied and the results were compared with those of conventional diesel fuel. The tested fuels were injected by a solenoid injector with a common-rail injection system. A high-speed camera with a long distance microscopic lens was utilized to capture the near nozzle flow. Meanwhile, Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer to compare atomization characteristics.
Technical Paper

Microscopic and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of GDI Injector Using Gasohol Fuels at Various Injection Pressures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0868
The development of advanced gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector requires in-depth investigations of macroscopic and microscopic spray characteristics. Over the years, GDI injectors have undergone exponential improvement to be able to deliver fuel at high injection pressure. High fuel injection pressure (FIP) leads to superior fuel atomization, and consequently superior fuel-air mixing. Present investigations aim to improve our fundamental knowledge of the furl-air mixture preparation mechanisms of different test fuels. Experiments were conducted to study spray breakup of GDI injector. This study focuses on the spray investigations using Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) for the measurement of various spray related studies such as determination of arithmetic mean diameter (AMD), sauter mean diameter (SMD) and spray droplet velocity distributions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Lubricating Oil Film Thickness between Piston Ring -liner Interface in an Engine Simulator

2008-01-09
2008-28-0071
The interface between the piston rings and cylinder liner play an important role in total frictional losses and mechanical wear of internal combustion engine and is increasingly coming under scrutiny as legislated particulate emission standards are getting more and more stringent. The capacitance method is used for measurement of minimum oil film thickness between piston ring and liner interface. Measurement of capacitance formed between the piston ring and a probe mounted flush in the liner provides an accurate means of determining the oil film thickness provided that the region between the probe and liner is flooded with oil and dielectric constant of the oil is known. This paper presents detailed design and measurement of lubricating oil film thickness using capacitive micro sensor in a non-firing engine simulator. Lubricating oil film thickness was found to vary between 0.2μm to 8μm in the non firing engine simulator.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Spray Characteristics of Diesel and Karanja Biodiesel Blends

2016-04-05
2016-01-0869
Fuel injection pressure (FIP) is one of the most important factors affecting diesel engine performance and particulate emissions. Higher FIP improves the fuel atomization, which results in lower soot formation due to superior fuel-air mixing. The objective of this spray study was to investigate macroscopic and microscopic spray parameters in FIP range of 500-1500 bar, using a solenoid injector for biodiesel blends (KB20 and KB40) and baseline mineral diesel. For these test fuels, effect of ambient pressure on macroscopic spray characteristics such as spray penetration, spray area and cone angle were investigated in a constant volume spray chamber (CVSC). Microscopic spray characteristics such as velocity distribution of droplets and spray droplet size distribution were measured in the CVSC at atmospheric pressure using Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI).
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Spray Parameters of Karanja Oil and Blends: A Comparative Study

2012-01-09
2012-28-0028
Diesel engines are very efficient prime movers in their power range. Fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines are highly influenced by the fuel spray parameters and atomization of the injected fuel. As the emission regulations become stringent, it is very important to optimize the combustion in internal combustion engines for different fuels including alternative fuels. Spray visualization using optical techniques play a very important role to analyze macroscopic spray parameters and fuel atomization behavior. In the present experimental study, an important alternative CI engine fuel, Karanja oil and its blends with diesel have been investigated for their spray parameters and fuel atomization relative to mineral diesel. These parameters are different for the two fuels because of difference in the viscosity and density of the fuels.
Journal Article

Investigation of Particle Number Emission Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO)

2018-04-03
2018-01-0909
Diesel engines are one of the most important power generating units these days. Increasing greenhouse gas emission level and the need for energy security has prompted increasing research into alternative fuels for diesel engines. Biodiesel is the most popular among the alternatives for diesel fuel as it is biodegradable and renewable and can be produced domestically from vegetable oils. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also gained popularity due to some of its advantages over biodiesel such as higher cetane number, lower deposit formation, storage stability, etc. HVO is a renewable, paraffinic biobased alternative fuel for diesel engines similar to biodiesel. Unlike biodiesel, the production process for HVO involves hydrogen as catalyst instead of methanol which removes oxygen content from vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Field Trials of Biodiesel (B100) and Diesel Fuelled Common Rail Direct Injection Euro-III Compliant Sports Utility Vehicles in Indian Conditions

2008-01-09
2008-28-0077
Biodiesel is being explored as a sustainable renewable fuel for vehicles in India due to mounting foreign exchange expenditure to import crude petroleum. Significant amount of research and development work is being undertaken in India to investigate various aspects of biodiesel utilisation in different types of engines. This study is an effort to jointly investigate the use of biodiesel (B100) in an unmodified BS-III compliant sports utility vehicle (SUV) by a consortium of academia (IIT Kanpur) and Industry (M&M) to realistically assess whether biodiesel is compatible with modern engine technology vehicles. Two identical vehicles were operated in tandem using biodiesel (B100) and mineral diesel (B00) respectively for 30,000 kilometers in field conditions. The lubricating oil samples were collected and detailed analysis for assessing the comparative effect of new fuel (B100) vis-à-vis mineral diesel was carried out.
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