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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Technical Paper

The Upper-Load Extension of a Boosted Direct Injection Poppet Valve Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2339
Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Modeling and Design of a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1970
Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Diesel Combustion and Emissions of Reducing Inlet Charge Mass Due to Thermal Throttling with Hot EGR

1998-02-23
980185
This paper is a complementary to previous investigations by the authors (1,2,3,4) on the different effects of EGR on combustion and emissions in DI diesel engine. In addition to the several effects that cold EGR has on combustion and emissions the application of hot EGR results in increasing the inlet charge temperature, thereby, for naturally aspirated engines, lowering the inlet charge mass due to thermal throttling. An associated consequence of thermal throttling is the reduction in the amount of oxygen in the inlet charge. Uncooled EGR, therefore, affects combustion and emissions in two ways: through the reduction in the inlet charge mass and through the increase in inlet charge temperature. The effect on combustion and emissions of increasing the inlet charge temperature (without reducing the inlet charge mass) has been dealt with in ref. (1).
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Disesel Engine Emissions - Part 4: Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour

1997-05-01
971660
This paper deals with the effects on diesel engine combustion and emissions of carbon dioxide and water vapour the two main constituents of EGR. It concludes the work covered in Parts 1, 2, and 3 of this series of papers. A comparison is presented of the different effects that each of these constituents has on combustion and emissions. The comparison showed that the dilution effect was the most significant one. Furthermore, the dilution effect for carbon dioxide is higher than that for water vapour because EGR has roughly twice as much carbon dioxide than water vapour. On the other hand, the water vapour had a higher thermal effect in comparison to that of carbon dioxide due to the higher specific heat capacity of water vapour. The chemical effect of carbon dioxide was, generally, higher than that of water vapour.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 3: Effects of Water Vapour

1997-05-01
971659
Water vapour is a main constituent of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines and its influence on combustion and emissions were investigated. The following effects of the water vapour were examined experimentally: the effect of replacing part of the inlet charge oxygen (dilution effect), the effect of the higher specific heat capacity of water vapour in comparison with that of oxygen it replaces (thermal effect), the effect of dissociation of water vapour (chemical effect), as well as the overall effect of water vapour on combustion and emissions. Water vapour was introduced into the inlet charge, progressively, so that up to 3 percent of the inlet charge mass was displaced. This was equivalent to the amount of water vapour contained in 52 percent by mass of EGR for the engine operating condition tested in this work.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 2: Effects of Carbon Dioxide

1996-05-01
961167
This is the second of a series of papers on how exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) affects diesel engine combustion and emissions. It concentrates on the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a principal constituent of EGR. Results are presented from a number of tests during which the nitrogen or oxygen in the engine inlet air was progressively replaced by CO2 and/or inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, inlet charge total mass rate and inlet charge temperature were kept constant. In one set of tests, some of the nitrogen in the inlet air was progressively replaced by a carefully controlled mixture of CO2 and argon. This ensured that the added gas mixture had equal specific heat capacity to that of the nitrogen being replaced. Thus, the effects of dissociated CO2 on combustion and emissions could be isolated and quantified (chemical effect).
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

1996-05-01
961165
This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
Technical Paper

The Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Ethanol on a Port Fuel Injection HCCI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0631
With the application of valve timing strategy to inlet and exhaust valves, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion was achieved by varying the amount of trapped residuals through negative valve overlap on a Ricardo Hydra four-stroke port fuel injection engine fueled with ethanol. The effect of ethanol on HCCI combustion and emission characteristics at different air-fuel ratios, speeds and valve timings was investigated. The results indicate that HCCI ethanol combustion can be achieved through changing inlet and exhaust valve timings. HCCI ethanol combustion range can be expanded to high speeds and lean burn mixture. Meanwhile, the factors influencing ignition timing and combustion duration are valve timing, lambda and speeds. Moreover, NOx emissions are extremely low under HCCI combustion. The emissions-speed and emissions-lambda relationships are obtained and analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Study on Layered Close Loop Control of 4-Stroke Gasoline HCCI Engine Equipped with 4VVAS

2008-04-14
2008-01-0791
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has the potential of reducing fuel consumption as well as NOx emissions. However, it is still confronted with problems in real-time control system and control strategy for the application of HCCI, which are studied in detail in this paper. A CAN-bus-based distributed HCCI control system was designed to implement a layered close loop control for HCCI gasoline engine equipped with 4VVAS. Meanwhile, a layered management strategy was developed to achieve high real-time control as well as to simplify the couplings between the inputs and the outputs. The entire control system was stratified into three layers, which are responsible for load (IMEP) management; combustion phase (CA50) control and mechanical system control respectively, each with its own specified close loop control strategy. The system is outstanding for its explicit configuration, easy actualization and robust performance.
Technical Paper

Study of SI-HCCI-SI Transition on a Port Fuel Injection Engine Equipped with 4VVAS

2007-04-16
2007-01-0199
A strategy to actualize the dual-mode (SI mode and HCCI mode) operation of gasoline engine was investigated. The 4VVAS (4 variable valve actuating system), capable of independently controlling the intake and exhaust valve lifts and timings, was incorporated into a specially designed cylinder head for a single cylinder research engine and a 4VVAS-HCCI gasoline engine test bench was established. The experimental research was carried out to study the dynamic control strategies for transitions between HCCI and SI modes on the HCCI operating boundaries. Results show that equipped with the 4VVAS cylinder head, the engine can be operated in HCCI or SI mode to meet the demands of different operating conditions. 4VVAS enables the rapid and effective control over the in-cylinder residual gas, and therefore dynamic transitions between HCCI and SI can be stably achieved. It is easier to achieve transition from HCCI to SI than reversely due to the influence of thermo-inertia.
Technical Paper

Study of Exhaust Re-Breathing Application on a DI SI Engine at Partial Load Operation

2018-09-03
2018-36-0129
Using Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) on internal combustion engines enables the reduction of emissions with a low or even no cost to the engine efficiency at part-load operation. The charge dilution with EGR can even increase the engine efficiency due to de-throttling and reduction of part load pumping losses. This experimental study proposed the use of late exhaust valve closure (LEVC) to achieve internal EGR (increased residual gas trapping). A naturally aspirated single cylinder direct injection spark ignition engine equipped with four electro-hydraulic actuated valves that enabled full valve timing and lift variation. Eight levels of positive valve overlap (PVO) with LEVC were used at the constant load of 6.0 bar IMEP and the speed of 1500 rpm. The results have shown that later exhaust valve closure (EVC) required greater intake pressures to maintain the engine load due to the higher burned gases content. Hence, lower pumping losses and thus higher indicated efficiency were obtained.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

2004-06-08
2004-01-1904
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0859
Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
Technical Paper

Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0420
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation. In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of In-Cylinder Flow for Fuel Stratification in a Three-Valve Twin-Spark-Plug SI Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0635
In-cylinder flow was optimised in a three-valve twin-spark-plug SI engine in order to obtain good two-zone fuel fraction stratification in the cylinder by means of tumble flow. First, the in-cylinder flow field of the original intake system was measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results showed that the original intake system did not produce large-scale in-cylinder flow and the velocity value was very low. Therefore, some modifications were applied to the intake system in order to generate the required tumble flow. The modified systems were then tested on a steady flow rig. The results showed that the method of shrouding the lower part of the intake valves could produce rather higher tumble flow with less loss of the flow coefficient than other methods. The optimised intake system was then consisted of two shroud plates on the intake valves with 120° angles and 10mm height. The in-cylinder flow of the optimised intake system was investigated by PIV measurements.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Effect of Piston Shapes and Fuel Injection Strategies on In-Cylinder Conditions in a PFI/GDI Gasoline Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2670
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to stabilize the hybrid combustion process, the port fuel injection (PFI) combined with gasoline direct injection (GDI) strategy is proposed in this study to form the in-cylinder fuel stratification to enhance the early flame propagation process and control the auto-ignition combustion process. The effect of bowl piston shapes and fuel injection strategies on the fuel stratification characteristics is investigated in detail using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) simulations. Three bowl piston shapes with different bowl diameters and depths were designed and analyzed as well as the original flat piston in a single cylinder PFI/GDI gasoline engine.
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