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Technical Paper

The Influence of Fluid Motion on Flame Kernel Development and Cyclic Variation in a Spark Ignition Engine

1989-04-01
890991
The effect of engine flow field characteristics on cycle-to-cycle variation in a methane fueled engine was examined. The rate of early flame development was correlated with the turbulence characteristics and the mean flow. This, in turn, was correlated with engine performance characteristics such as peak cylinder pressure. Drastically different flow field characteristics were achieved in the engine through the use of a prechamber having a variable inlet orifice diameter. Three combustion chamber geometries were examined: main chamber combustion without a prechamber, a prechamber with a 9 mm entrance orifice, and a prechamber with a 27 mm entrance orifice. Measurements of mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made in the region of the spark using laser Doppler velocimetry. The engine had a compression ratio of 5.1 and was operated at speeds of 300, 600, and 1200 rpm. The equivalence ratios were 0.7 and 0.8.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation During Cranking in a Port-Injected 4-Valve SI Engine

1997-10-01
972982
This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the fuel-air mixing process in a port-fuel-injected, 4-valve, spark-ignited engine that was motored to simulate cold cranking and start-up conditions. An infrared fiber-optic instrumented spark plug probe was used to measure the local, crank angle resolved, fuel concentration in the vicinity of the spark gap of a single-cylinder research engine with a production head and fuel injector. The crank-angle resolved fuel concentrations were compared for various injection timings including open-intake-valve (OIV) and closed-intake-valve (CIV) injection, using federal certification gasoline. In addition, the effects of speed, intake manifold pressure, and injected fuel mass were examined.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Transport During the First Cranking Cycles in a Port Injected 4-Valve Engine

1997-02-24
970043
Fuel transport was visualized within the cylinder of a port injected four-valve SI engine having a transparent cylinder liner. Measurements were made while motoring at 250 rpm to simulate cranking conditions prior to the first firing cycle, and at 750 rpm to examine the effects of engine speed. A production GM Quad-4 cylinder head was used, and the stock single-jet port fuel injector was used to inject indolene. A digital camera was used to capture back-lighted images of cylinder wall wetting for open and closed intake valve injection. In addition, two-dimensional planar imaging of Mie scattering from the indolene fuel droplets was used to characterize the fuel droplet distribution as a function of crank angle for open and closed intake valve injection. LDV was used to measure the droplet and air velocities near the intake valves during fuel induction. It was found that with open-valve injection a large fraction of the fuel impinged on the cylinder wall opposite the intake valves.
Technical Paper

Improved Passage Design for a Spark Plug Mounted Pressure Transducer

2007-04-16
2007-01-0652
Combustion chamber pressure measurement in engines via a passage is an old technique that is still widely used in engine research. This paper presents improved passage designs for an off-set electrode spark plug designed to accept a pressure transducer. The spark plug studied was the Champion model 304-063A. Two acoustic models were developed to compute the resonance characteristics. The new designs have a resonance frequency in a range higher than the fundamental frequency expected from knock so that the signal can be lowpass filtered to remove the resonance and not interfere with pressure signal components associated with combustion phenomena. Engine experiments verified the spark plug resonance behavior. For the baseline engine operating condition approximately 50 of 100 cycles had visible passage resonance in the measured pressure traces, at an average frequency of 8.03 kHz.
Technical Paper

Further Development of an Electronic Particulate Matter Sensor and Its Application to Diesel Engine Transients

2008-04-14
2008-01-1065
This paper presents the latest developments in the design and performance of an electronic particulate matter (PM) sensor developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT) and suitable, with further development, for applications in active engine control of PM emissions. The sensor detects the carbonaceous mass component of PM in the exhaust and has a time-resolution less than 20 (ms), allowing PM levels to be quantified for engine transients. Sample measurements made with the sensor in the exhaust of a single-cylinder light duty diesel engine are presented for both steady-state and transient operations: a steady-state correlation with gravimetric filter measurements is presented, and the sensor response to rapid increases in PM emission during engine transients is shown for several different tip-in (momentary increases in fuel delivery) conditions.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Spray/Charge-Motion Interaction within the Cylinder of a Direct-Injected, 4-Valve, SI Engine

1998-02-23
980155
The mixture preparation process was investigated in a direct-injected, 4-valve, SI engine under motored conditions. The interaction between the high-pressure fuel jet and the intake air-flow was observed. Laser-sheet droplet imaging was used to visualize the in-cylinder droplet distributions, and a single-component LDV system was used to measure in-cylinder velocities. The fuel spray was visualized with the engine motored at 1500 and 750 rpm, and with the engine stopped. It was observed that the shape of the fuel spray was distorted by the in-cylinder air motion generated by the intake air flow, and that this effect became more pronounced with increasing engine speed. Velocity measurements were made at five locations on the symmetry plane of the cylinder, with the engine motored at 750 rpm. Comparison of these measurements with, and without, injection revealed that the in-cylinder charge motion was significantly altered by the injection event.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Crank Angle Resolved Measurements of Burned Gas Residual Fraction in the Cylinder of an SI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1921
A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Liquid-Phase Fuel Distributions in a Centrally-Injected Four-Valve Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1998-10-19
982699
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on the spatial and temporal development of injected fuel sprays within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. It was found that the structure of the injected fuel sprays varied significantly with the timing of the injection event. During the induction stroke and the early part of the compression stroke, the development of the injected fuel sprays was shown to be controlled by the state of the intake and intake-generated gas flows at the start of injection (SOI).The relative influence of these two flow regimes on the injected fuel sprays during this period was also observed to change with injection timing, directly affecting tip penetration, spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. Later in the compression stroke, the results show the development of the injected fuel sprays to be dominated by the increased cylinder pressure at SOI.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970625
Multidimensional modeling is used to study air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the start of fuel injection on gas/spray interactions, wall wetting, fuel vaporization rate and air-fuel ratio distributions in this paper. It was found that the in-cylinder gas/spray interactions vary with fuel injection timing which directly impacts spray characteristics such as tip penetration and spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. It was also found that, compared with a non-spray case, the mixture temperature at the end of the compression stroke decreases substantially in spray cases due to in-cylinder fuel vaporization. The computed trapped-mass and total heat-gain from the cylinder walls during the induction and compression processes were also shown to be increased in spray cases.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

2001-05-07
2001-01-1975
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR, Swirl, and Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperatures of a Throttled Light-Duty Diesel Engine under Idle Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0544
This study extends a previous study on the effects of intake throttling and post-injection on light-duty Diesel engine exhaust temperatures and emissions, and includes the effects of EGR, in-cylinder swirl air motion, and cylinder deactivation. The baseline injection strategy was adapted from a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze having an engine similar to the light-duty GM engine used for this study. While the engine was fixed to a motoring engine dynamometer, the dynamometer was not active for the study, as the engine was operated under idle conditions. The desired idle speed was controlled using a feedback loop in the control algorithm to vary the duration of the main injection event. Three methods were investigated. In the first method, the engine was operated fully warmed up, firing all four cylinders.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Measurements of Flame Kernel Growth and Motion Correlated with Combustion Duration

1990-02-01
900023
A recently developed spark plug equipped with fiber-optic flame-arrival detectors has been used to measure the motion and rate of growth of the early flame kernel. The cylinder pressure and gas velocity in the spark gap were measured simultaneously with the flame kernel measurements, permitting the data to be analyzed on a cycle-by-cycle basis to identify cause-and-effect correlations between the measured parameters. The data were obtained in a homogeneous-charge research engine that could be modified to produce three very different flow fields: (1) high swirl with high turbulence intensity, (2) tumble vortex with moderate turbulence intensity, and (3) negligible bulk motion with low turbulence intensity. The results presented show a moderate correlation between the combustion duration and the rate of growth of the flame kernel, but virtually no correlation with either the magnitude or direction of movement of the flame kernel away from the spark gap.
Technical Paper

A Full-Cycle Multi-Zone Quasi-Dimensional Direct Injection Diesel Engine Model Based on a Conceptual Model Developed from Imaging Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0537
A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Data Generation Facility for Internal Combustion Engine Evaluation and Development

1990-02-01
900166
A super-microcomputer is utilized in an engine-dynamometer facility to create a comprehensive engine evaluation system. A unique feature of this system is the combination of experimental and modelling activities in evaluating engine designs. The system acquires engine operating conditions, emissions, and dynamic cylinder and manifold pressures via the data acquisition interface. After acquisition, the computer is also capable of providing engine model predictions from either an empirical model or a zero-dimensional thermodynamic model. The data gathering process is speed limited by the settling time of the engine-dynamometer system. The acquisition and modelling procedures are controlled by an internally developed, menu driven, software package. Features of the system include commercial relational database software for rapid storage and retrieval of acquired data and a high resolution graphics monitor for immediate display of analyzed pressure data.
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