Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 9 of 9
Technical Paper

The Air Flow About an Exposed Racing Wheel

A radio telemetry system has been designed and developed at Durham University that enables surface pressure data to be transmitted from a rotating racing wheel to a host PC, where data post-processing is carried out. A multi-element wheel rim has been designed to allow the telemetry system to be located inside a pneumatic tire. Surface pressure distributions around the centerline of the wheel show good agreement with previous research. A flow field investigation has also been conducted, downstream of the wheel, for both stationary and rotating wheel cases. The results presented highlight some of the key features of the flow field and give confidence in the telemetry system.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Stability of a Le Mans Prototype Race Car Under Off-Design Pitch Conditions

The current generation of sports racing cars such as those competing under the Le Mans “LM”P and “LM”GTP regulations are particularly sensitive to the pitch of the vehicle. This is a consequence of the low ground clearances that must be adopted to maximise the benefits that can be gained from ground effect and of the very large floor plan area of these cars. To achieve optimum cornering and straight line performance the suspension characteristics are often tuned to the aerodynamic forces in order to reduce the pitch and hence the drag of the vehicle at high speeds whilst retaining relatively high downforce when cornering. A series of accidents at the 1999 Le Mans 24-hour race have highlighted the potential instability of these vehicles which resulted in the catastrophic ‘take-off’ of one of the “LM”GTP cars during the race and others during qualifying and the pre-race ‘warm-up’.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Forces Induced on a Passenger Vehicle in Response to a Transient Cross-Wind Gust at a Relative Incidence of 30°

The aerodynamic forces induced on a generic ‘hatchback’ model have been measured as it passes through a perpendicular cross-wind jet generating a relative yaw angle of 30°. This has been done in the unique University of Durham automotive wind tunnel, which utilises the stationary model approach, with the cross-wind being introduced by means of a second jet which is separated from the main jet by a moving belt and aperture assembly. Data acquisition was by means of an array of surface pressure tappings. Transient pressure force and moment coefficients have been measured and it is shown that the side and lift forces experienced in the transient situation exceed the steady state values at corresponding yaw angles by between 10% and 20%.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Characteristics of a WRC Rally Car at High Slip Angles

Rally cars are frequently operated at high speeds on loose road surfaces and significant slip angles are achieved when cornering. A wind tunnel test procedure is presented which allows those slip angles to be accommodated whilst maintaining contact between the tires and the wind tunnel's moving ground plane. It is shown that as the slip angle is increased both the drag and lift increase whilst the centre of pressure moves rearwards. Simulations are presented which evaluate the effect of those aerodynamic changes upon the overall performance of the car over a rally stage.
Technical Paper

Racing Car Wheel Aerodynamics – Comparisons between Experimental and CFD Derived Flow-Field Data

Detailed flow-field data have been acquired using experimental and computational techniques in the wake of a 40% full-scale exposed wheel. The experimental investigation focused on taking discrete single-point measurements in the wake using a pneumatic 5-hole pressure probe. A wake integral method was used to compute the total drag force acting on the wheel. The computational aspects of the investigation used the commercially available Fluent 6.0 CFD package. A tetrahedral volume mesh was used to discretise the flow domain and the k-ε turbulence model was used for all calculations. The boundary conditions were set according to the experiment. As the tire rotates the work done on its surface shear layer leads to increased velocities and compression immediately ahead of the contact patch which results in pressure coefficients in excess of unity. This leads to an outflow from this high pressure zone; an effect that is known as jetting. The reverse effect occurs behind the contact patch.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into Unsteadiness and Instability in Passenger Car Aerodynamics

Flow unsteadiness has been investigated experimentally for two idealised model geometries including the Ahmed form. Several techniques were used including twin hot-wire probes located at different positions in the wake and a frequency domain correction method for pneumatic tubing. Levels of periodicity in the wakes and on the surfaces of the models have been examined using spectral analysis techniques. Unsteadiness was found to originate from movement of the closed separation bubble at the end of the large radii at the front of the models and from vortex shedding when large radius curved rear surfaces are present.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Flow-Field About an Exposed Racing Wheel

Detailed flow-field measurements in the wake of a 40 percent full-scale exposed wheel have been obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Additional data have been acquired in the form of surface static pressure measurements acquired using the Durham University radio telemetry system. The results presented in this paper compare and contrast, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the physical differences that exist with respect to the flow structures of rotating and non-rotating wheels. Some of the ‘special’ features of the flow-field postulated by Fackrell, such as the ‘jetting’ phenomenon, have been revisited, examined and revised based on the surface static pressure and PIV data presented in this paper. The experimental observation of a flow mechanism is presented in terms of the rear jetting after the line of contact, and the effects of this have been considered and analyzed.
Technical Paper

An Improved Wind Tunnel Configuration for the Investigation of Aerodynamic Cross Wind Gust Response

An improved technique is described for the experimental modeling of transient cross wind gust influences on passenger vehicles. The new configuration uses a set of vertical axis shutters which open and close in a ‘Mexican wave’ fashion to scan the cross wind jet along the working section of the wind tunnel. The new arrangement dramatically increases the rate at which experiments can be performed and offers the opportunity to apply phase-averaging techniques to multiple data sets in order to reduce noise. This is a significant development as most previous test methods have suffered from poor signal to noise ratios. Experimental results are presented for transient surface pressure measurements on a simplified vehicle model which clearly demonstrate the benefits of the new technique.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Investigation on the Effect of Varying Through-Hub Flow on a Formula One Front Wheel Assembly

For open wheel race cars the front wheel flow and the interaction of its wake with downstream components is of significant importance. Considerable effort goes into the design of front wing end plates, barge boards and underfloor components in order to manage the front wheel flow. In this study a 50% scale Formula One front wheel assembly has been tested in the Durham University 2m₂ open jet wind tunnel to evaluate the effect of through-hub flow on its cooling drag and flow structures. Varying the amount of through-hub flow gave rise to a negative cooling drag trend whereby increasing the flow through the hub resulted in a decrease in drag. This observation has been explained both qualitatively and quantitatively by inlet spillage drag. Lower than optimum airflows through the brake scoop result in undesirable separation at the inside edge and hence, an increase in drag (reversing the cooling drag trend).