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Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Ash Accumulation and Mobility in Ceramic Exhaust Particulate Filters and Potential for Improved Ash Management

2014-04-01
2014-01-1517
Ash accumulation in the channels of ceramic, honeycomb-type particulate filters is controlled by several key parameters, which are the focus of this study. Ultimately, it is the formation of ash deposits, their transport, and the manner in which the ash accumulates in the particulate filter, which determines the useful service life of the filter and its resulting impact on engine performance. Although significant variations in ash deposit properties and their spatial distribution within the filter channels have been reported, depending on the filter's application, understanding the key parameters and mechanisms, such as the effects of exhaust flow and temperature conditions, as well as the processes occurring during filter regeneration events (whether passive or active) are critical in developing improved filter ash management strategies.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Inside DPF Inlet Channels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1584
Ash inside a honeycomb-configured diesel particulate filter (DPF) inlet channel accumulates both as a cake layer along the channel walls and as a “plug” towards the back of the channel. Experimental studies of DPF ash distribution have shown both an axial variation of deposits along channels and accumulation towards the end plugs. This study evaluates the sensitivity of DPF pressure drop on ash axial distribution and the potential to reduce flow restrictions by controlling and optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF channels. A computational model has been used in conjunction with experimental data to illustrate the sensitivity of ash spatial distribution on DPF performance. The classical constant-thickness DPF one-dimensional models have substantially been updated to include layer thickness axial variations. Material properties, such as ash characteristics, are provided by recent experiments at the authors' laboratory.
Journal Article

Soot and Ash Deposition Characteristics at the Catalyst-Substrate Interface and Intra-Layer Interactions in Aged Diesel Particulate Filters Illustrated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Milling

2012-04-16
2012-01-0836
The accumulation of soot and lubrication-derived ash particles in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) increases exhaust flow restriction and negatively impacts engine efficiency. Previous studies have described the macroscopic phenomenon and general effects of soot and ash accumulation on filter pressure drop. In order to enhance the fundamental understanding, this study utilized a novel apparatus that of a dual beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB), to investigate microscopic details of soot and ash accumulation in the DPF. Specifically, FIB provides a minimally invasive technique to analyze the interactions between the soot, ash, catalyst/washcoat, and DPF substrate with a high degree of measurement resolution. The FIB utilizes a gallium liquid metal ion source which produces Ga+ ions of sufficient momentum to directionally mill away material from the soot, ash, and substrate layers on a nm-μm scale.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Ash Packing and Distribution in Diesel Particulate Filters to Transient Changes in Exhaust Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-1093
Current CJ-4 lubricant specifications place chemical limits on diesel engine oil formulations to minimize the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in diesel particulate filters (DPF). While lubricant additive chemistry plays a strong role in determining the amount and type of ash accumulated in the DPF, a number of additional factors play important roles as well. Relative to soot particles, whose residence time in the DPF is short-lived, ash particles remain in the filter for a significant fraction of the filter's useful life. While it is well-known that the properties (packing density, porosity, permeability) of soot deposits are primarily controlled by the local exhaust conditions at the time of particle deposition in the DPF, the cumulative operating history of the filter plays a much stronger role in controlling the properties and distribution of the accumulated ash.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Engine and Aftertreatment System Control Using Fast Response Particulate Filter Sensors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0918
Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
Journal Article

Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Soot and Ash Level Sensors: Enabling Adaptive Controls for Heavy-Duty Diesel Applications

2014-09-30
2014-01-2349
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are a key component in many on- and off-road aftertreatment systems to meet increasingly stringent particle emissions limits. Efficient thermal management and regeneration control is critical for reliable and cost-effective operation of the combined engine and aftertreatment system. Conventional DPF control systems predominantly rely on a combination of filter pressure drop measurements and predictive models to indirectly estimate the soot loading state of the filter. Over time, the build-up of incombustible ash, primarily derived from metal-containing lubricant additives, accumulates in the filter to levels far exceeding the DPF's soot storage limit. The combined effects of soot and ash build-up dynamically impact the filter's pressure drop response, service life, and fuel consumption, and must be accurately accounted for in order to optimize engine and aftertreatment system performance.
Technical Paper

Potential of a Low Pressure Drop Filter Concept for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines to Reduce Particulate Number Emission

2012-04-16
2012-01-1241
The automotive industry is currently evaluating the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) as a potential technology to reduce particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. In this paper, several GPF design measures which were taken to obtain a filter with lower pressure drop when compared to our previous concept will be presented. Based on engine test bench and vehicle test results, it was determined some soot will accumulate on the GPF walls, resulting in an increase in pressure drop. However, the accumulated soot will be combusted under high temperature and high O₂ concentration conditions. In a typical vehicle application, passive regeneration will likely occur and a cycle of soot accumulation and combustion might be repeated in the actual driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Particulate Filter Soot Load Measurements using Radio Frequency Sensors and Potential for Improved Filter Management

2016-04-05
2016-01-0943
Efficient aftertreatment management requires accurate sensing of both particulate filter soot and ash levels for optimized feedback control. Currently a combination of pressure drop measurements and predictive models are used to indirectly estimate the loading state of the filter. Accurate determination of filter soot loading levels is challenging under certain operating conditions, particularly following partial regeneration events and at low flow rate (idle) conditions. This work applied radio frequency (RF)-based sensors to provide a direct measure of the particulate filter soot levels in situ. Direct measurements of the filter loading state enable advanced feedback controls to optimize the combined engine and aftertreatment system for improved DPF management. This study instrumented several cordierite and aluminum titanate diesel particulate filters with RF sensors. The systems were tested on a range of light- and heavy-duty applications, which included on- and off-road engines.
Journal Article

On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0950
The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications.
Technical Paper

Next Generation of Ceramic Wall Flow Gasoline Particulate Filter with Integrated Three Way Catalyst

2015-04-14
2015-01-1073
A Particle Number (PN) limit for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles was introduced in Europe from September 2014 (Euro 6b). In addition, further certification to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) is planned [1] [2], which requires low and stable emissions in a wide range of engine operation, which must be durable for at least 160,000 km. To achieve such stringent targets, a ceramic wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) is one potential emission control device. This paper focuses on a catalyzed GPF, combining particle trapping and catalytic conversion into a single device. The main parameters to be considered when introducing this technology are filtration efficiency, pressure drop and catalytic conversion. This paper portrays a detailed study starting from the choice of material recipe, design optimization, engine bench evaluation, and final validation inside a standard vehicle from the market during an extensive field test up to 160,000 km on public roads.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Cordierite Honeycomb Substrate for SCR Coating Realizing System Compactness and Low Backpressure

2012-04-16
2012-01-1079
Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Lean NOx Trap (LNT) systems are key technologies to reduce NOx emission for diesel on-highway vehicles to meet worldwide tighter emission regulations. In addition DeNOx catalysts have already been applied to several commercial off-road applications. Adding the DeNOx catalyst to existing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) emission control system requires additional space and will result in an increase of emission system back pressure. Therefore it is necessary to address optimizing the DeNOx catalyst in regards to back pressure and downsizing. Recently, extruded zeolite for DeNOx application has been considered. This technology improves NOx conversion at low temperature due to the high catalyst amount. However, this technology has concerned about strength and robustness, because the honeycomb body is composed of catalyst.
Technical Paper

New Evaluation Method for Thermal Shock Resistance of Honeycomb Substrates

2016-04-05
2016-01-0931
Honeycomb substrates are widely used to reduce harmful emissions from gasoline engines and are exposed to numerous thermal shocks during their lifetime making thermal shock resistance one of the key factors in designing honeycomb substrates. More stringent emission regulations will require the honeycomb substrates to be lighter in weight to improve light-off performance and to have better thermal shock resistance than conventional honeycomb substrates to handle higher expected temperature gradients. Thermal shock resistance is generally evaluated on a substrate by evaluating the thermal strain caused by temperature gradients inside the substrate during durability testing [1,2]. During the test, a heated substrate is cooled at a surface face to generate temperature gradients while the temperature inside the honeycomb substrate is monitored by multiple thermocouples.
Technical Paper

Modeling Study of Metal Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1047
Sintered metal fiber (SMF) diesel particulate filters (DPF) has more than one order of magnitude lower pressure drop compared to a granular or reaction-born DPF of the same (clean) filtration efficiency. To better understand the filtration process and optimize the filter performance, metal fiber filter models are developed in this study. The major previous theoretical models for clean fibrous filter are summarized and compared with experimental data. Furthermore, a metal fiber DPF soot loading model, using similar concept developed in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter modeling, is built to simulate filter soot loading performance. Compared with experimental results, the soot loading model has relatively good predictions of filter pressure drop and filtration efficiency.
Journal Article

Lubricant-Derived Ash Impact on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance

2016-04-05
2016-01-0942
The increasing use of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines coupled with the implementation of new particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) emissions regulations requires new emissions control strategies. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one approach to reduce particle emissions. Although primarily composed of combustible material which may be removed through oxidation, particle also contains incombustible components or ash. Over the service life of the filter the accumulation of ash causes an increase in exhaust backpressure, and limits the useful life of the GPF. This study utilized an accelerated aging system to generate elevated ash levels by injecting lubricant oil with the gasoline fuel into a burner system. GPFs were aged to a series of levels representing filter life up to 150,000 miles (240,000 km). The impact of ash on the filter pressure drop and on its sensitivity to soot accumulation was investigated at specific ash levels.
Technical Paper

Loading and Regeneration Analysis of a Diesel Particulate Filter with a Radio Frequency-Based Sensor

2010-10-25
2010-01-2126
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.
Technical Paper

Influence of Material Properties and Pore Design Parameters on Non-Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance with Ash Accumulation

2012-09-10
2012-01-1728
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are a common component in emission-control systems of modern clean diesel vehicles. Several DPF materials have been used in various applications. Silicone Carbide (SiC) is common for passenger vehicles because of its thermal robustness derived from its high specific gravity and heat conductivity. However, a segmented structure is required to relieve thermal stress due to SiC's higher coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Cordierite (Cd) is a popular material for heavy-duty vehicles. Cordierite which has less mass per given volume, exhibits superior light-off performance, and is also adequate for use in larger monolith structures, due to its lower CTE. SiC and cordierite are recognized as the most prevalent DPF materials since the 2000's. The DPF traps not only combustible particles (soot) but also incombustible ash. Ash accumulates in the DPF and remains in the filter until being physically removed.
Journal Article

In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport in Diesel Particulate Filters During Active and Passive DPF Regeneration Processes

2013-04-08
2013-01-0519
The formation and transport processes governing the build-up of incombustible ash deposits in diesel particulate filters (DPF) are influenced to a large extent by the filter's operating history. More specifically, the regeneration process, whether active, passive, or some variation of the two, has long been assumed to exert significant influence on the resulting ash characteristics. Until recently, only limited circumstantial evidence was available to describe differences in ash properties and distribution impacting DPF performance for filters subjected to different regeneration strategies. This work presents, for the first time, results from a comprehensive series of evaluations with optically-accessible DPF core samples showing the processes controlling the formation, transport, and interaction of the soot and ash deposits over a range of DPF regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

High Porosity DPF Design for Integrated SCR Functions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0843
Diesel engines are more fuel efficient due to their high thermal efficiency, compared to gasoline engines and therefore, have a higher potential to reduce CO2 emissions. Since diesel engines emit higher amounts of Particulate Matter (PM), DPF systems have been introduced. Today, DPF systems have become a standard technology. Nevertheless, with more stringent NOx emission limits and CO2 targets, additional NOx emission control is needed. For high NOx conversion efficiency, SCR catalysts technology shows high potential. Due to higher temperature at the close coupled position and space restrictions, an integrated SCR concept on the DPFs is preferred. A high SCR catalyst loading will be required to have high conversion efficiency over a wide range of engine operations which causes high pressure for conventional DPF materials.
Journal Article

Direct Measurements of Soot/Ash Affinity in the Diesel Particulate Filter by Atomic Force Microscopy and Implications for Ash Accumulation and DPF Degradation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1486
Inorganic engine lubricant additives, which have various specific, necessary functions such as anti-wear, leave the combustion chamber bound to soot particles (approximately ≤1% by mass) as ash [13], and accumulate in aftertreatment components. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is especially susceptible to ash-related issues due to its wall-flow architecture which physically traps most of the soot and ash emissions. Accumulated lubricant-derived ash results in numerous problems including increased filter pressure drop and decreased catalytic functionality. While much progress has been made to understand the macroscopic details and effects of ash accumulation on DPF performance, this study explores the nano- and micron-scale forces which impact particle adhesion and mobility within the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Direct Measurement of Aftertreatment System Stored Water Levels for Improved Dew Point Management Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0739
Reducing cold-start emissions to meet increasingly stringent emissions limits requires fast activation of exhaust system sensors and aftertreatment control strategies. One factor delaying the activation time of current exhaust sensors, such as NOx and particulate matter (PM) sensors, is the need to protect these sensors from water present in the exhaust system. Exposure of the ceramic sensing element to water droplets can lead to thermal shock and failure of the sensor. In order to prevent such failures, various algorithms are employed to estimate the dew point of the exhaust gas and determine when the exhaust system is sufficiently dry to enable safe sensor operation. In contrast to these indirect, model-based approaches, this study utilized radio frequency (RF) sensors typically applied to monitor soot loading levels in diesel and gasoline particulate filters, to provide a direct measurement of stored water levels on the ceramic filter elements themselves.
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