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Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1255
A KIA Soul was instrumented to measure the relative velocity (magnitude and yaw angle) at the front of the vehicle and in-cabin sound at a location close to the side glass near the A-pillar vortex impingement. Tests were conducted at a proving ground under a range of conditions from low wind conditions (~3 m/s) to moderate (7-8 m/s) wind speeds. For any given set of atmospheric conditions the velocity and sound data at any given position on the proving ground were noted to be very repeatable, indicating that the local wakes dominated the "turbulent" velocity field. Testing was also conducted in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel in smooth flow and with a number of novel turbulence generating methods. The resulting sounds were analyzed to study the modulation at frequencies likely to result in fluctuation strength type noise.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Vehicle Cooling System Performance at High Blockage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0351
Wind tunnels provide a convenient, repeatable method of assessing vehicle engine cooling, yet important draw-backs are the lack of a moving ground and rotating wheels, blockage constraints and, in some tunnels, the inability to simulate ambient temperatures. A series of on-road and wind-tunnel experiments has been conducted to validate a process for evaluating vehicle cooling system performance in a high blockage aerodynamic wind tunnel with a fixed ground simulation. Airflow through the vehicle front air intake was measured via a series of pressure taps and the wind-tunnel velocity was adjusted to match the corresponding pressures found during the road tests. In order to cope with the inability to simulate ambient temperatures, the technique of Specific Dissipation (SD) was used (which has previously been shown to overcome this problem).
Technical Paper

Turbulence Experienced by Road Vehicles under Normal Driving Conditions

1995-02-01
950997
Two domains of aerodynamic testing of vehicles are identified; one representing typical driving conditions, where the average atmospheric wind is less than about 10 m/s; the other representing driving under extreme wind conditions for safety considerations. The first domain influences fuel consumption and other parameters related to driving comfort (e.g. aerodynamic noise, transient forces and transient moments experienced during general driving), whereas the second needs to be assessed for stability considerations. The purpose of this paper is to document turbulence commonly encountered by vehicles moving at highway speeds under typical driving conditions. In order to document this, data obtained from hot-wire anemometers fitted above a moving vehicle are presented. It was found that longitudinal and lateral turbulence intensities ranged between 2.5% to 5% and 2.0% to 10% respectively.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part Two: Effects on Vehicle Development and Simulation of Turbulence

2007-04-16
2007-01-1237
This paper summarises the effects of turbulence on the aerodynamics of road vehicles, including effects on forces and aero-acoustics. Data are presented showing that a different design of some vehicles may result when turbulent flow is employed. Methods for generating turbulence, focusing on physical testing in full-size wind tunnels, are discussed. The paper is Part Two of a review of turbulence and road vehicles. Part One (Cooper and Watkins, 2007) summarised the sources and nature of the turbulence experienced by surface vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part One: A Review of the On-road Turbulent Wind Environment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1236
This paper is the first of two papers that address the simulation and effects of turbulence on surface vehicle aerodynamics. This, the first paper, focuses on the characteristics of the turbulent flow field encountered by a road vehicle. The natural wind environment is usually unsteady but is almost universally replaced by a smooth flow in both wind tunnel and computational domains. In this paper, the characteristics of turbulence in the relative-velocity co-ordinate system of a moving ground vehicle are reviewed, drawing on work from Wind Engineering experience. Data are provided on typical turbulence levels, probability density functions and velocity spectra to which vehicles are exposed. The focus is on atmospheric turbulence, however the transient flow field from the wakes of other road vehicles and roadside objects are also considered.
Technical Paper

The Passenger Vehicle Wake Under the Influence of Upstream Turbulence

2003-03-03
2003-01-0650
In this study, flow measurements were taken in the wake of a 3/10 scale model of a passenger vehicle using a high frequency, four-hole pressure probe (Dynamic Cobra Probe). The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of the wake development of a passenger vehicle in isolation (in order to provide representative input boundary conditions for CFD and EFD simulations of vehicles traveling in traffic) and to also investigate the wake properties under the influence of upstream turbulence (i.e. with a turbulence generator upstream). The results from several downstream planes are presented and include the time-averaged contour plots of turbulence intensity, velocity deficit and vorticity and cross-flow velocity fields. The presence of increased levels of upstream turbulence mostly affected the upper region of the vehicle wake. In this region, the A-pillar vortex was reduced in size and strength, while the C-pillar vortex had increased in both respects.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Upstream Turbulence on an Exposed Wheel Wake

2014-04-01
2014-01-0616
As open-wheeled racing cars frequently race in close proximity, a limiting factor on the ability to overtake is the aerodynamic performance of the vehicle while operating in a leading car's wake. Whilst various studies have examined the effectiveness of wings operating in turbulent flow, there has been limited research undertaken on the aerodynamic effect of such conditions on wheels. This study describes the influence of upstream turbulence on the wake flow features of an isolated wheel, since the flow field of a wheel will generally be turbulent (due to the wakes of upstream cars and/or bodywork). Pressure distributions and velocity vector plots are examined, which were obtained using a four-hole pressure-sensitive Cobra probe on a traverse 2.5 diameters downstream of the wheel axle line, in smooth and turbulent flow.
Technical Paper

Reduced Drag and Adequate Cooling for Passenger Vehicles Using Variable Area Front Air Intakes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0342
Engine cooling systems are usually designed to meet two rare and extreme conditions; driving at maximum speed and driving up a specified gradient at full throttle while towing a trailer of maximum permitted mass. At all other times, the cooling system operates below its maximum capacity with an incurred drag penalty. In this work it is being suggested to design the system using the existing methods and then vary the area of the cooling air intakes to permit the minimum amount of cooling air for adequate engine cooling. A full-size, Australian made Ford Falcon car (a large modern 'family' saloon) was tested at the Monash University Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel. The cooling air intakes of the vehicle were shielded progressively until fully blocked. Four different possibilities of shielding were investigated with the aim of determining the variation of drag reduction with the shielding method employed.
Technical Paper

On The Causes of Image Blurring in External Rear View Mirrors

2004-03-08
2004-01-1309
Effective rear view vision from external mirrors is compromised at high speed due to rotational vibration of the mirror glass. Possible causes of the mirror vibration are reviewed, including road inputs from the vehicle body and a variety of aerodynamic inputs. The latter included vibrations of the entire vehicle body, vibrations of the mirror “shell”, the turbulent flow field due to the A-pillar vortex (and to a lesser extent the approach flow) and base pressure fluctuations. Experiments are described that attempt to understand the relative influence of the causes of vibration, including road and tunnel tests with mirrors instrumented with micro accelerometers. At low frequencies, road inputs predominate, but some occur at such low frequencies that the human eye can track the moving image. At frequencies above about 20Hz the results indicate that at high speeds aerodynamics play a dominant role.
Technical Paper

Green Racing; Solar and FSAE

2011-10-06
2011-28-0023
Green racing technologies are described with a focus on two categories of sustainable racing; solar racing, including an overview of the World Solar Challenge (WSC) held in Australia, and Formula SAE-E (Society of Automotive Engineers-Electric). Both types of cars utilise sustainably generated electricity, the former uses solar arrays integrated into the vehicle body and the latter electricity generated from a renewable energy park and stored onboard in lithium polymer cells. The design considerations of both vehicles are contrasted with a focus on energy usage minimisation. The Aurora team (which has broken many records, including winning the World Solar Challenge across Australia) is used to illustrate the importance of minimizing the power requirements by having a low aerodynamic drag, frontal area, a highly efficient powertrain and low rolling resistance. To illustrate the technology behind FSAE Electric the R10E car from RMIT is described.
Technical Paper

Effects of Vehicle A-pillar Shape on Local Mean and Time-Varying Flow Properties

2001-03-05
2001-01-1086
Separated flow is the main generator of aerodynamic noise in passenger vehicles. The flow around the A-pillar is central to the wind noise as many modern vehicles still have high fluctuating pressures due to flow separations in this region. Current production vehicle geometry is restricted due to the amount of three dimensionality possible in laminated windscreen glass (and door opening etc). New materials (e.g., polycarbonate) offer the possibility of more streamlined shapes which allow less or no flow separation. Therefore, a series of experimental investigations have been conducted to study the effects of the A-pillar and windshield geometry and yaw angles on the local flow and noise using a group of idealised road vehicle models. Surface mean and fluctuating pressures were measured on the side window in the A-pillar regions of all models at different Reynolds numbers and yaw angles.
Technical Paper

Effects of On-Road Turbulence on Automotive Wind Noise: Comparing Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Tests

1997-02-24
970406
For high-speed driving conditions, the air flow around a car creates wind noise that is transmitted into the cabin, which can dominate other noises. If an atmospheric wind is present, it will create a turbulent cross wind, which not only changes the air flow velocity and direction as experienced by the vehicle, but leads to continuously varying wind noise, as heard inside the car. The purpose of this paper is to look at how the on-road wind environment affects wind noise, and to evaluate the need to simulate real on-road conditions such as fluctuating yaw angles and velocities in vehicle wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

Design of a Morphing Bi-Stable Composite Air Intake

2015-03-10
2015-01-0066
A morphing ram-air intake, capable of deploying from a flat, closed surface to an open state is investigated. Via geometric and material optimisation, an origami-inspired folding structure is developed to exhibit bi-stable behaviour. An iterative finite element design process was conducted, noting the effects of the critical design properties of geometry, bending stiffness and material strain limits on bi-stability and the achievable geometric shape change. As a first step, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer materials are proposed while increased stiffness by fibre reinforcements are considered at a later design stage and evaluated under aerodynamic loading. The bi-stable structure is capable of remaining in either open or closed stable configurations without sustained actuation. The ability to retract the intake when not required has the potential to reduce drag. It is envisioned that such a concept may be readily adopted within automotive and aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

Comparison of On-Road and Wind-Tunnel Tests for Tractor-Trailer Aerodynamic Devices, and Fuel Savings Predictions

1985-02-01
850286
Wind tunnels which are large enough for full-scale trucks are rare, and the cost of satisfactorily-detailed models for smaller tunnels is high. The work presented shows the results from the application of a method which provides an over-the-road evaluation of the incremental changes in fuel consumption and drag coefficient produced following the addition of a variety of aerodynamic drag reducing devices to a tractor-trailer truck combination. The devices tested were an aerodynamic sunvisor, a roof-mounted air deflector, cab extenders, cab skirts, a trailer nose fairing, a set of trailer quads (quarter-rounds), and trailer skirts which were mounted on a low-forward-entry tractor and high box-van trailer. The significant differences between the wind tunnel and on-road drag reductions suggest that the effects of on-road wind turbulence can substantially reduce the wind tunnel results even though a 1.5% turbulence intensity level was used in the tunnel experiments.
Technical Paper

Airflow Parameters Near the Differential of a Rear Drive Passenger Car

2001-03-05
2001-01-1015
The paper presents experimental analysis of the airflow around the differential center housing of a rear drive full-scale passenger car. The study included investigation of local airflow total and static pressure, as well as surface flow visualization. Estimation of the local airflow velocity is based on the measured pressure coefficients. The experiments were carried out at different test facilities: in a climatic wind tunnel, in a full-scale wind tunnel and on-road. Influence of side wind was modeled by the yawing of the car in the full-scale wind tunnel. The results show the asymmetrical structure of the flow in both, vertical and horizontal planes. Estimated longitudinal relative local velocity decreases from maximum Vr ≈ 0.4 at the lower surface of the center housing, to about Vr ≈ 0 above the upper surface. Side wind increases airflow velocity around the center housing within the investigated yaw range ± 20°
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Structure and Development of Formula 1 Racing Car Wakes

2014-04-01
2014-01-0600
For the modern Formula 1 racing car, the degradation in aerodynamic performance when following another car is well documented. The problem can be broken into two parts; firstly the wake flow generated by these vehicles and the subsequent interaction a following car has with this field. Previous research [1, 2 & 3] has focused upon investigating the later without completely characterizing the former. This paper seeks to address this deficiency with initial data from a newly commissioned 30% scale Formula One wind tunnel model built to the 2011 technical regulations. Experimentation was carried out in the Industrial Wind-Tunnel (IWT) at RMIT University. In the absence of a rolling road an elevated ground plane was implemented; the results obtained show good agreement with the limited published material available. Using a high frequency response, four-hole pressure probe the aft body flow was investigated at multiple downstream locations.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance of Vehicles in Platoons: The Influence of Backlight Angles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1547
Future generation road networks are intended to feature improved throughput and significantly reduced fleet energy consumption. ‘Platooning’ arranges moving vehicles in close longitudinal convoy, and is viewed as a core aspect of such technologies. The aerodynamic performance of platoons potentially allows increased traffic throughput and a useful energy reduction; however the magnitude of this reduction varies significantly with inter-vehicle spacing. For some vehicles in platoons under specific conditions, the resulting aerodynamic performance may actually worsen [2]. This work attempts to deconstruct relationships between two key vehicle geometries and their aerodynamic performance in platoons. A study of homogeneous and heterogeneous platoons using common reference models is presented.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Wind Conditions Experienced by a Moving Vehicle

1998-02-01
981182
Vehicle aerodynamic development is normally undertaken in smooth flow wind tunnels. In contrast, the on-road environment is turbulent, with variations in the relative velocity experienced by the moving vehicle caused mainly by the effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this review the turbulence inherent in the atmosphere is considered, following the approach of wind engineers. The variations of atmospheric wind velocity with time, height, terrain and thermal stratification are summarised and discussed. Statistical parameters presented include mean velocity, turbulence intensities, spectra and probability density functions. The resulting fluctuating approach flow (relative velocity) of the moving vehicle is then considered. The effect of the fluctuating velocity field on parameters of interest to vehicle aerodynamicists (such as aerodynamic noise) are made.
Technical Paper

A Method of Flow Measurement About Full-Scale and Model-Scale Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0871
High-frequency pressure probes were used to map the airflow around a full-scale truck during on-road testing and around a model-scale truck during wind tunnel testing. Several configurations were tested during each type of testing. Results are presented for on-road ‘pass-by’ tests and detail velocity and coefficient of pressure variation alongside the truck at different heights. The wind tunnel data are results of flow mapping about a 10% scale model and show the velocity and coefficient of pressure distribution under and around the model truck for different configurations.
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