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Technical Paper

Trade-Offs Between Emissions and Efficiency for Multiple Injections of Neat Biodiesel in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Using an Enhanced PSO-GA Optimization Strategy

Particle Swarm and the Genetic Algorithm were coupled to optimize multiple performance metrics for the combustion of neat biodiesel in a turbocharged, four cylinder, John Deere engine operating under constant partial load. The enhanced algorithm was used with five inputs including EGR, injection pressure, and the timing/distribution of fuel between a pilot and main injection. A merit function was defined and used to minimize five output parameters including CO, NOx, PM, HC and fuel consumption simultaneously. The combination of PSO and GA yielded convergence to a Pareto regime without the need for excessive engine runs. Results along the Pareto front illustrate the tradeoff between NOx and particulate matter seen in the literature.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulation

An integrated numerical model has been developed for diesel engine computations based on the KIVA-II code. The model incorporates a modified RNG k-ε, turbulence model, a ‘wave’ breakup spray model, the Shell ignition model, the laminar-and-turbulent characteristic-time combustion model, a crevice flow model, a spray/wall impingement model that includes rebounding and breaking-up drops, and other improved submodels in the KIVA code. The model was validated and applied to model successfully different types of diesel engines under various operating conditions. These engines include a Caterpillar engine with different injection pressures at different injection timings, a small Tacom engine at different loads, and a Cummins engine modified by Sandia for optical experiments. Good levels of agreement in cylinder pressures and heat release rate data were obtained using the same computer model for all engine cases.
Technical Paper

Predicting Effects of DME on the Operating Range of Natural Gas-Fueled Compression Ignition Engines

Numerical models were used to study the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the operation of a compression-ignition engine fueled with premixed natural gas. The models used multi-dimensional engine CFD coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. Combustion characteristics of various compositions of the natural gas and DME mixture were simulated. Results showed that combustion phasing, nitrogen oxides emissions, and effects of fuel compositions on engine operating limits were well predicted. Chemical kinetics analysis indicated that ignition was achieved by DME oxidation, which, in turn, induced natural gas combustion. It was found that low temperature heat release became more significant as DME concentration increased. For an appropriate amount of DME in the mixture, the stable engine operating range became narrower as natural gas concentration increased. The model also captured the low temperature combustion features of the present engine with low nitrogen oxides emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Diesel Engines with Variable Intake Valve Timing Via Genetic Algorithms

The strategy of variable Intake Valve Closure (IVC) timing, as a means to improve performance and emission characteristics, has gained much acceptance in gasoline engines; yet, it has not been explored extensively in diesel engines. In this study, genetic algorithms are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to investigate the optimum operating variables for a typical heavy-duty diesel engine working with late IVC. The effects of start-of-injection timing, injection duration and exhaust gas recirculation were investigated along with the intake valve closure timing. The results show that appreciable reductions in NOx+HC (∼82%), soot (∼48%) and BSFC (∼7.4%) are possible through this strategy, as compared to a baseline diesel case of (NOx+HC) = 9.48g/kW-hr, soot = 0.17 g/kW-hr and BSFC = 204 g-f/kW-hr. The additional consideration of double injections helps to reduce the high rates of pressure rise observed in a single injection scheme.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Under HCCI-Like Conditions With High EGR Levels

This study considers combustion processes in a heavy-duty diesel engine at various low emissions operating conditions. The start-of-injection timings varied from -20 to 5 ATDC while the EGR levels varied from 6% to 44%. At certain conditions, HCCI-like combustion characteristics were observed under which low emissions could be achieved. The numerical model used is an improved version of KIVA-3V that can simulate spray breakup and mixture autoignition over a wide range of conditions. The ignition and combustion processes were simulated using both detailed and standard (simplified) chemistry models. Model results show that engine combustion and emissions can be predicted reasonably well under the current conditions. The trends of NOx and soot emissions with respect to the injection timings and EGR levels were well captured. However, it was found that the model over-predicted the NOx emissions in certain early injection cases.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of High-Pressure Fast-Response Common Rail Injector Dynamics

Managing the injection rate profile is a powerful tool to control engine performance and emission levels. In particular, Common Rail (C.R.) injection systems allow an almost completely flexible fuel injection event in DI-diesel engines by permitting a free mapping of the start of injection, injection pressure, rate of injection and, in the near future, multiple injections. This research deals with the development of a network-based numerical tool for understanding operating condition limits of the Common Rail injector. The models simulate the electro-fluid-mechanical behavior of the injector accounting for cavitation in the nozzle holes. Validation against experiments has been performed. The model has been used to provide insight into the operating conditions of the injector and in order to highlight the application to injection system design.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experiments of HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Multidimensional CFD

Detailed chemical kinetics was implemented in the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code to study the combustion process in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The CHEMKIN code was implemented such that the chemistry and flow solutions were coupled. Detailed reaction mechanisms were used to simulate the fuel chemistry of ignition and combustion. Effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rates were also considered. The model was validated using the experimental data from two modified heavy-duty diesel engines, including a Volvo engine and a Caterpillar engine operated at the HCCI mode. The results show that good levels of agreement were obtained using the present KIVA/CHEMKIN model for a wide range of engine conditions, including various fuels, injection systems, engine speeds, and EGR levels. Ignition timings were predicted well without the need to adjust any kinetic constants.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Experiments of Dual-Fuel Engine Combustion and Emissions

The combustion and emissions of a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine are studied. Available engine experimental data demonstrates that the dual-fuel configuration provides a potential alternative to diesel engine operation for reducing emissions. The experiments are compared to multi-dimensional model results. The computer code used is based on the KIVA-3V code and consists of updated sub-models to simulate more accurately the fuel spray atomization, auto-ignition, combustion and emissions processes. The model results show that dual-fuel engine combustion and emissions are well predicted by the present multi-dimensional model. Significant reduction in NOx emissions is observed in both the experiments and simulations when natural gas is substituted for diesel fuel. The HC emissions are under predicted by numerical model as the natural gas substitution is increased.
Technical Paper

Modeling Evaporating Diesel Sprays Using an Improved Gas Particle Model

Accurate modeling of evaporating sprays is critical for diesel engine simulations. The standard spray and evaporation models in KIVA-3V tend to under-predict the vapor penetration, especially at high ambient pressure conditions. A sharp decrease of vapor penetration gradient is observed soon after the liquid spray is completely evaporated due to the lack of momentum sources beyond the liquid spray region. In this study, a gas particle model is implemented in KIVA-3V which tracks the momentum sources resulting from the evaporated spray. Lagrangian tracking of imaginary gas particles is considered until the velocity of the gas particle is comparable to that of the gas phase velocity. The gas particle continuously exchanges momentum with the gas phase and as a result the vapor penetrations are improved. The results using the present gas particle model is compared with experimental data over a wide range of ambient conditions and good levels of agreement are observed in vapor penetration.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion and Emissions of HSDI Diesel Engines Using Injectors with Different Included Spray Angles

Combustion in an HSDI diesel engine using different injectors to realize low emissions is modeled using detailed chemical kinetics in this study. Emission characteristics of the engine are investigated using injectors that have different included spray angles, ranging from 50 to 130 degrees. The engine was operated under PCCI conditions featuring early injection times, high EGR levels and high intake temperatures. The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) model was used with the KIVA code for combustion and emission modeling. Modeling results show that spray targeting plays an important role in determining the in-cylinder mixture distributions, which in turn affect the resulting pollutant emissions. High soot emissions are observed for injection conditions that result in locally fuel rich regions due to spray impingement normal to the piston surface.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Diesel Flame Imaging Compared with Numerical Computations

An image acquisition-and-processing camera system was developed for in-cylinder diagnostics of a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. The engine was equipped with an electronically-controlled common-rail fuel injection system that allowed both single and split (multiple) injections to be studied. The imaging system uses an endoscope to acquire luminous flame images from the combustion chamber and ensures minimum modification to the engine geometry. The system also includes an optical linkage, an image intensifier, a CID camera, a frame grabber, control circuitry and a computer. Experiments include both single and split injection cases at 90 MPa and 45 MPa injection pressures at 3/4 load and 1600 rev/min with simulated turbocharging. For the single injection at high injection pressure (90 MPa) the results show that the first luminous emissions from the ignition zone occur very close to the injector exit followed by rapid luminous flame spreading.
Technical Paper

Experiments and CFD Modeling of Direct Injection Gasoline HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study investigated HCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine both experimentally and numerically. The engine was equipped with a hollow-cone pressure-swirl injector using gasoline direct injection. Characteristics of HCCI combustion were obtained by very early injection with a heated intake charge. Experimental results showed an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in UHC as the injection timing was retarded. It was also found that optimization can be achieved by controlling the intake temperature together with the start-of-injection timing. The experiments were modeled by using an engine CFD code with detailed chemistry. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into KIVA-3V such that the chemistry and flow solutions were coupled. The model predicted ignition timing, cylinder pressure, and heat release rates reasonably well. The NOx emissions were found to increase as the injection timing was retarded, in agreement with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Compositions on Diesel Engine Performance Using Ammonia-DME Mixtures

Various mixtures of ammonia (NH₃) and dimethyl ether (DME) were tested in a diesel engine to explore the feasibility of using ammonia as an alternative, non-carbon fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The original diesel fuel injection system was replaced with a new system for injecting ammonia-DME mixtures into the cylinder directly. The injection pressure was maintained at approximately 206 bar for various fuel mixtures including 100% DME, 60%DME-40%NH₃, and 40%DME-60%NH₃ (by weight). As ammonia content was increased in the fuel mixture, the injection timing needed to be advanced to ensure successful engine operation. It was found that cycle-to-cycle variation increased significantly when 40%DME-60%NH₃ was used. In the meantime, combustion of 40%DME-60%NH₃ exhibited HCCI characteristics as the injection timing ranged from 90 to 340 before top-dead-center (BTDC). Emissions data show that soot emissions remained extremely low for the fuel mixtures tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on the Performance of Large Diesel Engines

Particulate matters, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxides emissions from large utility generators using diesel/biodiesel blends were measured. Stack measurements were performed on-site in a number of power plants by following the standard procedure of US EPA. The test engines were chosen to represent typical diesel engines used for electricity generation in the state. Tests were performed using the regular diesel fuel (B0), 10%, 20% and 100% biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B100). Test results showed that particulate matters and carbon monoxides decreased significantly as biodiesel content increases, whereas nitrogen oxides increased. Test results are consistent with other studies using mobile engines in the literature. Note that arbitrary changes in fuel or engine operating conditions are prohibited in power generation industry. Results of this study have been used by the state government to allow the use of biodiesel blends in stationary generators.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

The simultaneous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions form diesel exhaust is key to current research activities. Although various technologies have been introduced to reduce emissions from diesel engines, the in-cylinder reduction of PM and NOx due to improved combustion mechanisms will continue to be an important field in research and development of modern diesel engines. Furthermore increasing prices and question over the availability of diesel fuel derived from crude oil has introduced a growing interest. Hence it is most likely that future diesel engines will be operated on pure biodiesel and/or blends of biodiesel and crude oil-based diesel. In this study the performance of different biodiesel blends under low temperature combustion conditions (i.e., high exhaust gas recirculation and advanced fuel injection schemes) was investigated.
Technical Paper

Coupled 1-D/3-D Analysis of Fuel Injection and Diesel Engine Combustion

One of the most critical elements in diesel engine design is the selection and matching of the fuel injection system. The injection largely controls the combustion process, and with it also a wide range of related issues, such as: fuel efficiency, emissions, startability, load acceptance (acceleration) and combustion noise. Simulation has been a valuable tool for the engine design engineer to predict and optimize key parameters of the fuel injection system. This is a problem that spans a number of subsystems. Historically, simulations of these subsystems (hydraulics, gas dynamics, engine performance and 3-D CFD cylinder modeling) have typically been done in isolation. Recently, a simulation tool has been developed, which models the different subsystems in an integrated manner. This simulation tool combines a 1-D simulation tool for modeling of hydraulic and gas dynamics systems, with 3-D CFD code for modeling the in-cylinder combustion and emissions.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Diesel Engine Calibration Using a Novel SVM-PSO Method

Accelerated computational optimization of a diesel engine calibration was achieved by combining Support Vector Regression models with the Particle Swarm Optimization routine. The framework utilized a full engine simulation as a surrogate for a real engine test with test parameters closely resembling a typical 4.5L diesel engine. Initial tests were run with multi-modal test problems including Rastragin's, Bukin's, Ackely's, and Schubert's functions which informed the ML model tuning hyper-parameters. To improve the performance of the engine the hybrid approach was used to optimize the Fuel Pressure, Injection Timing, Pilot Timing and Fraction, and EGR rate. Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Specific Fuel Consumption are simultaneously reduced. As expected, optimums reflect a late injection strategy with moderately high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Augmentation of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model with Expert Knowledge of Critical Combustion Features for Optimizing a Compression Ignition Engine Using Multiple Injections

The objective of this work was to identify methods of reliably predicting optimum operating conditions in an experimental compression ignition engine using multiple injections. Abstract modeling offered an efficient way to predict large volumes data, when compared with simulation, although the initial cost of constructing such models can be large. This work aims to reduce that initial cost by adding knowledge about the favorable network structures and training rules which are discovered. The data were gathered from a high pressure common rail direct injection turbocharged compression ignition engine utilizing a high EGR configuration. The range of design parameters were relatively large; 100 MPa - 240 MPa for fuel pressure, up to 62% EGR using a modified, long-route, low pressure EGR system, while the pilot timing, main timing, and pilot ratio were free within the safe operating window for the engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Particle Swarm Optimization for Diesel Engine Performance Optimization

A particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was implemented with engine testing in order to accelerate the engine development process. The PSO algorithm is a stochastic, population-based evolutionary optimization algorithm. In this study, PSO was used to reduce exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency. A merit function was defined to help reduce multiple emissions simultaneously. Engine operations using both single-injection and double-injection strategies were optimized. The present PSO algorithm was found to be very effective in finding the favorable operating conditions for low emissions. The optimization usually took 40-70 experimental runs to find the most favorable operating conditions under the constraints specified in the present testing. High EGR levels, small pilot amount, and late main injection were suggested by the PSO. Multiple emissions were reduced simultaneously without a compromise in the brake specific fuel consumption.