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Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

2002-03-04
2002-01-0433
A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

2006-10-16
2006-01-3257
In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit - Part II

2002-03-04
2002-01-0430
In urban areas, particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the pollutants of most concern. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled, “Clean Diesel Vehicle Air Quality Project” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NYSDEC and with active participation from several industry partners. Under this program, 25 NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter systems and have been operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses were evaluated over a 9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit

2001-03-05
2001-01-0511
Particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled “Clean Diesel Demonstration Program” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NY State DEC and with active participation from several industrial partners. Under this program, several NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter system and are operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses are being evaluated over a 8-9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

NOx and PM Reduction Using Combined SCR and DPF Technology in Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2005-11-01
2005-01-3548
The application of oxidation catalyst and particulate filter technology for the reduction of particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from heavy duty diesel engines has become an established practice. The design and performance of such systems have been commercially proven to the point that the application of these technologies is cost effective and durable. The application of an effective NOx reduction technology in heavy duty diesel applications is more complicated since there are no passive NOx reduction technologies that can be fit onto HDD vehicles. However, Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems using Urea injection to achieve NOx reduction have become the technology of choice in Europe and have been applied to achieve Euro IV emissions levels on new HDD vehicles. In addition, retrofit SCR emission control systems have also been developed that can provide high NOx reduction when applied on existing HDD vehicles.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Durability of Passive Diesel Particulate Filters on Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0079
A multi-year technology validation program was completed in 2001 to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different diesel fleets operating in Southern California. The fuels used throughout the validation program were diesel fuels with less than 15-ppm sulfur content. Trucks and buses were retrofitted with two types of passive DPFs. Two rounds of emissions testing were performed to determine if there was any degradation in the emissions reduction. The results demonstrated robust emissions performance for each of the DPF technologies over a one-year period. Detailed descriptions of the overall program and results have been described in previous SAE publications [2, 3, 4, 5]. In 2002, a third round of emission testing was performed by NREL on a small subset of vehicles in the Ralphs Grocery Truck fleet that demonstrated continued robust emissions performance after two years of operation and over 220,000 miles.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control to Meet BS VI Regulations

2017-01-10
2017-26-0125
The next generation advanced emission regulations have been proposed for the Indian heavy duty automotive industry for implementation from 2020. These BS VI emission regulations will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced PM (Particulate Matter) control along with Particle Number limitations. This will require implementation of full DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and simultaneous NOx control using SCR technologies. DPF technologies have already been successfully implemented in Euro VI and US 10 HDD systems. These systems use low temperature NO2 based passive DPF regeneration as well as high temperature oxygen based active DPF regeneration. Effective DPF and DOC designs are essential to enable successful DPF regeneration (minimize soot loading in the DPF) while operating HDD vehicles under transient conditions. DOC designs are optimized to oxidize engine out NO into NO2, which helps with passive DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2004-10-25
2004-01-2959
A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT™ diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made. Bench scale fuel-engine compatibility testing showed the GTL fuel had cold flow properties suitable for year-round use in southern California and was additized to meet current lubricity standards. Bench scale elastomer compatibility testing returned results similar to those of CARB specification diesel fuel. The GTL fuel met or exceeded ASTM D975 fuel properties. Researchers used a chassis dynamometer to test emissions over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and New York City Bus (NYCB) cycles.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance of Cu- and Fe-Based SCR Emission Control Systems for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1329
Since early 2010, most new medium- and heavy-duty diesel vehicles in the US rely on urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for meeting the most stringent regulations on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in the world today. Catalyst technologies of choice include Copper (Cu)- and Iron (Fe)-based SCR. In this work, the performances of Fe-SCR and Cu-SCR were investigated in the most commonly used DOC + CSF + SCR system configuration. Cu-SCR offered advantages over Fe-SCR in terms of low temperature conversion, NO₂:NOx ratio tolerance and NH₃ slip, while Fe-SCR demonstrated superior performance under optimized NO₂:NOx ratio and at higher temperatures. The Cu-SCR catalyst displayed less tolerance to sulfur (S) exposure. Reactor testing has shown that Cu-SCR catalysts deactivate at low temperature when poisoned by sulfur.
Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction in On-road Heavy Duty Diesel Applications with the Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT®) Diesel Particulate Filter

2001-11-01
2001-28-0049
Particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas. With increasing worldwide regulatory requirements to lower particulate matter (PM) standards for heavy duty diesel powered vehicles, the interest in diesel particulate filter based emission control solutions such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT®) have significantly increased. This system has been applied to thousands of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Europe over the last six years to meet various local and governmental requirements, while recently introduced in the US. Among the numerous demonstration programs taking place in the US, one important one is the evaluation of CRT filter systems on urban transit buses in NY City. Here, several NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with CRT filters and operating on ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Options to Achieve Euro IV and Euro V on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2008-01-09
2008-28-0021
The modern Diesel engine is one of the most versatile power sources available for mobile applications. The high fuel economy and torque of the Diesel engine has long resulted in global application for heavy-duty applications. Moreover, the high power and excellent driveability of today's turbo-charged small high-speed Diesel engines, coupled with their low CO2 emissions, has resulted in an increasing demand for Diesel powered light-duty vehicles. However, the demand for Diesel vehicles can only be realised if their exhaust emissions meet the increasingly stringent emissions legislation being introduced around the world. In the USA, both HDD and LDD vehicles are meeting strict emissions legislations since 2007 with the introduction of particle filters which will be further restricted from 2010 with the use of additional NOx contr5ol systems. In Europe, similar strict requirements are being implemented with Euro IV, Euro V and finally through Euro VI legislations.
Technical Paper

Development of an Actively Regenerating DPF System for Retrofit Applications

2006-10-31
2006-01-3553
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) such as the Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT®) particulate filters are known to be highly effective in reducing PM emissions from diesel engines. Passive DPFs such as the CRT filter operate by collecting soot in the filter and subsequently oxidizing this soot in the presence of NO2 generated by an upstream Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). Both the NO2 generation and subsequent soot oxidation reactions require a certain minimum exhaust temperature. In addition, the engine out NOx to PM ratio is also critical for continuous and successful regeneration of the filter. However, these criteria may not always be met, particularly on low temperature applications such as refuse vehicles and newer low NOx (2.5 g/bhp-hr NOx) engines. This paper discusses the development of an actively regenerating diesel particulate filter (ACR-DPF) system for retrofit applications on heavy duty diesel vehicles.
Journal Article

Development of SCR on High Porosity Substrates for Heavy Duty and Off-Road Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1521
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. There is a drive to reduce the overall packaging volume of the aftertreatment system for these applications. In addition, more active SCR catalysts will be needed as the applications become more challenging: e.g. lower temperatures and higher engine out NOx, for fuel consumption improvements. One approach to meet the challenges of reduced volume and/or higher NOx reduction is to increase the active site density of the SCR catalyst by coating higher amount of SCR catalyst on high porosity substrates (HPS). This approach could enable the reduction of the overall packaging volume while maintaining similar NOx conversion as compared to 2010/2013 systems, or improve the NOx reduction performance for equivalent volume and NH3 slip.
Journal Article

Development of SCR on Diesel Particulate Filter System for Heavy Duty Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1312
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2010 Heavy-Duty systems include a DOC along with a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, to enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CSF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCR-DPF) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging. In this work, a system consisting of SCR-DPF was evaluated in comparison to the DOC + CSF components from a commercial 2010 DOC + CSF + SCR system on an engine with the engine EGR on (standard engine-out NOx) and off (high engine-out NOx).
Technical Paper

Development of Partial Filter Technology for HDD Retrofit

2006-04-03
2006-01-0213
Diesel oxidation catalyst and particulate filter technologies are well established and their applications are well known. However, there are certain limitations with both technologies due to their inherent technical characteristics. Both technologies get 75-90% reduction of HC and CO. A typical oxidation catalyst can be applied to almost any heavy duty diesel application and achieve 20 to 30% reduction in PM mass but no significant reduction in the number of PM particles. On the other hand, diesel particulate filters are very effective at removing >90% of the particles by mass and >99% by number. Unfortunately, passive DPF technology cannot be applied to all applications since the filter regeneration is limited by engine out NOx to PM ratio as well as exhaust temperature. For this reason, particulate filters can not universally be applied to older “dirtier” engines with high PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Control Systems to Enable High NOx Conversion on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1525
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, which will require increasingly higher NOx conversion to meet emission regulations. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as SCR coated on filter (SCRF®) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversion. In this work, different options were evaluated for achieving high NOx conversion. First, high performance NOx control catalysts were designed by using SCRF unit followed by additional SCR on high porosity substrates. Second, different control strategies were evaluated to understand the effect of reductant dosing strategy and thermal management on NOx conversion. Tests were carried out on a HD engine under transient test cycles.
Journal Article

Development of Emission Control Systems to Enable High NOx Conversion on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0992
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, while discussions are in progress for tightening NOx emissions from HD engines post 2020. This will require increasingly higher NOx conversions across the emission control system and will challenge the current aftertreatment designs. Typical 2010/2013 Heavy Duty systems include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) along with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst, SCR coated on filter (SCRF® hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversions, in combination with improved control strategies.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of SCR on a Diesel Particulate Filter System on a Heavy Duty Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-1033
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts have been demonstrated as an effective solution for controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines. Typical 2013 Heavy Duty Diesel emission control systems include a DOC upstream of a catalyzed soot filter (CSF) which is followed by urea injection and the SCR sub-assembly. There is a strong desire to further increase the NOx conversion capability of such systems, which would enable additional fuel economy savings by allowing engines to be calibrated to higher engine-out NOx levels. One potential approach is to replace the CSF with a diesel particulate filter coated with SCR catalysts (SCRF® technology, hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) while keeping the flow-through SCR elements downstream, which essentially increases the SCR volume in the after-treatment assembly without affecting the overall packaging.
Technical Paper

Combined SCR and DPF Technology for Heavy Duty Diesel Retrofit

2005-04-11
2005-01-1862
The retrofitting of diesel engines with oxidation catalyst and particulate filter technology for the reduction of particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has become an established practice. The design and performance of such systems have been commercially proven to the point that the application of these technologies is a cost effective means for states to effectively meet pollution reduction goals. One of the reasons that these technologies are so widely applied is because they can be sized and fitted based on easily measurable vehicle parameters and published engine emission information. These devices generally work passively with basic temperature and back pressure monitoring devices being used to alert the operator to upset conditions. The application of an effective NOx reduction technology in similar retrofit installation, is more complicated. There are no passive NOx reduction technologies that can be retrofit onto HDD vehicles.
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