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Technical Paper

Thermodynamical and Mechanical Approach Towards a Variable Valve Train for the Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion Process

2005-04-11
2005-01-0762
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) as a promising future combustion process is a concept to strongly reduce fuel consumption as well as NOx emissions. The acceptance and the potential of this combustion process depends on the possible CAI operation range in the engine map and the fuel consumption benefit, as well as the complexity of the variable valve train which is necessary to realize the CAI combustion process. The thermodynamic investigations presented in this paper were done on an engine equipped with an electromechanical valve train (EMVT), featuring Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and direct Injection. They show that the electromechanical valve train is an excellent platform for developing the CAI process. Controlled Auto Ignition has been realized with port fuel injection in a speed range between 1000 and 4500 rpm and in a load range between approximately 1 and 6 bar BMEP (about 5 bar BMEP for pressure gradients lower than 3 bar/°CA) depending on engine speed.
Journal Article

Thermal Shock Protection for Diesel Particulate Filters

2011-12-15
2011-01-2429
During a thermal regeneration of a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) the temperature inside the DPF may raise above critical thresholds in an uncontrolled way (thermal shock). Especially driving conditions with a comparable low exhaust gas mass flow and high oxygen content like idle speed may create a thermal shock. This paper presents a concept for an ECU software structure to prevent the DPF from reaching improper temperatures and the methodology in order to calibrate this ECU structure. The concept deals in general with a closed-loop control of the exhaust gas air-fuel-ratio during the critical engine operation phases. Those critical operation phases are identified at the engine test bench during “Drop-to-Idle” and “Drop-to-Overrun” experiments. The experiments show that those phases are critical having on the one hand a low exhaust gas mass flow and on the other hand a high oxygen percentage in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Objectified Drivability Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles in Automated Longitudinal Vehicle Drive Maneuvers with Engine Load Changes

2019-04-02
2019-01-1286
To achieve global market and brand specific drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition for the increasing number of passenger car derivatives, an objectified evaluation approach for the drivability capabilities of the various cars is required. Thereto, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of different engine concepts in various complex and interlinked powertrain topologies during engine load change maneuvers based on physical criteria. Such an objectification approach enables frontloading of drivability related engineering tasks by the execution of drivability development and calibration work within vehicle subcomponent-specific closed-loop real-time co-simulation environments in early phases of a vehicle development program. So far, drivability functionalities could be developed and calibrated only towards the end of a vehicle development program, when test vehicles with a sufficient level of product maturity became available.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

2015-04-14
2015-01-0399
In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Journal Article

Mixture-Formation Analysis by PLIF in an HSDI Diesel Engine Using C8-Oxygenates as the Fuel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0960
With increasing interest in new biofuel candidates, 1-octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE) were presented in recent studies. Although these molecular species are isomers, their properties are substantially different. In contrast to DNBE, 1-octanol is almost a gasoline-type fuel in terms of its auto-ignition quality. Thus, there are problems associated with engine start-up for neat 1-octanol. In order to find a suitable glow-plug position, mixture formation is studied in the cylinder under almost idle operating conditions in the present work. This is conducted by planar laser-induced fluorescence in a high-speed direct-injection optical diesel engine. The investigated C8-oxygenates are also significantly different in terms of their evaporation characteristics. Thus, in-cylinder mixture formation of these two species is compared in this work, allowing conclusions on combustion behavior and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Integrated Air Supply and Humidification Concepts for Fuel Cell Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0233
In this paper different air management system concepts including mechanical superchargers and turbochargers are analysed with regard to their suitability for fuel cell applications. Therefore a simulation model which takes the main mass, energy and heat flows in the fuel cell system including fuel evaporation, reformer, gas cleaning, humidification, burner and compressor/expander unit into account was setup. For a PEM system with methanol steam reformer the best system efficiencies at rated power can be achieved with a turbocharger in combination with a tailgas burner for operating pressures between 2.5 and 2.8 bar. For pure hydrogen systems the best system efficiency is obtained with an electric driven supercharger for a maximum pressure of 2 bar and an appropriate pressure strategy during part load operation in the complete operating range. The increase of system efficiency for pressurized stack operation is mainly attributed to advantages with regard to water management.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1275
Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Influence of Vehicle Operators and Fuel Grades on Particulate Emissions of an SI Engine in Dynamic Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0350
With the implementation of the “Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure” (WLTP) and the highly dynamic “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE) tests in Europe, different engineering methodologies from virtual calibration approaches to Engine-in-the-loop (EiL) methods have to be considered to define and calibrate efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies without the availability of prototype vehicles in early project phases. Since different types of testing facilities can be used, the effects of test benches as well as real and virtual vehicle operators have to be determined. Moreover, in order to effectively reduce harmful emissions, the reproducibility of test cycles is essential for an accurate and efficient application of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems and the calibration of internal combustion engines.
Journal Article

Improving Engine Efficiency and Emission Reduction Potential of HVO by Fuel-Specific Engine Calibration in Modern Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2017-10-08
2017-01-2295
The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
Technical Paper

How Heat Losses to the Spark Plug Electrodes Affect Flame Kernel Development in an SI-Engine

1990-02-01
900021
A conventional spark plug and a spark plug with smaller electrodes were studied in M.I.T.'s transparent square piston engine. The purpose was to learn more about how the electrode geometry affects the heat losses to the electrodes and the electrical performance of the ignition system, and how this affects the flame development process in an engine. A schlieren system which provides two orthogonal views of the developing flame was used to define the initial flame growth process, for as many as 100 consecutive cycles. Voltage and current waveforms were recorded to characterize the spark discharge, and cylinder pressure data were used to characterize the engine performance. The spark plug with the smaller electrodes was shown to reduce the heat losses to the electrodes, and thereby extend the stable operating regime of the engine. At conditions close to the stable operating limit, cycle-by-cycle variations in heat losses cause significant cyclic variations in flame development.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Valve Timing and Multi-Pulse Injection on GCAI Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0967
Gasoline Controlled Auto-Ignition (GCAI) combustion, which can be categorized under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is a low-temperature combustion process with promising benefits such as ultra-low cylinder-out NOx emissions and reduced brake-specific fuel consumption, which are the critical parameters in any modern engine. Since this technology is based on uncontrolled auto-ignition of a premixed charge, it is very sensitive to any change in boundary conditions during engine operation. Adopting real time valve timing and fuel-injection strategies can enable improved control over GCAI combustion. This work discusses the outcome of collaborative experimental research by the partnering institutes in this direction. Experiments were performed in a single cylinder GCAI engine with variable valve timing and Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) at constant indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In the first phase intake and exhaust valve timing sweeps were investigated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Cyclic Fluctuations in a DISI Engine by Means of Advanced Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence Measurements

2006-10-16
2006-01-3378
Cyclic fluctuations of the in-cylinder processes in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine may strongly affect the engine operation causing misfires or variations in the indicated mean effective pressure (imep). Particularly misfires prevent compliance with current or future exhaust emission legislations. Nevertheless, the origin of cyclic fluctuations is not well understood since fluctuations of in-cylinder air flow, fuel injection and wall interaction have to be considered. This paper focusses on a detailed experimental analysis of the origin of cyclic fluctuations in a DISI engine with an air guided combustion process by means of advanced Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) measurements. It reveals that cycle-to-cycle variations primarily originate from the air/fuel ratio at the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a RCCI Combustion Concept with In-Cylinder Blending of Gasoline and Diesel in a Light Duty Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2452
Within this study a dual-fuel concept was experimentally investigated. The utilized fuels were conventional EN228 RON95E10 and EN590 Diesel B7 pump fuels. The engine was a single cylinder Diesel research engine for passenger car application. Except for the installation of the port fuel injection valve, the engine was not modified. The investigated engine load range covered low part load operation of IMEP = 4.3 bar up to IMEP = 14.8 bar at different engine speeds. Investigations with Diesel pilot injection showed that the dual-fuel approach can significantly reduce the soot/NOx-trade-off, but typically increases the HC- and CO-emissions. At high engine load and gasoline mass fraction, the premixed gasoline/air self-ignited before Diesel fuel was injected. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) was subsequently investigated in a medium load point at IMEP = 6.8 bar.
Technical Paper

Exhaust-Aftertreatment Integrated, DoE-based Calibration

2012-04-16
2012-01-1303
For on- and off-highway applications in 2012/2014 new legislative emissions requirements will be applied for both European (EURO 6/stage 4) and US (US 2010/Tier4 final) standards. Specifically the NOX-emission limit will be lowered down to 0.46 g/kWh (net power ≻ 56 kW (EU)/130 kW (US) - 560 kW). While for the previous emissions legislation various ways could be used to stay within the emissions limits (engine internal and aftertreatment measures), DeNOX-aftertreatment systems will be mandatory to reach future limits. In these kinds of applications fuel consumption of the engines is a very decisive selling argument for customers. Total cost of ownership needs to be as low as possible. The trade-off between fuel consumption and NOX emissions forces manufacturers to find an optimal solution, especially with regard to increasing fuel prices. In state-of-the-art calibration processes the aftertreatment system is considered separately from the calibration of the thermodynamics.
Journal Article

Drivetrain Energy Distribution and Losses from Fuel to Wheel

2013-11-20
2013-01-9118
Depending on a vehicles drive cycle, an improvement of the overall drivetrain efficiency does not necessarily have to go along with an improvement of its mileage. In here the ratio of energy to overcome rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, acceleration and energy wasted directly in wheel brakes is responsible for potentially differing trends. A detailed knowledge of energy flows, sources and sinks makes up a substantial step into optimizing any drive train. Most fuel energy leaves the drivetrain via exhaust pipes. Next to usable mechanical energy, a big amount is spent to heat up the system directly or to overcome drive train friction, which is converted into heat to warm up the system additionally. An in depth quantification of the most important energy flows for an upper middle-sized class gasoline powered drive train is given as results of warm-up cycle simulations.
Technical Paper

Comparing Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Fuel Spray with Measured Quantitative Flame Parameters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1720
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions, it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels from renewable sources. For identifying the specification of an optimized fuel for engine combustion, it is essential to understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation. For obtaining a better understanding of the flame behavior, dynamic structure large eddy simulations are a method of choice. In the investigation presented in this paper, an n-heptane spray flame is simulated under engine relevant conditions starting at a pressure of 50 bar and a temperature of 800 K. Measurements are conducted at a high-pressure vessel with the same conditions. Liquid penetration length is measured with Mie-Scatterlight, gaseous penetration length with Shadowgraphy and lift-off length as well as ignition delay with OH*-Radiation. In addition to these global high-speed measurement techniques, detailed spectroscopic laser measurements are conducted at the n-heptane flame.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Oxygenated-Fuel Combustion by Quantitative Multiscalar SRS/LIF Measurements in a Diesel-Like Jet

2018-09-28
2018-01-5037
Due to experimental challenges, combustion of diesel-like jets has rarely been characterized by laser-based quantitative multiscalar measurements. In this work, recently developed laser diagnostics for combustion temperature and the concentrations of CO, O2, and NO are applied to a diesel-like jet, using a highly oxygenated fuel. The diagnostic is based on spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) methods. Line imaging yields multiscalar profiles across the jet cross section. Measurements turn out to be particularly accurate, because near-stoichiometric combustion occurs in the central region of the jet. Thereby, experimental cross-influences by light attenuation and interfering emissions are greatly reduced compared to the combustion of conventional, sooting diesel fuel jets. This is achieved by fuel oxygenation and enhanced premixing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.
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