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Technical Paper

Variable compression in SI engines

Downsizing is an effective way to further improve the efficiency of SI engines. To make most of this concept, the compression ratio has to be adjusted during engine operation. Thus, the efficiency disadvantages during part load can be eliminated. A fuel consumption reduction of up to 30% can be realized compared to naturally aspirated engines of the same power. After the assessment of several known concepts it turned out that the eccentric crankshaft positioning represents an appropriate solution which meets the requirements of good adjustability, unaltered inertia forces, low power demand of the positioning device and reasonable design effort. The basic challenges posed by the eccentric crankshaft positioning have been tackled, namely the crankshaft bearing and the integration of the newly developed power take-offs which have almost no influence on the base design.
Journal Article

Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio with Eccentric Piston Pin and Exploitation of Crank Train Forces

By variation of the compression ratio the fuel consumption of high boosted gasoline engines can be reduced, due to operating with higher compression ratios at low load compared to an engine with fixed compression ratio. The two-stage VCR-system enables a high share of fuel saving potential relative to full variable systems. Considering a low cost manufacturability and a beneficial integratability into common engine architectures the length-adjustable conrod using an eccentric piston pin in the small eye has proved as the best concept. The adjustment is performed by a combination of gas and mass forces. This article describes the design of such a two-stage VCR-system as well as the functional testing under motored and fired engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Tomorrows Diesel Fuel Diversity - Challenges and Solutions

Regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good driveability, high reliability and costs, this is the main frame for all future powertrain developments. In this frame, the diesel powertrain, not only for passenger cars, but also for commercial vehicle applications, faces some challenges in order to fulfil the future European and current US emission legislations while keeping the fuel consumption benefit, good driveability and an acceptable cost frame. One of these challenges is the varying fuel qualities of diesel fuel in different countries including different cetane number, volatility, sulphur content and different molecular composition. In addition to that in the future, more and more alternative fuels with various fuel qualities and properties will be launched into the market for economical and environmental reasons. At present, the control algorithms of the injection system applied in most diesel engines is open loop control.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamical and Mechanical Approach Towards a Variable Valve Train for the Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion Process

Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) as a promising future combustion process is a concept to strongly reduce fuel consumption as well as NOx emissions. The acceptance and the potential of this combustion process depends on the possible CAI operation range in the engine map and the fuel consumption benefit, as well as the complexity of the variable valve train which is necessary to realize the CAI combustion process. The thermodynamic investigations presented in this paper were done on an engine equipped with an electromechanical valve train (EMVT), featuring Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and direct Injection. They show that the electromechanical valve train is an excellent platform for developing the CAI process. Controlled Auto Ignition has been realized with port fuel injection in a speed range between 1000 and 4500 rpm and in a load range between approximately 1 and 6 bar BMEP (about 5 bar BMEP for pressure gradients lower than 3 bar/°CA) depending on engine speed.
Journal Article

Thermal Shock Protection for Diesel Particulate Filters

During a thermal regeneration of a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) the temperature inside the DPF may raise above critical thresholds in an uncontrolled way (thermal shock). Especially driving conditions with a comparable low exhaust gas mass flow and high oxygen content like idle speed may create a thermal shock. This paper presents a concept for an ECU software structure to prevent the DPF from reaching improper temperatures and the methodology in order to calibrate this ECU structure. The concept deals in general with a closed-loop control of the exhaust gas air-fuel-ratio during the critical engine operation phases. Those critical operation phases are identified at the engine test bench during “Drop-to-Idle” and “Drop-to-Overrun” experiments. The experiments show that those phases are critical having on the one hand a low exhaust gas mass flow and on the other hand a high oxygen percentage in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Optical Analysis of Oil Dilution in Diesel Regeneration Operation

High levels of exhaust temperature or rich mixtures are necessary for the regeneration of today's diesel particulate filters or NOx catalysts. Therefore, late main injection or post injection is an effective strategy but leads to the well-known problem of lubricating oil dilution depending on the geometry, rail pressure and injection strategy. In this paper a method is developed to simulate fuel entrainment into the lubricating oil wall film in the diesel combustion chamber to predict oil dilution in an early design stage prior to hardware availability for durability testing. The simulation method integrates a newly developed droplet-film interaction model and is compared to results of an optical single-cylinder diesel engine and a similar thermodynamic single-cylinder test engine. Phenomena of diesel post injection like igniting early post injection or split post injections with short energizing times are considered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Variable Compressor Pre Swirl Devices in Consideration of Different Sealing Concepts

For turbocharged engines high specific power and torque output as well as a fast transient response are mandatory. This conflict of aims can be solved by different charging systems, for example 2-stage charging or variable turbine geometry. At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University another alternative, the variable compressor pre swirl, was investigated for solving this conflict of aims. Based on theoretical fundamentals the potentials of a variable compressor pre swirl for transient response, low end torque, specific power output and fuel consumption were presented. These theoretical potentials were explored on turbocharger -, engine - and vehicle test bench. An extended compressor map with partial higher compressor efficiency of up to 2% was detected. The outcome of this is an increase of up to 6% in low end torque, found on engine test bench. This effect could also be validated in 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper

Potential of Modern Diesel Engines with Lowest Raw Emissions - a Key Factor for Future CO2 Reduction

The high-speed Dl-diesel engine has made a significant advance since the beginning of the 90's in the Western European passenger car market. Apart from the traditional advantage in fuel economy, further factors contributing to this success have been significantly improved performance and power density, as well as the permanent progress made in acoustics and comfort. In addition to the efforts to improve efficiency of automotive powertrains, the requirement for cleaner air increases through the continuous worldwide restriction of emissions by legislative regulations for diesel engines. Against the backdrop of global climate change, significant reduction of CO2 is observed. Hence, for the future, engine and vehicle concepts are needed, that, while maintaining the well-established attractive market attributes, compare more favorably with regard to fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Optimized Layout of Gasoline Engines for Hybrid Powertrains

Due to the complex powertrain layout in hybrid vehicles, different configurations concerning internal combustion engine, electric motor and transmission can be combined - as is demonstrated by currently produced hybrid vehicles ([1], [2]). At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University a combination of simulation, Design of Experiments (DoE) and numerical optimization methods was used to optimize the combustion engine, the powertrain configuration and the operation strategy in hybrid powertrains. A parametric description allows a variation of the main hybrid parameters. Parallel as well as power-split hybrid powertrain configurations were optimized with regard to minimum fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Besides the definition of the optimum configuration for engine, powertrain and operation strategy this approach offers the possibility to predict the fuel consumption for any modifications of the hybrid powertrains.
Journal Article

Operation Strategies for Controlled Auto Ignition Gasoline Engines

Controlled Auto Ignition combustion systems have a high potential for fuel consumption and emissions reduction for gasoline engines in part load operation. Controlled auto ignition is initiated by reaching thermal ignition conditions at the end of compression. Combustion of the CAI process is controlled essentially by chemical kinetics, and thus differs significantly from conventional premixed combustion. Consequently, the CAI combustion process is determined by the thermodynamic state, and can be controlled by a high amount of residual gas and stratification of air, residual gas and fuel. In this paper both fundamental and application relevant aspects are investigated in a combined approach. Fundamental knowledge about the auto-ignition process and its dependency on engine operating conditions are required to efficiently develop an application strategy for CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

On the Measurement and Simulation of Flow-Acoustic Sound Propagation in Turbochargers

Internal combustion engines are increasingly being equipped with turbochargers to increase performance and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Being part of exhaust and intake systems, the turbocharger strongly influences the orifice noise emission. Although 1D-CFD simulations are commonly used for the development of intake and exhaust systems, validated acoustic turbocharger models are not yet state-of-the-art. Consequently, the aim of the paper is the investigation of the turbocharger’s influence on the orifice noise and the development of an accurate 1D-CFD model. The passive acoustic transmission loss was measured for a wide operating range of four turbochargers, including wastegate and VTG-system variations. Low frequency attenuation is dominated by impedance discontinuities, increasing considerably with mass flow and pressure ratio.
Technical Paper

New CNG Concepts for Passenger Cars: High Torque Engines with Superior Fuel Consumption

Since the CO2 emissions of passenger car traffic and their greenhouse potential are in the public interest, natural gas (CNG) is discussed as an attractive alternative fuel. The engine concepts that have been applied to date are mainly based upon common gasoline engine technology. In addition, in mono-fuel applications, it is made use of an increased compression ratio -thanks to the RON (Research Octane Number) potential of CNG-, which allows for thermodynamic benefits. This paper presents advanced engine concepts that make further use of the potentials linked to CNG. Above all, the improved knock tolerance, which can be particularly utilized in turbocharged engine concepts. For bi-fuel (CNG/gasoline) power trains, the realization of variable compression ratio is of special interest. Moreover, lean burn technology is a perfect match for CNG engines. Fuel economy and emission level are evaluated basing on test bench and vehicle investigations.
Technical Paper

Internal and External Measures for Catalyst Light-Off Support

Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Influence of an Automatic Transmission with a Model Predictive Control and an On-Demand Clutch Actuator on Vehicle Fuel Consumption

The demand for lower CO2 emissions requires not just the optimization of every single component but the complete system. For a transmission system, it is important to optimize the transmission hardware as we well as the interaction of powertrain components. For automatic transmission with wide ratio spreads, the main losses are caused by the actuation system, which can be reduced with use of ondemand actuation systems. In this paper, a new on-demand electromechanical actuation system with validation results on a clutch test bench is presented. The electro-mechanical actuator shows an increase in the efficiency of 4.1 % compared to the conventional hydraulic actuation in a simulated NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle. This increase is based on the powerless end positions of the actuator (engaged and disengaged clutch). The thermal tension and wear are compensated with a disk spring. This allows a stable control over service life.
Journal Article

Improving Engine Efficiency and Emission Reduction Potential of HVO by Fuel-Specific Engine Calibration in Modern Passenger Car Diesel Applications

The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
Journal Article

Impact of Biomass-Derived Fuels on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Behavior

To comply with the new regulations on particulate matter emissions, the manufacturers of light-duty as well as heavy-duty vehicles more commonly use diesel particulate filters (DPF). The regeneration of DPF depends to a significant extent on the properties of the soot stored. Within the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)" at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out a detailed investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel candidates for optimized combustion systems. The experiments for particulate measurements and analysis were conducted on a EURO 6-compliant High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (HECS) with petroleum-based diesel fuel as reference and a today's commercial biofuel (i.e., FAME) as well as a potential future biomass-derived fuel candidate (i.e., 2-MTHF/DBE). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) was used in this study to evaluate the oxidative reactivity of the soot.
Technical Paper

HiL-based ECU-Calibration of SI Engine with Advanced Camshaft Variability

A main focus of development in modern SI engine technology is variable valve timing, which implies a high potential of improvement regarding fuel consumption and emissions. Variable opening, period and lift of inlet and outlet valves enable numerous possibilities to alter gas exchange and combustion. However, this additional variability generates special demands on the calibration process of specific engine control devices, particularly under cold start and warm-up conditions. This paper presents procedures, based on Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation, to support the classical calibration task efficiently. An existing approach is extended, such that a virtual combustion engine is available including additional valve timing variability. Engine models based purely on physical first principles are often not capable of real time execution. However, the definition of initial parameters for the ECU requires a model with both real time capability and sufficient accuracy.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.