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Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Journal Article

Synthesis of a Vehicle Suspension with Constrained Lateral Space using a Roll-plane Kineto-dynamic Model

The larger chassis space requirements of hybrid vehicles necessitates considerations of the suspension synthesis with limited lateral space, which may involve complex compromises among performance measures related to vehicle ride and handling. This study investigates the influences of suspension linkage geometry on the kinematic and dynamic responses of the vehicle including the wheel load in order to facilitate synthesis of suspension with constrained lateral space. A kineto-dynamic half-car model is formulated incorporating double wishbone suspensions with tire compliance, although the results are limited to kinematic responses alone. An optimal synthesis of the suspension is presented to attain a compromise among the different kinematic performance measures with considerations of lateral space constraints. In the kineto-dynamic model, the struts comprising linear springs and viscous dampers are introduced as force elements.
Journal Article

Property Analysis of an X-Coupled Suspension for Sport Utility Vehicles

The influences of fluidic X-coupling of hydro-pneumatic suspension struts on the various suspension properties are investigated for a sport utility vehicle (SUV). The stiffness and damping properties in the bounce, pitch, roll and warp modes are particularly addressed together with the couplings between the roll, pitch, bounce and warp modes of the vehicle. The proposed X-coupled suspension configuration involves diagonal hydraulic couplings among the different chambers of the four hydro-pneumatic struts. The static and dynamic forces developed by the struts of the unconnected and X-coupled suspensions are formulated using a simple generalized model, which are subsequently used to derive the stiffness and damping properties. The properties of the X-coupled suspension are compared with those of the unconnected suspension configuration, in terms of four fundamental vibration modes, namely bounce, roll, pitch and warp, to illustrate the significant effects of fluidic couplings.
Technical Paper

Pitch Attitude Control and Braking Performance Analysis of Heavy Vehicle with Interconnected Suspensions

This study investigates the performance potentials of hydro-pneumatic suspensions interconnected in the pitch plane of a heavy vehicle. Different configurations of interconnected suspensions comprising pneumatic, hydraulic or hybrid fluidic couplings between the front-and rear-suspension struts are proposed and analyzed. A 7-DOF pitch plane vehicle model is formulated to explore the relative vertical and pitch properties of different suspension configurations, as well as the dynamic responses of the vehicle under braking and road inputs. The mathematical formulations of strut forces due to both the unconnected and pitch-connected suspensions are derived. Relative performance potentials of different configurations are evaluated in terms of sprung mass pitch angle, suspension travel and stopping distance characteristics under different braking inputs and road conditions. The vertical ride quality is further assessed under a range of road roughness excitations and vehicle speeds.
Technical Paper

Optimal Damping Design of Heavy Vehicle with Interconnected Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension

The optimal damping design of roll plane interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension is investigated, in order to improve vertical ride and road-friendliness of heavy vehicles, while maintaining enhanced roll stability. A nonlinear roll plane vehicle model is developed to study vertical as well as roll dynamics of heavy vehicles. The damping valves and gas chamber are integrated within the same suspension strut unit to realize compact design. The influence of variations in damping valve threshold velocity on relative roll stability is explored, under centrifugal acceleration excitations arising from steady turning and lane change maneuvers, as well as crosswind. The effects of damping valve design parameters on the vertical ride vibration and vehicle-road interaction characteristics are also investigated under a medium rough road input and two different vehicle speeds.
Technical Paper

Jackknifing Prevention of Tractor-Semitrailer Combination Using Active Braking Control

Vehicle jackknifing is generally associated with the loss of yaw stability, and is one of the most common cause of serious traffic accidents involving tractor-semitrailer combinations. In this paper, an active braking control strategy is proposed for jackknifing prevention of a tractor-semitrailer combination on a low friction road. The proposed control strategy is realized via upper-level and lower-level control structures considering braking of both the units. In the upper-level control, the required corrective yaw moments for tractor and semitrailer are generated using a PID controller aiming to reduce errors between the actual yaw rates of tractor-semitrailer and the target yaw rates deduced from a reference model. The corrective yaw moments are achieved through brake torque distribution among the tractor and semitrailer axle wheels in the lower-level control.
Technical Paper

Field Testing of a Tank Truck and Study of Fluid Slosh

Dynamic fluid slosh and its influence on the dynamic roll stability of a partially filled tank truck has been investigated through a field test program undertaken jointly by the CONCAVE Research Centre and Transportation Technology and Energy Branch of Ontario Ministry of Transportation. The paper describes the test methodology, instrumentation, data acquisition, fluid slosh behaviour, and its influence on the directional response of the tank truck. The data acquired during different directional maneuvers is analyzed to highlight the fluid slosh and its impact on the dynamic load transfer and roll stability of the vehicle. The magnitude of dynamic load transfer, derived from the video records of the dynamic fluid movement, is presented and discussed for various tank fill levels and directional maneuvers. The test results revealed that the magnitude of dynamic fluid slosh is strongly related to the vehicle speed, lateral and longitudinal acceleration, and the fill level.
Journal Article

Experimental and Analytical Evaluations of a Torsio-Elastic Suspension for Off-Road Vehicles

The ride performance potentials of a prototype torsio-elastic axle suspension for an off-road vehicle were investigated analytically and experimentally. A forestry vehicle was fitted with the prototype suspension at its rear axle to assess its ride performance benefits. Field measurements of ride vibration along the vertical, lateral, fore-aft, roll and pitch axes were performed for the suspended and an unsuspended vehicle, while traversing a forestry terrain. The measured vibration responses of both vehicles were evaluated in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted rms accelerations and the acceleration spectra, and compared to assess the potential performance benefits of the proposed suspension. The results revealed that the proposed suspension could yield significant reductions in the vibration magnitudes transmitted to the operator's station.
Journal Article

Effect of Terrain Roughness on the Roll and Yaw Directional Stability of an Articulated Frame Steer Vehicle

Compared to the vehicles with conventional steering, the articulated frame steer vehicles (ASV) are known to exhibit lower directional and roll stability limits. Furthermore, the tire interactions with relatively rough terrains could adversely affect the directional and roll stability limits of an ASV due to terrain-induced variations in the vertical and lateral tire forces. It may thus be desirable to assess the dynamic safety of ASVs in terms of their directional control and stability limits while operating on different terrains. The effects of terrain roughness on the directional stability limits of an ASV are investigated through simulations of a comprehensive three-dimensional model of the vehicle with and without a rear axle suspension. The model incorporates a torsio-elastic rear axle suspension, a kineto-dynamic model of the frame steering struts and equivalent random profiles of different undeformable terrains together with coherence between the two tracks profiles.
Technical Paper

Development of Directional Stability Criteria for an Early Warning Safety Device

Development of a micro-processor based early warning safety device that can detect and warn the drivers of impending dynamic instabilities is discussed to improve the operational safety of articulated freight vehicles. Directional dynamics of articulated freight vehicles are investigated to determine the key dynamic response parameters that can best describe the onset of rollover and jackknife instabilities. The feasibility of identified key response parameters is further investigated in view of various vehicle design and operating conditions, and ease of on-line acquisition and analyses. The study concludes that a general stability criteria can be established to identify impending roll and jackknife instabilities, and a safety monitor can be conceived to provide an early warning to the driver.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Roll Properties of Hydraulically and Pneumatically Interconnected Suspensions for Heavy Vehicles

Two different concepts in hydro-pneumatic suspension struts are formulated to conveniently realize either hydraulic or pneumatic interconnections between the struts within different wheel suspensions. The formulation employs a compact strut design that integrates a gas chamber and damping valves within the same unit, and provides considerably enhanced working area to appreciably reduce the operating pressure. A transverse interconnection between the hydro-pneumatic struts in the roll plane is analyzed to investigate its static and dynamic heave and roll properties, and relative potential benefits in enhancing the roll properties, while retaining the soft heave ride. Different hydraulically and pneumatically interconnected strut configurations are analyzed for a heavy vehicle, with appropriate considerations of the fluid compressibility, while the feedback effects associated with the interconnections are emphasized.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Flow Volume Regulated Frame Steering System and Experimental Verifications

The articulated frame steering (AFS) systems are widely implemented in construction, forestry and mining vehicles to achieve enhanced maneuverability and traction performances. The kinematic and dynamic performances of articulated steered vehicles are strongly influenced by properties of the frame steering system. In this paper, a flow volume regulated frame steering system is described and analytically modelled. The analytical model of the steering system is formulated in conjunction with yaw-plane model of a 35 tonnes mining vehicle to investigate steady as well as transient responses of the steering system and the vehicle. A field test program was undertaken to measure responses of the steering system and the vehicle under nearly constant speed turning as well as path-change maneuvers.
Journal Article

Analysis of Ride Vibration Environment of Soil Compactors

The ride dynamics of typical North-American soil compactors were investigated via analytical and experimental methods. A 12-degrees-of-freedom in-plane ride dynamic model of a single-drum compactor was formulated through integrations of the models of various components such as driver seat, cabin, roller drum and drum isolators, chassis and the tires. The analytical model was formulated for the transit mode of operation at a constant forward speed on undeformable surfaces with the roller vibrator off. Field measurements were conducted to characterize the ride vibration environments during the transit mode of operation. The measured data revealed significant magnitudes of whole-body vibration of the operator-station along the vertical, lateral, pitch and roll-axes. The model results revealed reasonably good agreements with ranges of the measured vibration data.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Influence of High Performance Dampers on the Suspension Performance of a Quarter Vehicle

An investigation is carried out to determine the influence of dampers on the performance of race cars. The analysis is carried out in four sequential phases: (i) development of analytical damper model, incorporating gas spring, friction, asymmetric multi-stage damping, fluid compressibility and temperature sensitivity; (ii) development of quarter vehicle model, and determination of performance criteria and coefficients; (iii) validation and analysis of results for candidate damper on quarter car simulator; (vi) parametric analysis of damper parameters relative to performance criteria. It is concluded that the performance is sensitive to temperature changes, particularly the gas spring effect, and that asymmetric multi-stage damping provides nonlinear tuning capability of the system.