Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Visualization of EGR Influence on Diesel Combustion With Long Ignition Delay in a Heavy-duty Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2947
The effects of EGR on diesel combustion were visually examined in a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine with a low compression ratio, low swirl, a CR fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. Optical access was primarily obtained through the cylinder head. The effects of EGR were found to be significant. NOx emissions were reduced from over 500 ppm at 0% EGR to 5 ppm at 55% EGR. At higher levels of EGR (approximately 35% or more) there was a loss in efficiency. Constant fuel masses were injected. Results from the optical measurements and global emission data were compared in order to obtain a better understanding of the spray behaviour and mixing process. Optical measurements provide fundamental insights by visualizing air motion and combustion behaviour. The NOx reductions observed might be explained by reductions in oxygen concentration associated with the increases in EGR.
Journal Article

Valve Profile Adaptation, Stratification, Boosting and 2-Stroke Strategies for Raising Loads of Gasoline HCCI Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1108
The development of high efficiency powertrains is a key objective for car manufacturers. One approach for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines is based on homogeneous charge compression ignition, HCCI, which provides higher efficiency than conventional strategies. However, HCCI is only currently viable at relatively low loads, primarily because at high loads it involves rapid combustion that generates pressure oscillations in the cylinder (ringing), and partly because it gives rise to relatively high NOX emissions. This paper describes studies aimed at increasing the viability of HCCI combustion at higher loads by using fully flexible valve trains, direct injection with charge stratification (SCCI), and intake air boosting. These approaches were complemented by using EGR to control NOX emissions by stoichiometric operation, which enables the use of a three-way catalyst.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

2008-06-23
2008-01-1608
The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Cycle and Working Fluid Selection for Waste Heat Recovery in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1371
Thermodynamic power cycles have been shown to provide an excellent method for waste heat recovery (WHR) in internal combustion engines. By capturing and reusing heat that would otherwise be lost to the environment, the efficiency of engines can be increased. This study evaluates the maximum power output of different cycles used for WHR in a heavy duty Diesel engine with a focus on working fluid selection. Typically, only high temperature heat sources are evaluated for WHR in engines, whereas this study also considers the potential of WHR from the coolant. To recover the heat, four types of power cycles were evaluated: the organic Rankine cycle (ORC), transcritical Rankine cycle, trilateral flash cycle, and organic flash cycle. This paper allows for a direct comparison of these cycles by simulating all cycles using the same boundary conditions and working fluids.
Journal Article

The Influence of Ethanol Blending in Diesel fuel on the Spray and Spray Combustion Characteristics

2014-10-13
2014-01-2755
The influence of ethanol blending in Diesel fuel on the spray and spray combustion characteristics was investigated by performing experiments in an optically accessible high-pressure / high-temperature spray chamber under non-evaporating, evaporating and combusting conditions. Three fuels were investigated: (1) Diesel - a European Diesel based on the EN590 standard; (2) E10 - a blend of Diesel containing 10% ethanol and 2% emulsion additive; and (3) E20 - a blend of Diesel containing 20% ethanol and 2% emulsion additive. A constant gas density of 24.3 kg/m3 was maintained under non-evaporating (30 °C, 21.1 bar), evaporating (350 °C, 43.4 bar), low combustion temperature (550 °C, 57.3 bar) and high combustion temperature (600 °C, 60 bar) conditions. A single-hole injector with a nozzle diameter of 0.14 mm was used and injection pressure was held constant at 1350 bar. Various optical methods were used to characterize the non-combusting and combusting sprays.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Multirow Nozzles on Diesel Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0701
In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. To meet the stringent emission legislations of the future, which will demand substantial reductions of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines, the spray and mixing processes play a major roll. Different fuel injection systems and injection strategies have been developed to achieve better performance and lower emissions from the diesel engine almost without investigating the influence of the injector nozzle orifices. A reduction in the nozzle orifice diameter is important for an increased mixing rate and formation of smaller droplets which is beneficial from emissions and fuel consumption point of view, as long as the local air-to-fuel ratio (AFR) is kept at a sufficiently lean level.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Leaner Charge and Swirl on Diesel Combustion

2002-05-06
2002-01-1633
Substantial reduction of NOX and particulate emissions from diesel engines will be required by the emission legislation in the future. In a diesel engine, the combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes. Parameters of importance are droplet size, droplet distribution, injection velocity, in-cylinder flow (convection and turbulence) and cylinder charge temperature/pressure. The mixing is controlled by convective and turbulent mixing due to in-cylinder charge motion, momentum transfer and turbulence induced by the injection process. The most important processes are known to be the turbulent macro- and micromixing. Smaller nozzle orifices are believed to increase mixing rate, due to smaller droplet size leading to faster evaporation. Dimensional analysis suggests that the turbulent mixing time, τmix, scales with orifice diameter, d.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Circular Nozzle Holes on Combustion and Emission Formation in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2671
Non-circular holes are believed to have a potential in reducing the smoke emissions from a diesel engine by entraining more air into the spray due to the larger surface area exposed between fuel and air. The idea is based on results from investigations of gas jets, where the air entrainment for elliptical jets was increased substantially compared to circular jets. Non-circular nozzle holes were tested in a 2 liter single cylinder heavy duty diesel engine and compared with standard circular nozzle holes. The non-circular holes, which were made with aspect ratios of close to 2:1 and 4:1, have a similar flow rate as the conventional circular holes. Two different angles of the major axis orientation to the injector centerline were used. The engine tests were done at constant speed with both high and low load conditions and were repeated several times. Emissions, fuel consumption and cylinder pressure were measured and are presented together with calculated rate of heat release curves.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

2000-10-16
2000-01-2831
It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on Heat Transfer in SI Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0238
Heat transfer to the walls of the combustion chamber is increased by engine knock. In this study the influence of knock onset and knock intensity on the heat flux is investigated by examining over 10 000 individual engine cycles with a varying degree of knock. The heat transfer to the walls was estimated by measuring the combustion chamber wall temperature in an SI engine under knocking conditions. The influence of the air-fuel ratio and the orientation of the oscillating cylinder pressure-relative to the combustion chamber wall-were also investigated. It was found that knock intensities above 0.2 Mpa influenced the heat flux. At knock intensities above 0.6 Mpa, the peak heat flux was 2.5 times higher than for a non-knocking cycle. The direction of the oscillations did not affect the heat transfer.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Elliptical Nozzle Holes on Combustion and Emission Formation in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1251
A serie of experiments were carried out to compare the combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine using non-circular (elliptical) and circular shaped fuel injector nozzle holes. Elliptic nozzle holes have the potential to increase air entrainment into the spray, which could lead to decreased emissions from diesel combustion. Previous work [6,7] has shown some interesting results in a passenger car diesel engine and also in a single cylinder engine with optical access. The idea is based on results from investigations of gas jets, where the air entrainment for elliptical jets was increased substantially compared to circular jets. The present series of experiments were carried out to further investigate these effects. The non-circular holes, which were made with an aspect ratio of close to 2:1, have a similar flow rate as the conventional circular holes. Two different angles of the elliptical major axis to the injector centerline were used.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Charge Air and Fuel Injection Parameters on Combustion with High Levels of EGR in a HDDI Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0914
When increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to low temperature combustion, soot emissions first start to increase (due to reductions in soot oxidation), before decreasing to almost zero (due to very low rates of soot formation). At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are still low, but not low enough to comply with future emission standards. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the possibilities for moving the so-called “soot bump” (increase in soot) to higher EGR levels or reducing the magnitude of the soot bump. This involved an experimental investigation of parameters affecting the combustion and thus the engine-out emissions. The parameters investigated were: charge air pressure, injection pressure, EGR temperature and post injection (with different dwell times) for a wide range of EGR rates.
Journal Article

Stratified Cold Start Sprays of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

2009-04-20
2009-01-1496
Gasoline and gasoline-ethanol sprays from an outward-opening piezo-injector were studied in a constant volume/pressure chamber using high-speed imaging and phase doppler anemometry (PDA) under stratified cold start conditions corresponding to a vehicle ambient temperature of 243 K (−30°C/−22°F); in-cylinder air pressure of 5 bar, air temperature of 350 K (−30°C/−22°F) and fuel temperature of 243 K. The effects of varying in-cylinder pressure and temperature, fuel injection pressure and fuel temperature on the formation of gasoline, E75 and pure ethanol sprays were investigated. The results indicate that fuel composition affects spray behaviour, but less than expected. Furthermore, varying the temperature of the fuel or the air surrounding the spray also had minor effects. As expected, the fuel injection pressure was found to have the strongest influence on spray formation under stratified conditions.
Technical Paper

Spray-Wall Interaction: Diesel Fuels Impinging on a Tempered Wall

2006-04-03
2006-01-1116
Heat transfer from impinging sprays in direct injected diesel engines has been found to influence the rate of heat release and the formation of emissions. The use of multiple injections may also affect heat transfer. The objective of this work is to study heat transfer between the wall and the spray, and how the surface temperature of the wall affects spray behaviour in single and split injections. Two different diesel fuels were used in the experiments, noteworthy is that the diesel fuel had a higher radial penetration rate than the Idea fuel at evaporating conditions but not at non-evaporating conditions. The wall temperature has no measurable influence on radial penetration but does have a significant influence on the heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Soot size and concentration in combusting diesel jets at high gas pressures and temperatures measured by combining quasi-simultaneous LII, elastic light scattering and light extinction

2020-04-14
2020-01-0787
A method capable of measuring soot particle size and concentration in turbulent combusting diesel jets with elevated and inhomogeneous optical density is presented and discussed. The method is based on the combination of quasi-simultaneous Laser Induced Incandescence (LII), Elastic Scattering (ELS) and Light Extinction (LE) measurements. The method exhibits a high potential for spatially resolved measurements of carbonaceous particles in flames and residual gases at a given instant. The method calculates the laser fluence across the flame and compensates for signal trapping, allowing measurements where laser extinction between the flame borders reaches values up to 90 %. The method was implemented by measuring particle size and concentration in the middle sagittal axis of optically dense, combusting diesel jets at a certain time after the start of combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1871
The free piston internal combustion engine used in conjunction with a linear alternator offers an interesting choice for use in hybrid vehicles. The linear motion of the pistons is directly converted to electricity by the alternator, and the result is a compact and efficient energy converter that has only one moving part. The movement of the pistons is not prescribed by a crank mechanism, but is the result of the equilibrium of forces acting on the pistons, and the engine will act like a mass-spring system. This feature is one of the most prominent advantages of the FPE (Free Piston Engine), as the lack of mechanical linkage gives means of varying the compression ratio in simple manners, without changing the hardware of the engine. By varying the compression ratio, it is also it possible to run on a multitude of different fuels and to use HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion.
Technical Paper

Selecting an Expansion Machine for Vehicle Waste-Heat Recovery Systems Based on the Rankine Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0552
An important objective in combustion engine research is to develop strategies for recovering waste heat and thereby increasing the efficiency of the propulsion system. Waste-heat recovery systems based on the Rankine cycle are the most efficient tools for recovering energy from the exhaust gas and the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The properties of the working fluid and the expansion machine have significant effects on Rankine cycle efficiency. The expansion machine is particularly important because it is the interface at which recovered heat energy is ultimately converted into power. Parameters such as the pressure, temperature and mass-flow conditions in the cycle can be derived for a given waste-heat source and expressed as dimensionless numbers that can be used to determine whether displacement expanders or turbo expanders would be preferable under the circumstances considered.
Technical Paper

Role of Late Soot Oxidation for Low Emission Combustion in a Diffusion-controlled, High-EGR, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2813
Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Soot Emissions from a Direct Injection Diesel Engine using Water-in-Diesel Emulsion and Microemulsion Fuels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1076
The emissions from a direct injection diesel engine measured according to the ECE R49 13-mode cycle and as a function of exhaust gas recirculation are compared for diesel fuel without water addition, and for water-in-diesel as emulsion and microemulsion. The effect of water addition on the soot emissions was remarkably strong for both the emulsion and microemulsion fuels. The average weighted soot emission values for the 13-mode cycle were 0.0024 and 0.0023 g/kWh for the two most interesting emulsion and microemulsion fuels tested, respectively; 5-fold lower than the US 2007 emission limit.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measurement by Use of Thermographic Phosphors and Thermocouples in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Run Under Partly Premixed Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1646
Piston temperature experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel research engine, based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine both by use of optical temperature sensitive phosphor and of thermocouples mounted on the piston surface. In the former case, a thin coating of a suitable thermographic phosphor was applied to the areas on the piston surface to be investigated. The optical measurements of piston temperatures made involved use of an optical window and of an endoscope. The possibility of using optical fibres into guide light in and out of the engine was also investigated. Results of the optical and of the thermocouple measurements were compared and were also related to more global data with the aim of exploring the use of thermographic phosphors for piston- temperature measurements in Diesel engines. Thermographic phosphors thermometry was found to represent an alternative to the thermocouple method since it easily can be applied to various piston geometries.
X