Refine Your Search


Search Results


The Romance of Engines

This book examines the development of the engine from a historical perspective. Originally published in Japanese, The Romance of Engines' English translation offers readers insight into lessons learned throughout the engine's history. This book belongs on the bookshelves of all engine designers, engine enthusiasts, and automotive historians. Topics covered include: Newcomen's Steam Engine The Watt Steam Engine Internal Combustion Engine Nicolaus August Otto and His Engine Sadi Carnot and the Adiabatic Engine Radial Engines; Piston and Cylinder Problems Engine Life Problem of Cooling Engine Compartments Knocking; Energy Conservation Bugatti; Volkswagon Rolls Royce Packard Daimler-Benz DB601 Engine and more!
Technical Paper

The Method of Measuring Air-Fuel Ratio by Radical Luminescence in High Combustion Pressure

The relations of luminous intensity of the radicals, CH, C2, and OH radical, and the equivalence ratio, ϕ under high combustion pressure region (7.0MPa maximum) were investigated. Luminous intensity of each radical and combustion pressure were experimentally obtained using a constant volume combustion chamber. It was found that luminous intensity of each radical can be expressed as a function of ϕ and the combustion pressure. The estimation of ϕ was done within the region, 0.8<ϕ<1.2 and 2.0MPa
Technical Paper

Study on Ring Conformability under Bore Deformation

This study proposes a method to calculate the limit of piston ring conformability to deformed bore based on measured gas leakage flow rate through ring-bore gap and calculated gap area using a test device that allows the creation of arbitrary bore deformation. As a result, it was clarified that predicted conformability can be matched with measured value by modifying a constant value in the conformability equation for a single order bore deformation proposed by Dunaevsky and Tomanik et al. Furthermore, it has been confirmed experimentally that the conformability limit index ∑U for the complex bore deformation proposed by Tomanik is valid. Using ∑U, area of gap between piston ring and deformed bore under engine operating condition was calculated to derive the relationship between blow-by gas flow rate.
Technical Paper

Research on Adaptation of Pressure Wave Supercharger (PWS) to Gasoline Engine

The purpose of this study is to find the suitable working conditions of a Pressure Wave Supercharger (PWS) that is coupled to a gasoline engine experimentally. The working condition is validated by stationary measurements on an engine dynamometer. To achieve an easier system structure, it was examined to use the engine output for driving of PWS. As a result, it was confirmed that the engine coupled with PWS could be driven by making the ratio of the PWS rotor speed and the engine speed constant.
Technical Paper

Research of the DI Diesel Spray Characteristics at High Temperature and High Pressure Ambient

In order to clarify the diesel fuel spray characteristics inside the cylinder, we developed two novel techniques, which are preparation of same level of temperature and pressure ambient as inside cylinder and quantitative measurement of vapor concentration. The first one utilizes combustion-type constant-volume chamber (inner volume 110cc), which allows 5 MPa and 873K by igniting the pre-mixture (n-pentane and air) with two spark plugs. In the second technique, TMPD vapor concentration is measured by using Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence method (LIEF). The concentration is compensated by investigation of the influence of ambient pressure (from 3 to 5 MPa) and temperature (from 550 to 900 K) on TMPD fluorescence intensity. By using two techniques, we investigated the influence of nozzle hole diameter, injection pressure and ambient condition on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Research of Fuel Characteristic of Dimethyl ether / High Viscosity & Incombustible matter Blend for Marine Diesel Engine

Diesel engine has fuel combustion capability in various high density oil such as residual fuels or biofuels derived from fossil or living matter. But for commercial use, these fuels except bio diesel fuel (BDF) should be heated, separated and filtered by equipment and dosed or mixed with additive or distillate oil etc. before being supplied to the engine in order to improve combustibility. This study aims to illuminate fuel characteristic of blend contained woody pyrolysis oil (WPO) which is high viscosity and incombustible, and dimethyl ether (DME) whose emission of combustion has no soot particle. This paper describes thermo-physical property of neat WPO and the blend on the basis of the evaluation of fuel fluidity by measurement and calculation of viscosity. According to the result, it was confirmed that the fluidity of WPO was improved by mixing DME and the approximate viscosity expressions at any temperature of WPO and the blend were good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Progress of Heavy Truck Diesel Engines in Japan

In Japan, about 5.6 billion tons of freight are transported annually and 90% of this figure is supported by trucks. Among them, the heavy vehicles of GVW 20ton are employed as one of the main means of such transportation and they are produced about 40,000 units annually. For these trucks, over 80 types of diesel engines have been developed during the past 20 years. Today, there are more than 30 domestic types. The engine displacement ranges from 8.8 to 18.0 liters and the maximum output spreads from 270hp (199kW) to 380hp (280kW). The naturally aspiration type occupies 70% and the turbocharged or turbo-intercooled type takes the remaining portion. The authors present the design concept and the technical background which are involved in the above-mentioned engines. They also describe the technology which concerns combustion, gas exchange, construction, electronic control, etc. and the ‘total power system’ (some simultaneously managing system) formulated to realize such engines.
Technical Paper

Precise Measurement of Heat Transfer to the Inlet Air using Intake Port Model

Temperature measurement experiments with intake port model were done to achieve the fundamental information on constructing physical model that expresses the heat transfer phenomena in the intake manifold and intake port. The experiments were done with steady airflow, and the size, shape, heating condition of the port model and mass flow rate were changed as experimental parameters. As the results, it was clear that the developing condition of velocity and thermal boundary layer had greater influence than the shape factor, and the coefficient and the exponent of the equation derived from the relationship between Nusselt number and Reynolds number had great difference from those of generally used Colburn's equation in undeveloped entrance region, but they got closer as developing boundary layer.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena at the Intake Manifold of a Diesel Engine and Its Application to 1-D Engine Simulation

In the past two decades, internal combustion engines have been required to improve their thermal efficiency in order to limit hazardous gas emissions. For further improvement of the thermal efficiency, it is required to predict the mass of intake air into cylinders in order to control the auto-ignition timing for CI engines. For an accurate prediction of intake air mass, it is necessary to model the heat transfer phenomena at the intake manifold. From this intention, an empirical equation was developed based on Colburn equation. Two new arguments were presented in the derived formula. The first argument was the addition of Graetz number, where it characterized the entrance region thermal boundary layer development and its effect on the heat transfer inside the intake manifold. As the second argument, Strouhal number was included in order to represent intake valve effect on heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-Steady State Heat Transfer Phenomena with the Consideration of Backflow Gas Effect at Intake Manifold of IC Engines and Its Numerical Analyses on 1-D Engine Simulation

An empirical equation was developed for modeling the heat transfer phenomena taking place in an intake manifold which included the backflow gas effect. In literature, heat transfer phenomenon at intake system is modeled based on steady flow assumptions by Colburn analogy. Previously, authors developed an equation with the introduction of Graetz and Strouhal numbers, using a port model experimental setup. In this study, to further improve the empirical equation, real engine experiments were conducted where pressure ratio between the intake manifold and engine cylinder were added along with Reynolds number to characterize the backflow gas effect on intake air temperature. Compared to the experimental data, maximum and average errors of intake air temperature estimated from the new empirical equation were found to be 2.9% and 0.9%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature Distribution Nearby Flame Quenching Zone by Real-Time Holographic Interferometry

Temperature distribution as the flame propagated and contacted to the wall of the combustion chamber was measured by real-time holographic interference method, which mainly consisted of an argon-ion laser and a high-speed video camera. The experiment was done with a constant volume chamber and propane-air mixture with several kinds of equivalence ratios. From the experimental results, it can be found that the temperature distribution outside the zone from the surface of the combustion chamber to 0.1mm distance could be measured by counting the number of the interference fringes, but couldn't within this zone because of lacking in the resolution of the used optical system. The experimental results show that the temperature distribution when the heat flux on the wall increases rapidly and when the heat flux shows the maximum value are quite different by the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Combustion influences Durability of Fuel Injection Pipe Line and Treatment of the Pipe

In order to reduce particulate and NOx emission from the direct injection diesel engine, most researchers have been expecting the utilization of higher injection pressure and injection rate for improvement of diesel combustion. In the case of pump-line-nozzle system, the injection pipe line is very important with regard to the high injection pressure. Namely, the pipe line must be able to resist not only high pressure but also cavitation erosion. In this paper, the effect of high injection pressure, injection rate and sharp cutting at the end of fuel injection are discussed along with cavitation phenomena on the injection pipe line. And durability tests on the pipe line system under high injection pressure using a test rig are also described. Regarding durability tests, several measures have been taken for the injection pipe. As a result, the authors have found that the best solution for the injection pipe is a composite pipe made with SUS and steel.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Economy of Supercharged Engine

The paper reviews the experimental development of fuel economy of engine powering the 2012 Formula SAE single seat race car of the University of Sophia. The balance of high power and low fuel consumption is biggest challenge of racing engine. It was found that improving the efficiency of engine by supercharging as a way to achieve that. In order to adapt the supercharger for the engine, the important design points are below: It was found that intake air blow-by gas at combustion chamber is increased in low engine speed. To improve that, the valve overlap angle was changed to adopt supercharged engine and improve effective compression ratio. Typically the racing engine demands maximum torque for performance but that does not imply that the air fuel ratio should be rich than theoretical. The point is the maximum torque of the engine is proportional to the amount of air intake. Therefore, supercharged engine is possible to increase the supercharging pressure for bigger torque.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Quasi-Steady State Heat Transfer Model for Intake System of IC Engines with Considering Backflow Gas Effect Using 1-D Engine Simulation

For improving the thermal efficiency and the reduction of hazardous gas emission from IC engines, it is crucial to model the heat transfer phenomenon starting from the intake system and predict the intake air’s mass and temperature as precise as possible. Previously the authors developed an empirical equation based on an experimental setup of an intake port model of an ICE in order to be implemented into the engine control unit and numerical simulation software for heat transfer calculations. The authors developed an empirical equation based on the conventional Colburn analogy with the addition of Graetz and Strouhal numbers. Introduced dimensionless numbers were used to characterize the entrance region, and intermittent flow effects, respectively.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption for SI Engines by Combing with Glow Plug Heated Sub-chamber and Lean Burn

Lean burn gasoline engines can achieve noteworthy fuel consumption and power output. However, when the mixture becomes lean, the ignition delay increases, and the flame propagation speed becomes slow, which lead to increase the combustion fluctuation. The glow plug is usually used to solve the cold start problem in diesel engines, where the compression temperature might not be high enough to ensure the proper ignition of the injected fuel, resulting in instability combustion and increased exhaust emissions. Based on this point, the present study intends to install a glow plug to the sub-chamber. Experiments were conducted on a modified single cylinder four-stroke CI engine (YANMAR TF120V) to operate as SI engine with a higher compression ratio compared to the conventional SI engines, 15.1:1. The engine is operated at a constant speed of 1000 rpm for different equivalence ratios with different voltage of glow plug which creates the temperature variation inside the sub-chamber.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Error in Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

Measuring precise cylinder pressure traces of internal combustion engines is an important factor for estimating their performances. It is known that the actual pressure readings measured with piezoelectric pressure transducers nave various forms of error. This paper is devoted to a study of compensation methods for reducing the errors caused by time constant values and thermal shock. Numerical analysis were carried out for the both errors to derive the equations of error compensation using the actual pressure data. The results indicate that the errors are corrected quite well with the obtained equations.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Air-Fuel Ratio Feed-Forward Controller Considering Heat Transfer at Intake System to SI Engine

For further development of the thermal efficiency of SI engines, the robust control of the air-fuel ratio (A/F) fluctuation is one of the most important technologies, because the A/F is maintained at the theoretical constant value, which causes the increase of the catalytic conversion efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emission. We developed the robust controller of the A/F, which is the method to change the fuel injection rate by using the feed-forward (FF) controller considering the heat transfer at the intake system. The FF controller was verified under transient driving conditions for a single cylinder, and the A/F fluctuations were reduced at approximately 84%.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer in the Internal Combustion Engines

This investigation was concerned with the rate of heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls of the internal combustion engines. The numerical formula for estimating the heat transfer to the combustion chamber wall was derived from the theoretical analysis and the experiment, which were used the constant volume combustion chamber and the actual gasoline engine. As a result, mean heat transfer in the internal combustion engine becomes possible to estimate with measuring the cylinder pressure. In addition, the derived numerical formula forms with quite simple variables. Therefore it is very useful for engine design.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of On-board Heat Loss Prediction Model and Polytropic Index Prediction Model for CI Engines Using Measurements of Combustion Chamber Wall Heat Flux

Diesel engines need to optimize the fuel injection timing and quantity of each cycle in the transient operation to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce the exhaust gas emissions through the precise combustion control. The heat transfer from the working gas in the combustion chamber to the chamber wall is a crucial factor to predict the gas temperature in the combustion chamber to optimize the timing and quantity of fuel injection. Therefore, the authors developed both the heat loss and the polytropic index prediction models with the low calculation load and high accuracy. In addition, for the calculation of the heat loss and the polytropic index, the wall heat transfer model was also developed, which was derived from the continuity equation and the energy equation. The present study used a single cylinder diesel engine under the condition of engine speed of 1200 and 1500 rpm, and measured the local wall temperature and the local heat flux of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.