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Technical Paper

Usability Verification of Distance Reference Lines in the Side View Camera

In this paper, we discuss our verification of the usability of camera images where reference lines are superimposed to enhance the driver's ability to percept the relative distance to other vehicles. A Side View Camera shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. It is a system to compensate side-view mirrors, broadening the driver's field of view to eliminate blind spots. However, distance perception based on camera images tends to be different from that based on images of the side-view mirror. This tendency is more noticeable with images taken by a wide-angle camera, and this makes the driver feel uncomfortable. So, in order to eliminate the problem of distance perception based on camera images, we superimposed reference lines on the camera images to assist distance perception, and we verified the usability of this approach.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine Using an Optically Accessible Engine

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Temperature of CNG Premixture on Knock Limit in a Dual Fueled Diesel Engine

Homogeneously charged natural gas was burned in a diesel engine assisted by a small amount of gas oil injection. The effects of the equivalence ratio of natural gas, the intake temperature and the EGR rate on ignition of gas oil, the burning rate of natural gas and the knock limit were clarified experimentally. As results, a marked improvement in the trade-off between smoke and NOx was obtained maintaining a high thermal efficiency by a combination between the natural gas charge rate, the EGR rate, the intake preheating and the nozzle orifice size suitable at each engine load.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knocking in a Lean Mixture Using an Optically Accessible Engine

Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using a Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine with a High Compression Ratio

In this study, it was shown that Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine, operating under the conditions of a high compression ratio, wide open throttle (WOT) and a lean mixture, could be simulated by raising the compression ratio of a 2-stroke engine. On that basis, a comparison was then made with the characteristics of Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC), the HCCI process that is usually accomplished in 2-stroke engines under the conditions of a low compression ratio, partial throttle and a large quantity of residual gas. One major difference observed between HCCI combustion and ATAC was their different degrees of susceptibility to the occurrence of cool flames, which was attributed to differences in the residual gas state. It was revealed that the ignition characteristics of these two combustion processes differed greatly in relation to the fuel octane number.