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Technical Paper

Visualization and Heat Release Analysis of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Various Fuel Ignitabilities and Oxygen Concentrations in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel

Low NOx and soot free premixed diesel combustion can be realized by increasing ignition delays in low oxygen atmospheres, as well as the combustion here also depends on fuel ignitability. In this report single intermittent spray combustion with primary reference fuels and a normal heptane-toluene blend fuel under several oxygen concentrations in a constant volume combustion vessel was analyzed with high-speed color video and pressure data. Temperature and KL factor distributions are displayed with a 2-D two-color method. The results show that premixing is promoted with a decrease in oxygen concentration, and the local high temperature regions, above 2200 K, as well as the duration of their appearance decreases with the oxygen concentration. With normal heptane, mild premixed diesel combustion can be realized at 15 vol% oxygen and there is little luminous flame.
Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
Journal Article

Unregulated Harmful Substances in Exhaust Gas from Diesel Engines

The volatile organic compounds (VOC) from diesel engines, including formaldehyde and benzene, are concerned and remain as unregulated harmful substances. The substances are positively correlated with THC emissions, but the VOC and aldehyde compounds at light load or idling conditions are more significant than THC. When coolant temperatures are low at light loads, there are notable increases in formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and with lower coolant temperatures the increase in aldehydes is more significant than the increase in THC. When using ultra high EGR so that the intake oxygen content decreases below 10%, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene increase significantly while smokeless and ultra low Nox combustion is possible.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Performance Diesel Combustion with a Combination of High EGR, Three-Way Catalyst, and a Highly Oxygenated Fuel, Dimethoxy Methane (DMM)

Ultra low emissions and high performance combustion was achieved with a combination of high EGR, a three-way catalyst, and a highly oxygenated liquid fuel, neat dimethoxy methane (DMM), in an ordinary DI diesel engine. The smokeless nature of neat DMM effectively allowed stoichiometric diesel combustion by controlling BMEP with EGR. NOx, THC, and CO emissions were reduced with a three-way catalyst. At lower BMEP with excess air, the EGR effectively reduced NOx. High-speed video in a bottom view type engine revealed that luminous flame decreased with increased fuel oxygen content and almost disappeared with DMM.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emission and High Performance Diesel Combustion with Highly Oxygenated Fuel

Significant improvements in exhaust emissions and engine performance in an ordinary DI diesel engine were realized with highly oxygenated fuels. The smoke emissions decreased sharply and linearly with increases in oxygen content and entirely disappeared at an oxygen content of 38 wt-% even at stoichiometric conditions. The NOx, THC, and CO were almost all removed with a three-way catalyst under stoichiometric diesel combustion at both the higher and lower BMEP with the combination of EGR and a three-way catalyst. The engine output for the highly oxygenated fuels was significantly higher than that with the conventional diesel fuel due to the higher air utilization.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Nature of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Piston Wall Temperature Under Transient Operation in a Small Diesel Engine

Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Behavior of Unburned Hydrocarbon Components in Diesel Exhaust Under Transient Operations

Time resolved changes in unburned hydrocarbon emissions and their components were investigated in a DI diesel engine with a specially developed gas sampling system and gas chromatography. The tested transient operations include starting and increasing loads. At start-up with high equivalence ratios the total hydrocarbon (THC) at first increased, and after a maximum gradually decreased to reach a steady state value. Reducing the equivalence ratio of the high fueling at start-up and shortening the high fueling duration are effective to reduce THC emissions as long as sufficient startability is maintained. Lower hydrocarbons, mainly C1-C8, were the dominant components of the THC and mainly determined the THC behavior in the transient operations while the proportion of hydrocarbon (HC) components did not significantly change. The unregulated toxic substances, 1,3 butadiene and benzene were detected in small quantities.
Technical Paper

Time Series Analysis of Diesel Exhaust Gas Emissions Under Transient Operation

Time series analysis of diesel exhaust gas emissions under transient operation was carried out using a uniquely developed gas sampling system to efficiently collect all exhaust gas throughout transient cycles. The effects of fuel properties and other engine operation parameters on the exhaust emissions under transient runs when fuel amounts abruptly increase were analyzed. The results showed that THC increased abruptly to 2 or 6 times the final steady-state concentration immediately after the start of acceleration and then decreased to the steady-state values after 70∼200 cycles. At acceleration, NOx increased abruptly to about 80 % of the final NOx concentration, and then increased gradually to reach the final values after 60∼500 cycles. The behaviors of THC and NOx during transient operation can be described by exponential functions of the elapsed cycle numbers and the final emission concentrations.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Improvement and its Mechanism at Low Load Conditions in Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release

Semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release with the two-stage fuel injection (twin combustion) has the potential to establish efficient, low emission, and low noise operation. However, with twin combustion at low loads the indicated thermal efficiencies are poorer than at medium loads due to the lower combustion efficiencies. In this report, to increase the combustion efficiencies at low loads, the thermal efficiency related parameters were investigated in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated thermal efficiency improves with increases in the intake gas temperatures at low loads. However, at the higher loads where the combustion efficiencies are somewhat higher the indicated thermal efficiencies decrease with increases in the intake gas temperatures due to increases in the cooling losses.
Technical Paper

Theory and Experiments on Air-Entrainment in Fuel Sprays and Their Application to Interpret Diesel Combustion Processes

This paper presents a theory and its experimental validation for air entrainment changes into fuel sprays in DI diesel engines. The theory predicts air entrainment changes for a variety of swirl speeds, number of nozzle holes, nozzle diameters, engine speeds, injection speeds and fuel densities. The formulae of the theory are simple non-dimensional equations, which apply for different sized engines. Experiments were performed to compare theoretical predictions and experimental results in six different engines varying from 85 to 800mm bore. All results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions for shallow-dish piston engines. However the agreement became poor in the case of deep cavity piston engines. With the theory, it is possible to interpret a variety of combustion phenomena in diesel engines, providing additional understanding of diesel combustion processes.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Properties on Diesel-Soot Suppression with Soluble Fuel Additives

Diesel soot suppression effects of catalytic fuel additives for a range of fuels with different properties were investigated with calcium naphthenate. A single cylinder DI diesel engine and a thermobalance were used to determine the soot reduction and its mechanism for seven kinds of fuels. Experimental results showed that the catalytic effect of the fuel additive was different for the different fuels, and could be described by a parameter considering cetane number and kinematic viscosity. The fuel additives reduced soot more effectively for fuels with higher cetane number and lower kinematic viscosity. This result was explained by soot oxidation characteristics for the different fuels. Oxidation of soot with the metallic additive proceeds in two stages: stage I, a very rapid oxidation stage; and stage II, a following slow or ordinary oxidation stage.
Technical Paper

Study on Simple and High-Speed Diesel Combustion Model with Wall Impingement

To design diesel engines adapted to future exhaust gas regulation, it would be advantageous to have a driving mode simulation for vehicle performance and exhaust emissions, including after-treatment systems. The combustion model for this objective must be able to simulate the engine performance in very short time. We have tried to develop such diesel engine combustion model by adding the improvements to the Hiroyasu model. In this paper, we detail the improvements that were added to this model and comparisons the calculated results by the improved model with experimental result.
Technical Paper

Study on Exhaust Control Valves and Direct Air-Fuel Injection for Improving Scavenging Process in Two-Stroke Gasoline Engines

A critical factor in improving performance of crankcase-scavenged two-stroke gasoline engines is to reduce the short-circuiting of the fresh charge to the exhaust in the scavenging process. To achieve this, the authors developed a reciprocating exhaust control valve mechanism and direct air-fuel injection system. This paper investigates the effects of exhaust control valve and direct air-fuel injection in the all aspect of engine performance and exhaust emissions over a wide range of loads and engine speeds. The experimental results indicate that the exhaust control valve and direct air-fuel injection system can improve specific fuel consumption, and that HC emissions can be significantly reduced by the reduction in fresh charge losses. The pressure variation also decreased by the improved combustion process. CRANKCASE SCAVENGED two-stroke gasoline engines suffer from fresh charge losses leading to poor fuel economy and it is a reason for large increases of HC in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Smokeless, Low NOx, and Low Noise Diesel Combustion with Methanol as a Main Fuel

In order to obtain improved combustion of methanol in a dual fuel diesel engine, both methanol and gas oil as an auxiliary fuel were injected into a pre-combustion chamber. The effects of proportion and timing of the auxiliary fuel injection, and the main injection timing on the engine performance and on emissions were investigated. As a result, with methanol 95% of total energy input, combustion took place without misfiring or knocking. The combustion was smokeless, smoother, with lower NOx, and lower noise than for usual combustion with gas oil. The thermal efficiency was maintained at the same level as in conventional diesel operation.
Technical Paper

Smokeless, Low NOx, High Thermal Efficiency, and Low Noise Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Agents as Main Fuel

Diesel combustion and emissions with four kinds of oxygenated agents as main fuels were investigated. Significant improvements in smoke, particulate matter, NOx, THC, and thermal efficiency were simultaneously realized with the oxygenates, and engine noise was also remarkably reduced for the oxygenates with higher ignitability. The improvements in the exhaust emissions and the thermal efficiency depended almost entirely on the oxygen content in the fuels regardless of the oxygenate to diesel fuel blend ratios and type of oxygenate. The unburned THC emission and odor intensity under starting condition with an oxygenate were also much lower than with conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reductions of Smoke and NOx from a DI Diesel Engine with EGR and Dimethyl Carbonate

Extensive experiments were conducted on a low emission DI diesel engine by using Dimethyl Carbonate (DMC) as an oxygenate fuel additive. The results indicated that smoke reduced almost linearly with fuel oxygen content. Accompanying noticeable reductions of HC and CO were attained, while a small increase in NOx was encountered. The effective reduction in smoke with DMC was maintained with intake charge CO2, which led to low NOx and smoke emissions by the combined use of oxygenated fuel and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Further experiments were conducted on an optically accessible combustion bomb and a thermal cracking set-up to study the mechanisms of DMC addition on smoke reduction.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reductions in Diesel NOx and Smoke Emissions with Aqueous Metal-Salt Solutions Directly Injected into the Combustion Chamber

The effect of several aqueous metal-salt solutions on NOx and smoke lowering in an IDI diesel engine were examined. The solutions were directly injected into a divided chamber independent of the fuel injection. The results showed that significant lowering in NOx and smoke over a wide operation range could be achieved simultaneously with alkali metal solutions which were injected just prior to the fuel injection. With sodium-salt solutions, for instance, NOx decreased by more than 60 % and smoke decreased 50 % below conventional operation. The sodium-salt solution reduced dry soot significantly, while total particulate matter increased with increases in the water soluble fractions.
Technical Paper

Significant NOx Reductions with Direct Water Injection into the Sub-Chamber of an IDI Diesel Engine

The effect of direct water injection into the combustion chamber on NOx reduction in an IDI diesel engine was investigated. The temperature distribution in the swirl chamber was analyzed quantitatively with high speed photography and the two color method. Direct water injection into a swirl chamber prior to fuel injection reduced NOx emission significantly over a wide output range without sacrifice of BSFC. Other emissions were almost unchanged or slightly decreased with water injection. Water injection reduced the flame temperature at the center of the swirl chamber, while the mean gas temperature in the cylinder and the rate of heat release changed little.
Technical Paper

Significant NOx Formation at the Tip of Diesel Spray Flames and Its Reduction by Enhanced Mixing in the Tip Region

Similarities in the structure of spray flames suggest that higher fuel injection speeds would reduce NOx emission as the fuel residence time in the reaction zone would shorter. However, in diesel combustion it is commonly known that NOx emissions increase when the fuel injection velocity is increased. The authors have assumed that the mixing time scale is significantly large at the spray tip region where most of the NOx in the emissions is formed. The increase in NOx by the higher injection velocity in engines can be explained as the mixing time scale increases corresponding to the penetration length relative to the nozzle diameter. The purpose of this paper is to confirm this assumption and to show an effective method to reduce NOx emissions based on the analysis. Experiments were made to measure NOx from a jet flame injected in a closed vessel with different injection speeds and injection periods.
Technical Paper

Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release Using Two-Stage Fuel Injection

Characteristics of semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release (twin combustion) were investigated under several in-cylinder gas conditions in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine with common-rail fuel injection, super-charged, and with low pressure loop cooled EGR. The first-stage combustion fraction, the second injection timing, the intake oxygen concentration, and the intake gas pressure influence on thermal efficiency related parameters, the engine noise, and the exhaust gas emissions was systematically examined at a middle engine speed and load condition (2000 rpm, 0.7 MPa IMEP). The twin peak shaped heat release was realized with the first-stage premixed combustion with a sufficient premixing duration from the first fuel injection and with the second fuel injection taking place just after the end of the first-stage combustion.