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Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

Soot Oxidation in Periphery of Diesel Spray Flame via High-Speed Sampling and HR-TEM Observation

2017-09-04
2017-24-0067
In order to better understand in-flame diesel soot oxidation processes, soot particles at the oxidation-dominant periphery of diesel spray flame were sampled by a newly developed “suck” type soot sampler employing a high-speed solenoid valve and their morphology and nanostructure were observed via high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). A single-shot diesel spray flame for the soot sampling experiment was achieved in a constant-volume vessel under a diesel-like condition. The sampler instantaneously sucks out a small portion of soot laden gases from the flame. A TEM grid holds inside the flow passage close to its entrance is immediately exposed to the gas flow induced by the suction at the upstream of the solenoid valve, so that the quick thermophoretic soot deposition onto the grid surface can effectively freeze morphology variation of soot particles during the sampling processes.
Journal Article

Sizing of Soot Particles in Diesel Spray Flame -A Qualitative Comparison between TEM Analysis and LII/Scattering Laser Measurements

2013-10-14
2013-01-2576
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a diesel spray flame, two kinds of planar soot imaging techniques, Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) and Laser Scattering (LS) techniques, were applied simultaneously to a diesel spray flame in a constant-volume combustion vessel under a diesel-like condition (2.5MPa, 940K). An analysis of LII and LS images yielded 2-dimensional distribution images of concentration, size and number density of soot particles in the spray flame, based on an assumption that LII and LS signals are proportional to the soot particle size to the power of 3 and 6, respectively. In order to obtain clearer variation trend in the soot concentration, size and number density distribution in significantly fluctuating single-shot diesel spray flames, spontaneous and time-integrated ensemble averaging of the laser-measured images were employed.
Technical Paper

Pyrene-LIF Thermometry of the Early Soot Formation Region in a Diesel Spray Flame

2005-09-11
2005-24-006
In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Inversed-Delta Rate Shaping Diesel Spray Flame towards Reduction of Late Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1793
In our previous work, diesel late combustion heat release is suspected to originate from rich fuel mixture cloud stagnating at the spray tip. Injection rate shaping is gaining attention as an attractive strategy to control diesel spray combustion characteristics where it could be an effective approach in reducing the late combustion. Progressive ramp-down injection rate as in “inversed-delta” shape is achieved by using a novel rate shaping injector called TAIZAC (TAndem Injectors Zapping Activation); rate shaping can be realized by controlling the actuation timing of two directly-connected commercially available injectors. To investigate the potential of inversed-delta rate shaping for reduction of diesel late combustion, simultaneous high-speed UV laser diffuse back illumination (DBI), UV emissions and soot luminosity imaging of inversed-delta and conventional rectangle-injected spray flames conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber are compared.
Technical Paper

Nanostructure Analysis of Primary Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame via HRTEM

2012-09-10
2012-01-1722
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in diesel spray flame, the nanostructure of primary soot particles directly sampled in a diesel spray flame was investigated via High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). A single-shot diesel spray flame was achieved in a constant volume combustion vessel under diesel-like conditions (Ta=1000K, Pa=2.7 MPa) and a micro-grid for HRTEM observation was directly exposed to the spray flame to thermophoretically sample soot particles onto the grid surface. A preliminary nanostructure investigation was conducted for x500k magnification HRTEM images of soot particles directly sampled in diesel spray flames of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (FTD) fuel seeded with naphthalene as a representative aromatic substance. A MATLAB code for HRTEM image processing and analysis of lattice fringes within primary soot particles was developed and used to characterize the length, tortuosity and separation of lattice fringes.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Excitation-Emission Matrix of Shock-heated PAHs using a Multi-wavelength Laser Source

2003-05-19
2003-01-1785
Measurements of Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) of shock-heated vapors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature (750-1500K) and high pressure (0.3-1.3MPa) conditions were conducted using a multi-wavelength excitation laser in order to demonstrate the potential of the single-measurement EEM fluorometry for investigation of soot precursors. Argon-diluted vapors of naphthalene and pyrene, as PAH model compounds, were heated in an optically accessible shock tube. The PAH vapors were excited by a coherent multi-wavelength “rainbow” laser light generated by converting the 4th harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser using a Raman cell frequency converter filled with high-pressure (2MPa) methane-hydrogen mixture.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Phosphorescence Thermography of Combustion Chamber Wall of Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1069
In order to investigate the mechanism of heat transfer on the chamber wall of direct-injection diesel engines, 2-D temperature imaging and heat flux measurement in the flame impinging region on the chamber wall were conducted using laser-induced phosphorescence technique. The temperature of the chamber wall surface was measured by the calibrated intensity variation of the 355nm-excited laser-induced phosphorescence from an electrophoretically deposited thin layer of La2O2S:Eu phosphor on a quartz glass plate placed in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Instantaneous 2-D images of wall temperature at different timings after start of injection and time-resolved (10kHz) heat flux near the flame impinging region were obtained for combusting and non-combusting diesel sprays with impinging distance of 23.4mm at different injection pressures (80 and 120MPa).
Journal Article

In-Cylinder GDI Soot via Visualization and Time-Resolved Total Cylinder Sampling

2019-01-15
2019-01-0037
For better understanding, model development and its validation of in-cylinder soot formation processes of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, crank-angle-resolved mass and size distribution of in-cylinder soot during a GDI combustion cycle were investigated via optical measurements and total cylinder sampling technique in an optically accessible Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (RCEM). A direct-injection, spark-ignited and single-shot combustion event was achieved in the RCEM operated with engine speed 600 rpm, compression ratio 9.0, equivalence ratio 0.9 and natural aspiration. A three-component (iso-octane 65%, n-heptane 10%, toluene 25%) gasoline surrogate fuel and a multi-hole injector shared within the Japanese SIP Innovative Combustion Technology research program were used.
Technical Paper

High-Speed UV and Visible Laser Shadowgraphy of GDI In-Cylinder Pool Fire

2016-10-17
2016-01-2165
For better understanding, model development and its validation of in-cylinder soot formation processes of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, visualization of piston surface fuel wetting, vaporization and soot formation processes of in-cylinder pool fire via high-speed UV (266nm) and visible (445nm) laser shadowgraphy was attempted in an optically accessible Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine (RCEM). A direct-injection, spark-ignition and single-shot combustion event was achieved in the RCEM under engine-equivalent, simplified and well-defined conditions operated with engine speed 600 rpm, compression ratio 9.0, equivalence ratio 0.9 and natural aspiration. The tested fuel was composed of 70% iso-octane and 30% toluene by volume and the UV absorption by toluene enabled visualization of the in-cylinder fuel distribution.
Journal Article

Effects of Ambient Oxygen Concentration on Soot Processes in Diesel Spray Flame - A Qualitative Comparison between TEM Analysis and LII/Scattering Laser Measurements

2014-10-13
2014-01-2642
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in diesel combustion, effects of ambient oxygen concentration on in-flame diesel soot particle properties including concentration, size, number density and morphology were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel via simultaneous LII (Laser-Induced Incandescence) / LS (Laser Scattering) imaging techniques and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) analysis. An analysis of LII and LS images yielded 2-dimensional distribution images of concentration, size and number density of soot particles in diesel spray flame, based on a practical assumption that LII and LS signals are proportional to the soot particle size to the power of 3 and 6, respectively.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

2002-10-21
2002-01-2669
In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
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