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Technical Paper

The Contribution of Different Oil Consumption Sources to Total Oil Consumption in a Spark Ignition Engine

As a part of the effort to comply with increasingly stringent emission standards, engine manufacturers strive to minimize engine oil consumption. This requires the advancement of the understanding of the characteristics, sources, and driving mechanisms of oil consumption. This paper presents a combined theoretical and experimental approach to separate and quantify different oil consumption sources in a production spark ignition engine at different speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on engine operating speed and load. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder parameters for oil transport and oil consumption, such as liner temperatures and land pressures, were measured.
Technical Paper

Rapid Distortion Theory Applied to Turbulent Combustion

A technique of calculating the evolution of turbulence during the combustion phase of a reciprocating engine cycle is presented. The method is based on a local linearization of the full non-linear equations of motion. It is valid when the turbulence is distorted more rapidly by the changes in mean flows than it interacts with itself. The theory requires as input strain rates of the deterministic mean motion, and the initial state of turbulence. Calculations are presented for the particular case of a cylindrical chamber geometry. In the burning process it is assumed that the spark plug is located on the cylinder axis and the strain field is that established by the flame front. The theory calculates the turbulence parameters during the combustion period. Combustion rates, and durations, as a function of equivalence ratio and the initial turbulent and thermodynamic conditions.
Technical Paper

Oil Conditioning as a Means to Minimize Lubricant Ash Requirements and Extend Oil Drain Interval

A novel approach to condition the lubricant at a fixed station in the oil circuit is explored as a potential means to reduce additive requirements or increase oil drain interval. This study examines the performance of an innovative oil filter which releases no additives into the lubricant, yet enhances the acid control function typically performed by detergent and dispersant additives. The filter chemically conditions the crankcase oil during engine operation by sequestering acidic compounds derived from engine combustion and lubricant degradation. Long duration tests with a heavy-duty diesel engine show that the oil conditioning with the strong base filter reduces lubricant acidity (TAN), improves Total Base Number (TBN) retention, and slows the rate of viscosity increase and oxidation. The results also indicate that there may be a reduction in wear and corrosion.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Dynamics and Lubrication of Three Piece Oil Control Rings in Internal Combustion Engines

The oil control ring is the most critical component for oil consumption and friction from the piston system in internal combustion engines. Three-piece oil control rings are widely used in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. However, the dynamics and lubrication of three piece oil control rings have not been thoroughly studied from the theoretical point of view. In this work, a model was developed to predict side sealing, bore sealing, friction, and asperity contact between rails and groove as well as between rails and the liner in a Three Piece Oil Control Ring (TPOCR). The model couples the axial and twist dynamics of the two rails of TPOCR and the lubrication between two rails and the cylinder bore. Detailed rail/groove and rail/liner interactions were considered. The pressure distribution from oil squeezing and asperity contact between the flanks of the rails and the groove were both considered for rail/groove interaction.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimizing Honing Texture for Reduced Friction in Internal Combustion Engines

Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately half of the total frictional losses within the power cylinder of an engine. Three-dimensional honing groove texture was modeled, and its effect on piston ring-pack friction and engine brake thermal efficiency was investigated. Adverse effects on engine oil consumption and durability were also considered. Although many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes are now being developed to reduce friction and oil consumption, the effects of surface finish on ring-pack performance is not well understood. A rough surface flow simulation program was developed to calculate flow and stress factors that adjust the solution of the Reynolds equation for the effects of surface roughness as has been done in the literature. Rough surface contact between the ring and liner was modeled using a previously published methodology for asperity contact pressure estimation between rough surfaces.
Technical Paper

In Situ Control of Lubricant Properties for Reduction of Power Cylinder Friction through Thermal Barrier Coating

Lowering lubricant viscosity to reduce friction generally carries a side-effect of increased metal-metal contact in mixed or boundary lubrication, for example near top ring reversal along the engine cylinder liner. A strategy to reduce viscosity without increased metal-metal contact involves controlling the local viscosity away from top-ring-reversal locations. This paper discusses the implementation of insulation or thermal barrier coating (TBC) as a means of reducing local oil viscosity and power cylinder friction in internal combustion engines with minimal side-effects of increased wear. TBC is selectively applied to the outside diameter of the cylinder liner to increase the local oil temperature along the liner. Due to the temperature dependence of oil viscosity, the increase in temperature from insulation results in a decrease in the local oil viscosity.
Journal Article

Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear: Comparison with Conventional Diesel Fuel

The increased use of biodiesel fuels has raised concerns over the fuel's impact on engine performance and hardware compatibility. While these issues have received much attention in recent years, less well-known are the effects of biodiesel on engine-out ash emissions and lubricant properties. Significant differences in composition between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels have the potential to influence ash emissions, thereby affecting aftertreatment system performance. Further, the fuel also interacts directly with the lubricant through fuel dilution, and may impact lubricant properties. In this study, a 5.9L, 6 cylinder, Cummins ISB 300 diesel engine was outfitted with a specially designed rapid lubricant aging system and subjected to a set of steady-state engine operating conditions. The lubricant aging system allows for the investigation of the interactions of emissions and combustion products, as well as fuel dilution, on lubricant properties in an accelerated manner.
Technical Paper

Experimental Survey of Lubricant-Film Characteristics and Oil Consumption in a Small Diesel Engine

Parallel measurements of lubricant-film behavior and oil consumption in two identical small production IDI diesel engines are presented. Oil consumption was measured using tritium as a radioactive tracer, and instantaneous film thickness data between the piston and liner were obtained using laser fluorescence diagnostics. The data covered single- and multi-grade lubricants and five different ring configurations (two-piece vs three-piece rings at various ring tensions). The data illustrate (a) oil-film profiles under the rings, especially around the leading and trailing edges, (b) accumulation of oil on piston lands and skirt, (c) circumferential variations around the bore, (d) observations on ring rotation, and (e) the piston-skirt oil-pumping mechanism. Effects of lubricants and piston-ring configurations on oil-film characteristics are investigated, and the oil consumption data are compared with oil-film thickness measurements.
Technical Paper

Engine Knock Characteristics at the Audible Level

The effects of combustion chamber and intake valve deposit build-up on the knocking characteristics of a spark ignition engine were studied. A Chrysler 2.2 liter engine was run continuously for 180 hours to build up intake valve and combustion chamber deposits. In the tests reported here, the gasoline used contained a deposit controlling fuel additive. The engines's octane requirement increased by 10 research octane numbers during this extended engine operating period. At approximately 24 hour intervals during these tests, the engine was audibly knock rated to determine its octane requirement. Cylinder pressure data was collected during knocking conditions to investigate the knocking characteristics of each cylinder, and deposit build-up effects on those statistics. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations in knock statistics were studied. Analysis of the data indicated that some 20 to 40 percent of cycles knock before the knock is audibly detected.
Technical Paper

Engine Experiments on the Effects of Design and Operational Parameters on Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap

Experiments were done to quantify the dynamic motion of the piston and oil-film during piston impact on the cylinder bore, commonly known as “piston slap.” Parameters measured include engine block vibration, piston-skirt to liner separation, oil-film thickness between the piston and liner, and other engine operating conditions. Experimental parametric studies were performed covering the following: engine operating parameters - spark timing, liner temperature, oil-film thickness, oil type, and engine speed; and engine design parameters - piston-skirt surface waviness, piston-skirt/cylinder-liner clearance, and wrist-pin offset. Two dynamic modes of piston-motion-induced vibration were observed, and effects of changes in engine operating and design parameters were investigated for both types of slap. It was evident that engine design parameters have stronger effects on piston slap intensity, with piston-skirt/liner clearance and wrist-pin offset being the dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Direct Observation of the Friction Reduction of Multigrade Lubricants

The oil film thickness distribution between the top ring and liner was observed using laser fluorescence (LF). Five different commercial lubricants, two single grades and three multigrades, were studied at two azimuthal, mid-stroke locations for five speed/load combinations in a small IDI diesel engine. Cavitation is never observed. The lubricant always separates tangent to the ring surface. The rheology of the oil flow under the ring is consistent with a non-Newtonian viscosity without elasticity. The difference between lubricant type (single or multigrade) corresponds to differences in inlet and outlet conditions. Using an analytical model together with the measured oil distributions, calculations demonstrate a difference in friction between single and multigrade lubricants. The multigrade lubricants have a lower friction coefficient, consistent with improvements in fuel economy reported in the literature.
Technical Paper

Development of Engine Lubricant Film Thickness Diagnostics Using Fiber Optics and Laser Fluorescence

An apparatus was designed and applied to measure the oil-film thickness in a production engine using the principle of laser-induced fluorescence. The apparatus incorporated fiber optics technology in its design with an aim to improve the ease of installation, portability, durability, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of previous designs using conventional optics, which hitherto have been used almost exclusively in studying oil-film characteristics in detail. Bench tests and engine tests were conducted to study the optimum combination of system components and to evaluate the performance of the design. These tests indicate that the goals of the design have been achieved. The increased spatial resolution enabled more precise identification of important lubricant features around the piston rings.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical and Physical Characterization of Ash Species in Diesel Exhaust Entering Aftertreatment Systems

Irreversible plugging of diesel particulate filters caused by lubricant-derived metallic ash is the single most important factor responsible for long-term performance degradation and reduction in the service life of these filters. While a number of studies in the open literature have already demonstrated the benefits of diesel particulate traps and highlighted some of the difficulties associated with trap operation, many specific factors affecting trap performance and service life are still not well understood. The exact composition and nature of the exhaust entering the trap is one of the most important parameters affecting both short-term trap operation and long-term durability. In this study a fully instrumented Cummins ISB 300 six-cylinder, 5.9 liter, diesel engine was outfitted with a diesel particulate filter and subjected to a subset of the Euro III 13-mode stationary test cycle.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Variable Compression Ratio, Alvar- Cycle Engine

This paper is a direct continuation of a previous study that addressed the performance and design of a variable compression engine, the Alvar-Cycle Engine [1]. The earlier study was presented at the SAE International Conference and Exposition in Detroit during February 23-26, 1998 as SAE paper 981027. In the present paper test results from a single cylinder prototype are reviewed and compared with a similar conventional engine. Efficiency and emissions are shown as function of speed, load, and compression ratio. The influence of residual gas on knock characteristics is shown. The potential for high power density through heavy supercharging is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Correlations among Ash-Related Oil Species in the Power Cylinder, Crankcase and the Exhaust Stream of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

In this study, changes in the composition of lubricant additives in the power cylinder oil are examined. Samples are extracted from a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine in two locations during engine operation; the crankcase and the top ring groove of the piston. Emissions of lubricant-derived ash-forming elements are lower than would be expected based on oil consumption and crankcase oil composition. This occurs partly because the inorganic additive compounds are less volatile than light-end hydrocarbons in the base oil. The tribology of the piston ring pack also affects the composition of the oil consumed in the power cylinder system. The elemental composition of oil extracted from the top ring groove is significantly different than the crankcase oil. Additive metals are concentrated in the top ring groove of the power cylinder. Detergent compounds (i.e. Ca and Mg) concentrate due to the volatility of the base oil. The metals associated with ZDDP (i.e.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Effects of Ash Accumulation on Diesel Particulate Filter Performance: Rapidly Aged and Field Aged Results

Ash, mostly from essential lubricant additives, affects diesel particulate filter (DPF) pressure-drop sensitivity and limits filter service life. It raises concern in the lubricant industry to properly specify new oils, and engine and aftertreatment system manufacturers have attempted to find ways to mitigate the problem. To address these issues, results of detailed measurements of ash characteristics in the DPF and their effects on filter performance are presented. In this study, a heavy-duty diesel engine was outfitted with a specially designed rapid lubricant degradation and aftertreatment ash loading system. Unlike previous studies, this system allows for the control of specific exhaust characteristics including ash emission rate, ash-to-particle ratio, ash composition, and exhaust temperature and flow rates independent of the engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Calibration of Laser Fluorescence Measurements of Lubricant Film Thickness in Engines

A laser fluorescent diagnostic method was employed to measure lubricant film thickness on the cylinder wall/piston interface of two engines. The system output signal was calibrated using lubricant samples of known thickness, and by comparison of a known piston ring profile to measured lubricant film contours. Agreement of the results of the two calibration methods was within 5%. A relative calibration was performed with three oils having different additive packages, and with an oil contaminated through use in a commercially operated engine. The calibration coefficients for the oils, relating output voltage to film thickness, varied within a factor up to two, depending on lubricant type and age. The laser fluorescent apparatus was installed for use with a single cylinder test version of the Cummins VT-903 diesel engine. An optical passage was created through the block and cylinder wall using a quartz window.
Journal Article

Ash Effects on Diesel Particulate Filter Pressure Drop Sensitivity to Soot and Implications for Regeneration Frequency and DPF Control

Ash, primarily derived from diesel engine lubricants, accumulates in diesel particulate filters directly affecting the filter's pressure drop sensitivity to soot accumulation, thus impacting regeneration frequency and fuel economy. After approximately 33,000 miles of equivalent on-road aging, ash comprises more than half of the material accumulated in a typical cordierite filter. Ash accumulation reduces the effective filtration area, resulting in higher local soot loads toward the front of the filter. At a typical ash cleaning interval of 150,000 miles, ash more than doubles the filter's pressure drop sensitivity to soot, in addition to raising the pressure drop level itself. In order to evaluate the effects of lubricant-derived ash on DPF pressure drop performance, a novel accelerated ash loading system was employed to generate the ash and load the DPFs under carefully-controlled exhaust conditions.
Journal Article

Ash Accumulation and Impact on Sintered Metal Fiber Diesel Particulate Filters

While metal fiber filters have successfully shown a high degree of particle retention functionality for various sizes of diesel engines with a low pressure drop and a relatively high filtration efficiency, little is known about the effects of lubricant-derived ash on the fiber filter systems. Sintered metal fiber filters (SMF-DPF), when used downstream from a diesel engine, effectively trap and oxidize diesel particulate matter via an electrically heated regeneration process where a specific voltage and current are applied to the sintered alloy fibers. In this manner the filter media essentially acts as a resistive heater to generate temperatures high enough to oxidize the carbonaceous particulate matter, which is typically in excess of 600°C.