Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Wall Temperature Effect on SI-CAI Hybrid Combustion Progress in a Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1662
SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In order to investigate the effect of the thermal boundary condition on the hybrid combustion, the experiments with different coolant temperatures are performed to adjust the chamber wall temperature in a gasoline engine. The experimental results indicate that increasing wall temperature would advance the combustion phasing, enlarge the peak heat release rate and shorten the combustion duration. While the capacity of the wall temperature effect on the hybrid combustion characteristics are more notable in the auto-ignition dominated hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Effects of Recycled Burnt Gases on the Controlled Autoignition (CAI) Combustion in Four-Stroke Gasoline Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3607
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as HCCI or PCCI, has recently emerged as a viable alternative combustion process to the conventional spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI) process for internal combustion (IC) engines, owing to its potential for high efficiency and extremely low emissions. One of the most effective and practical means of achieving CAI combustion in an engine is to retain or recycle the burnt gases. In order to understand better the effects of recycled burnt gases on CAI combustion, detailed analytical and experimental studies have been carried out. The analytical studies were performed using an engine simulation model with detailed chemical kinetics. The five effects of the recycled burned gases studied include: (1.) Charge heating effect: higher intake charge temperature due to hot burned gases; (2.) Dilution effect: the reduction of oxygen due to the presence of the burned gases; (3.)
Technical Paper

Tumbling Motion: A Mechanism for Turbulence Enhancement in Spark-Ignition Engines

1990-02-01
900060
The ability of certain induction systems to enhance turbulence levels at the time of ignition, through formation of long-lived tumbling vortices on the plane of the valve and cylinder axes, has been investigated in a two-valve spark-ignition engine by rotating the intake port at 90° and 45° to the orientation of production directed ports. Detailed measurements of the three velocity components, obtained by laser velocimetry, revealed that the 90° port generated a pure tumble motion, with a maximum tumbling vortex ratio of 1.5 at 295°CA, zero swirl, and 42% turbulence enhancement relative to the standard configuration, while the 45° port gave rise to a combined tumble/swirl structure with a maximum tumbling vortex ratio of 0.5 at 285°CA, swirl ratio of 1.0 at TDC, and turbulence enhancement of 24%. The implications of the two types of flow structures for combustion are discussed.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Technical Paper

The Upper-Load Extension of a Boosted Direct Injection Poppet Valve Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2339
Engine downsizing can effectively improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines, but extreme downsizing is limited by knocking combustion and low-speed pre-ignition at higher loads. A 2-stroke SI engine can produce higher upper load compared to its naturally aspirated 4-stroke counterpart with the same displacement due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. To determine the potential of a downsized two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve SI gasoline engine with 0.7 L displacement in place of a naturally aspirated 1.6 L gasoline (NA4SG) engine, one-dimensional models for the 2-stroke gasoline engine with a single turbocharger and a two-stage supercharger-turbocharger boosting system were set up and validated by experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Modeling and Design of a Boosted Uniflow Scavenged Direct Injection Gasoline (BUSDIG) Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1970
Engine downsizing of the spark ignition gasoline engine is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to improve the fuel economy of a passenger car. However, further engine downsizing beyond 50% in a 4-stroke gasoline engine is limited by the occurrence of abnormal combustion events as well as much greater thermal and mechanical loads. In order to achieve aggressive engine downsizing, a boosted uniflow scavenged direct injection gasoline (BUSDIG) engine concept has been proposed and researched by means of CFD simulation and demonstration in a single cylinder engine. In this paper, the intake port design on the in-cylinder flow field and gas exchange characteristics of the uniflow 2-stroke cycle was investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In particular, the port orientation on the in-cylinder swirl, the trapping efficiency, charging efficiency and scavenging efficiency was analyzed in details.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Diesel Combustion and Emissions of Reducing Inlet Charge Mass Due to Thermal Throttling with Hot EGR

1998-02-23
980185
This paper is a complementary to previous investigations by the authors (1,2,3,4) on the different effects of EGR on combustion and emissions in DI diesel engine. In addition to the several effects that cold EGR has on combustion and emissions the application of hot EGR results in increasing the inlet charge temperature, thereby, for naturally aspirated engines, lowering the inlet charge mass due to thermal throttling. An associated consequence of thermal throttling is the reduction in the amount of oxygen in the inlet charge. Uncooled EGR, therefore, affects combustion and emissions in two ways: through the reduction in the inlet charge mass and through the increase in inlet charge temperature. The effect on combustion and emissions of increasing the inlet charge temperature (without reducing the inlet charge mass) has been dealt with in ref. (1).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Spark Ignition on the CAI Combustion Operation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3738
The present paper aims to investigate the influence of spark ignition on CAI combustion based on internal EGR strategy. Controlled Auto-ignition (CAI) combustion is facilitated in a Ricardo single cylinder engine with a pair of special camshafts, which valve lift and cam profile are modified to trap enough hot residuals. Operation regions and other detailed combustion characteristics of the CAI engine operation are analyzed and compared between pure CAI mode and the CAI mode with assisted spark ignition. The results show that spark ignition can play an important role in controlling CAI combustion ignition in low load boundary region. The low temperature chemical reaction process is shortened and the auto ignition timing is advanced due to the spark discharge. Meantime, lower fuel consumption and cycle-to-cycle variations can be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Engine Emissions - Part 1: Effect of Reducing Inlet Charge Oxygen

1996-05-01
961165
This is a first of a series of papers describing how the replacement of some of the inlet air with EGR modifies the diesel combustion process and thereby affects the exhaust emissions. This paper deals with only the reduction of oxygen in the inlet charge to the engine (dilution effect). The oxygen in the inlet charge to a direct injection diesel engine was progressively replaced by inert gases, whilst the engine speed, fuelling rate, injection timing, total mass and the specific heat capacity of the inlet charge were kept constant. The use of inert gases for oxygen replacement, rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) or water vapour normally found in EGR, ensured that the effects on combustion of dissociation of these species were excluded. In addition, the effects of oxygen replacement on ignition delay were isolated and quantified.
Technical Paper

The Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Ethanol on a Port Fuel Injection HCCI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0631
With the application of valve timing strategy to inlet and exhaust valves, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion was achieved by varying the amount of trapped residuals through negative valve overlap on a Ricardo Hydra four-stroke port fuel injection engine fueled with ethanol. The effect of ethanol on HCCI combustion and emission characteristics at different air-fuel ratios, speeds and valve timings was investigated. The results indicate that HCCI ethanol combustion can be achieved through changing inlet and exhaust valve timings. HCCI ethanol combustion range can be expanded to high speeds and lean burn mixture. Meanwhile, the factors influencing ignition timing and combustion duration are valve timing, lambda and speeds. Moreover, NOx emissions are extremely low under HCCI combustion. The emissions-speed and emissions-lambda relationships are obtained and analyzed.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Study on Layered Close Loop Control of 4-Stroke Gasoline HCCI Engine Equipped with 4VVAS

2008-04-14
2008-01-0791
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has the potential of reducing fuel consumption as well as NOx emissions. However, it is still confronted with problems in real-time control system and control strategy for the application of HCCI, which are studied in detail in this paper. A CAN-bus-based distributed HCCI control system was designed to implement a layered close loop control for HCCI gasoline engine equipped with 4VVAS. Meanwhile, a layered management strategy was developed to achieve high real-time control as well as to simplify the couplings between the inputs and the outputs. The entire control system was stratified into three layers, which are responsible for load (IMEP) management; combustion phase (CA50) control and mechanical system control respectively, each with its own specified close loop control strategy. The system is outstanding for its explicit configuration, easy actualization and robust performance.
Technical Paper

Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Evolution Processing in GDI Engines Using TRF-PAH Chemical Kinetic Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-0690
In the present study, we developed a reduced TRF-PAH chemical reaction mechanism consisted of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene as gasoline surrogate fuels for GDI (gasoline direct injection) spark ignition engine combustion simulation. The reduced mechanism consists of 85 species and 232 reactions including 17 species and 40 reactions related to the PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) formation. The present mechanism was validated for extensive validations with experimental ignition delay times in shock tubes and laminar flame speeds in flat flame adiabatic burner for gasoline/air and TRF/air mixtures under various pressures, temperatures and equivalence ratios related to engine conditions. Good agreement was achieved for most of the measurement. Mole fraction profiles of PAHs for n-heptane flame were also simulated and the experimental trends were reproduced well. The vapor-phase and particulate-bound PAHs existed in GDI engine exhaust were sampled and analyzed by GC-MS.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Speed and Knocking Combustion of Gasoline, Ethanol and Hydrous Ethanol (10% Water) at Different Air/Fuel Ratios with Port-Fuel Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0655
In this paper, an experimental study was performed to investigate characteristics of flame propagation and knocking combustion of hydrous (10% water content) and anhydrous ethanol at different air/fuel ratios in comparison to RON95 gasoline. Experiments were conducted in a full bore overhead optical access single cylinder port-fuel injection spark-ignition engine. High speed images of total chemiluminescence and OH* emission was recorded together with the in-cylinder pressure, from which the heat release data were derived. The results show that under the stoichiometric condition anhydrous ethanol and wet ethanol with 10% water (E90W10) generated higher IMEP with at an ignition timing slightly retarded from MBT than the gasoline fuel for a fixed throttle position. Under rich and stoichiometric conditions, the knock limited spark timing occurred at 35 CA BTDC whereas both ethanol and E90W10 were free from knocking combustion at the same operating condition.
Technical Paper

Study of Exhaust Re-Breathing Application on a DI SI Engine at Partial Load Operation

2018-09-03
2018-36-0129
Using Exhaust Gas Recycling (EGR) on internal combustion engines enables the reduction of emissions with a low or even no cost to the engine efficiency at part-load operation. The charge dilution with EGR can even increase the engine efficiency due to de-throttling and reduction of part load pumping losses. This experimental study proposed the use of late exhaust valve closure (LEVC) to achieve internal EGR (increased residual gas trapping). A naturally aspirated single cylinder direct injection spark ignition engine equipped with four electro-hydraulic actuated valves that enabled full valve timing and lift variation. Eight levels of positive valve overlap (PVO) with LEVC were used at the constant load of 6.0 bar IMEP and the speed of 1500 rpm. The results have shown that later exhaust valve closure (EVC) required greater intake pressures to maintain the engine load due to the higher burned gases content. Hence, lower pumping losses and thus higher indicated efficiency were obtained.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Methane Slip Using Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1798
An experimental study has been carried out with the end goal of minimizing engine-out methane emissions with Premixed Micro Pilot Combustion (PMPC) in a natural gas-diesel Dual-Fuel™ engine. The test engine used is a heavy-duty single cylinder engine with high pressure common rail diesel injection as well as port fuel injection of natural gas. Multiple variables were examined, including injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentages, and rail pressure for diesel, conventional Dual-Fuel, and PMPC Dual-Fuel combustion modes. The responses investigated were pressure rise rate, engine-out emissions, heat release and indicated specific fuel consumption. PMPC reduces methane slip when compared to conventional Dual-Fuel and improves emissions and fuel efficiency at the expense of higher cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

2004-06-08
2004-01-1904
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Technical Paper

Potentials of External Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Water Injection for the Improvement in Fuel Economy of a Poppet Valve 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Two-Stage Serial Charging System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0859
Engine downsizing is one of the most effective means to improve the fuel economy of spark ignition (SI) gasoline engines because of lower pumping and friction losses. However, the occurrence of knocking combustion or even low-speed pre-ignition at high loads is a severe problem. One solution to significantly increase the upper load range of a 4-stroke gasoline engine is to use 2-stroke cycle due to the double firing frequency at the same engine speed. It was found that a 0.7 L two-cylinder 2-stroke poppet valve gasoline engine equipped with a two-stage serial boosting system, comprising a supercharger and a downstream turbocharger, could replace a 1.6 L naturally aspirated 4-stroke gasoline engine in our previous research, but its fuel economy was close to that of the 4-stroke engine at upper loads due to knocking combustion.
X