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Technical Paper

Two-Point Spatial Velocity Correlations in the Near-Wall Region of a Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine

Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies, as well as predictive computational models. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from the canonical steady-state turbulent boundary layers (BL), whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via statistical moments and two-point velocity correlations, determined at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Properties of High and Low Swirl In-Cylinder Flows

In previous work, Reuss [1] studied the cycle-to-cycle variation in the large-scale velocity structures of high and low-swirl in-cylinder flows of an IC engine. The vector flow fields were obtained from PIV measurements in a two-valve, pancake-shaped, Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC) engine. In this study, the Reynolds-decomposed turbulence properties such as kinetic energy, length scales, and dissipation rate were directly measured for the two cases. The results demonstrate that, at TDC compression, the low-swirl flow is dominated by turbulence at the largest scales, whereas the high-swirl flow has a considerably lower turbulence Reynolds number. The dissipation rate and length scale calculated from mixing-length theory greatly exceeded the dissipation computed from the 2-D velocity-gradients and integral-length scales computed from the autocorrelation, respectively.
Journal Article

Three-Dimensional Three-Component Air Flow Visualization in a Steady-State Engine Flow Bench Using a Plenoptic Camera

Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
Technical Paper

The Prospects of Using Alcohol-Based Fuels in Stratified-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

Near-term energy policy for ground transportation is likely to have a strong focus on both gains in efficiency as well as the use of alternate fuels; as both can reduce crude oil dependence and carbon loading on the environment. Stratified-charge spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines are capable of achieving significant gains in efficiency. In addition, these engines are likely to be run on alternative fuels. Specifically, lower alcohols such as ethanol and iso-butanol, which can be produced from renewable sources. SIDI engines, particularly the spray-guided variant, tend to be very sensitive to mixture preparation since fuel injection and ignition occur within a short time of each other. This close spacing is necessary to form a flammable mixture near the spark plug while maintaining an overall lean state in the combustion chamber. As a result, the physical properties of the fuel have a large effect on this process.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Swirl Ratio on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Motored HSDI Diesel Engine - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Study

Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
Technical Paper

Spatial Correlation and Length Scale Analysis of the Near-Wall Flow and Temperature Distribution of an Internal Combustion Engine

Accurate predictions of in-cylinder heat transfer processes of internal combustion engines (ICEs) require a comprehensive understanding of the boundary layer development in the near-wall region (NWR). To add to the understanding of this NWR, this study uses experimental data of near-wall measurements collected in the transparent combustion chamber (TCC-III) engine via Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and toluene Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) thermometry. These near-wall flow and temperature distributions were compared with large-eddy simulations (LES) and 3-D conjugate heat transfer (CHT) modeling with a commercial CFD code (CONVERGE). The implementation of the conjugate heat transfer model enables capturing the variability in wall heat transfer as observed in the measurements.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Mapping of the Distribution of Different Fuel Volatility Classes Using Tracer-LIF Tomography in an IC Engine

Various fluorescence tracers were assessed for their applicability for simultaneously measuring fuel distributions of different volatility classes. Tracers were chosen to show significantly different boiling behaviour representing three volatility classes of non-fluorescing multi-component fuels. Fluorescence properties of the markers were investigated using a heated static high-pressure cell with respect to emission behaviour, temperature and pressure dependence and quenching influences. A combination of ketonic and aromatic tracers appeared to be ideal for simultaneous imaging purposes since fluorescence is emitted in separate spectral regions with little overlap. Simultaneous measurements of the fuel distribution of two volatility classes were performed in a port fuel injected engine showing significant differences in the fuel distributions of low and mid boiling fractions in early stages of compression.
Technical Paper

Scale Similarity Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Flows—Particle Image Velocimetry and Large-Eddy Simulations

This presentation is an assessment of the turbulence-stress scale-similarity in an IC engine, which is used for modeling subgrid dissipation in LES. Residual stresses and Leonard stresses were computed after applying progressively smaller spatial filters to measured and simulated velocity distributions. The velocity was measured in the TCC-II engine using planar and stereo PIV taken in three different planes and with three different spatial resolutions, thus yielding two and three velocity components, respectively. Comparisons are made between the stresses computed from the measured velocity and stress computed from the LES resolved-scale velocity from an LES simulation. The results present the degree of similarity between the residual stresses and the Leonard stresses at adjacent scales. The specified filters are systematically reduced in size to the resolution limits of the measurements and simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Fuel Imaging in a Spray-Guided Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

A two-tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) diagnostic technique was developed and applied to visualize the in-cylinder evaporation and distribution of different volatility fuel components in an optical spray-guided spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. An image doubling and filtering system was designed so that LIF signals from the two tracers could be effectively separated and recorded simultaneously with one intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Cycle-resolved measurements were performed in the optical engine operated under late injection mode at different intake temperatures and pressures to assess the significance of sequential evaporation. The results demonstrate that the evaporation process under current experimental conditions is diffusion-controlled and the effects of sequential evaporation are insignificant on fuel distribution stratification. An order-of-magnitude estimate based on a Peclet number analysis supports this finding.
Technical Paper

Measured and LES Motored-Flow Kinetic Energy Evolution in the TCC-III Engine

A primary goal of large eddy simulation, LES, is to capture in-cylinder cycle-to-cycle variability, CCV. This is a first step to assess the efficacy of 35 consecutive computed motored cycles to capture the kinetic energy in the TCC-III engine. This includes both the intra-cycle production and dissipation as well as the kinetic energy CCV. The approach is to sample and compare the simulated three-dimensional velocity equivalently to the available two-component two-dimensional PIV velocity measurements. The volume-averaged scale-resolved kinetic energy from the LES is sampled in three slabs, which are volumes equal to the two axial and one azimuthal PIV fields-of-view and laser sheet thickness. Prior to the comparison, the effects of sampling a cutting plane versus a slab and slabs of different thicknesses are assessed. The effects of sampling only two components and three discrete planar regions is assessed.
Technical Paper

Late-Cycle Turbulence Generation in Swirl-Supported, Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Cycle-resolved analysis of velocity data obtained in the re-entrant bowl of a fired high-;speed, direct-injection diesel engine, demonstrates an unambiguous, approximately 100% increase in late-cycle turbulence levels over the levels measured during motored operation. Model predictions of the flow field, obtained employing RNG k-ε turbulence modeling in KIVA-3V, do not capture this increased turbulence. A combined experimental and computational approach is taken to identify the source of this turbulence. The results indicate that the dominant source of the increased turbulence is associated with the formation of an unstable distribution of mean angular momentum, characterized by a negative radial gradient. The importance of this source of flow turbulence has not previously been recognized for engine flows. The enhanced late-cycle turbulence is found to be very sensitive to the flow swirl level.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Energy and Dissipation Rate Spectra of High- and Low-Swirl Internal Combustion Engine Flows

This paper presents total kinetic energy and dissipation rate spectra calculated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a motored, spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. Velocity fields were obtained at two engine speeds and swirl conditions in the second half of the compression stroke. Two magnifications were used to achieve a spatial dynamic range covering from the full cross-section of the flat piston window (∼45 mm) down to 350 μm. Sets of 300 instantaneous vector fields were filtered using a Gaussian filter to isolate flow structures over a range of length-scales. The kinetic energy and dissipation rate spectra have been normalized using mean kinetic energy and mean piston speed. Results indicate that if the mean piston speed is selected as the representative outer variable, the kinetic energy and dissipation rate spectra at 2000 RPM and 600 RPM become self-similar over a portion of the spectra regardless of swirl level.
Technical Paper

Is Toluene a Suitable LIF Tracer for Fuel Film Measurements?

Quantitative LIF measurements of liquid fuel films on the piston of direct-injected gasoline engines are difficult to achieve because generally these films are thin and the signal strength is low. Additionally, interference from scattered laser light or background signal can be substantial. The selection of a suitable fluorescence tracer and excitation wavelength plays an important role in the success of such measurements. We have investigated the possibility of using toluene as a tracer for fuel film measurements and compare it to the use of 3-pentanone. The fuel film dynamics in a motored engine at different engine speeds, temperatures and in-cylinder swirl levels is characterized and discussed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Fuel Injection, Mixing and Combustion Processes in an SIDI Engine using Quasi-3D LIF Imaging

The influence of the bulk in-cylinder flow on the spray evolution, evaporation, fuel-air mixing and subsequent flame propagation has been studied in an optical SIDI engine. Quantitative LIF imaging of equivalence ratios was used to characterize the mixture formation and the influence of the local equivalence ratio at the time of spark on the flame propagation. Two extreme bulk flow conditions - high and low swirl - were investigated and pronounced differences in mixture homogeneity and flame propagation were found and characterized.
Technical Paper

Inhomogeneities in HCCI Combustion: An Imaging Study

A four-valve-pentroof, direct-injection, optical engine fueled with n-heptane has been operated at four different steady-state HCCI operating conditions including 10% and 65% residuals, both at low and high swirl conditions. Both, planar toluene LIF and volume chemiluminescence show large scale inhomogeneity in the ensemble averaged images. The interpretation of the toluene-tracer LIF signals (when premixed with the fresh-air charge) as a marker for reaction homogeneity is discussed. A binarization scheme and a statistical analysis of the LIF images were applied to the per-cycle planar-LIF images revealing inhomogeneities both from cycle-to-cycle and within the regions of individual cycles that track with the average heat release rate. Comparison of these two homogeneity metrics between the four operating conditions reveals weak but discernable differences.
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Evaluation of High-Energy and Long-Duration Ignition Systems for Lean/Dilute Combustion in Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engines

Natural gas (NG) is attractive for heavy-duty (HD) engines for reasons of cost stability, emissions, and fuel security. NG cannot be reliably compression-ignited, but conventional gasoline ignition systems are not optimized for NG and are challenged to ignite mixtures that are lean or diluted with exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR). NG ignition is particularly challenging in large-bore engines, where completing combustion in the available time is more difficult. Using two high-speed infrared (IR) cameras with borescopic access to one cylinder of an HD NG engine, the effect of ignition system on the early flame-kernel development and cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV) was investigated. Imaging in the IR yielded strong signals from water emission lines, which located the flame front and burned-gas regions and obviated image intensifiers. A 9.7-liter, six-cylinder engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation and to provide optical access.
Technical Paper

Infrared Borescopic Analysis of Ignition and Combustion Variability in a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Engine

Optical imaging diagnostics of combustion are most often performed in the visible spectral band, in part because camera technology is most mature in this region, but operating in the infrared (IR) provides a number of benefits. These benefits include access to emission lines of relevant chemical species (e.g. water, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide) and obviation of image intensifiers (avoiding reduced spatial resolution and increased cost). High-speed IR in-cylinder imaging and image processing were used to investigate the relationships between infrared images, quantitative image-derived metrics (e.g. location of the flame centroid), and measurements made with in-cylinder pressure transducers (e.g. coefficient of variation of mean effective pressure). A 9.7-liter, inline-six, natural-gas-fueled engine was modified to enable exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) and provide borescopic optical access to one cylinder for two high-speed infrared cameras.
Journal Article

Influence of Discretization Schemes and LES Subgrid Models on Flow Field Predictions for a Motored Optical Engine

Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a motoring single-cylinder engine with transparent combustion chamber (TCC-II) are carried out using a commercially available computer code, CONVERGE. Numerical predictions are compared with high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Predictions of two spatial discretization schemes, namely, numerically stabilized central difference scheme (CDS) and fully upwind scheme are compared. Four different subgrid scale (SGS) models; a non-eddy viscosity dynamic structure turbulence (DST) model of Pomraning and Rutland, one-equation eddy-viscosity (1-Eqn) model of Menon et al., a zeroequation eddy-viscosity model of Vreman, and the zeroequation standard Smagorinsky model are employed on two different grid configurations. Additionally, simulations are also performed by deactivating the LES SGS models. It is found that the predictions when using the numerically stabilized CDS are significantly better than using the fully upwind scheme.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments

For applications of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the fuel or equivalence ratio distributions in internal combustion (IC) engines it is typically assumed that the addition of a fluorescence tracer to a base fuel does not alter the combustion performance. We have investigated the impact on combustion performance through the addition of various amounts of 3-pentanone or toluene to iso-octane fuel. Correlations between equivalence ratio for a range of fuel/tracer mixtures and engine parameters, like peak pressure, location of peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and peak burn rate are discussed for data obtained in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine operated with near homogeneous charge. For typical tracer concentrations the impact on combustion performance is mostly negligible.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.