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Journal Article

Wear Protection of Al383/SiO2 Metal Matrix Composites by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) Process

Al383/SiO₂ metal matrix composites (MMC) were designed to increase the wear properties of the Al alloy. However, the soft Al matrix was subject to large plastic deformation under high normal load during lubricated sliding wear tests, causing detachment of the reinforced particles. To further increase the wear resistance of the MMC, in this research, Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) process was used to form oxide coatings on the MMC. The hard and wear-resistant oxide coatings protected the metal matrix during the wear tests, reducing the wear rate of MMC. The effect of both oxide coating thickness and volume content of SiO₂ particles on the wear behavior of MMC was investigated. It was found that with a proper combination of the volume content of SiO₂ and coating thickness, the MMC exhibited high wear resistance and low friction coefficient.
Technical Paper

Tribological Behavior of Plasma Electrolyte Oxidation Coating on Al 319 Aluminum Alloy

The need for green energy and less fuel consumption is a non-stop demand for researchers and academia from the industry and the automotive market. Several solutions were found and some are being practiced and commercialized. Plasma Electrolyte Oxidation (PEO) technique is a fast growing approach to resolve the weight load in automotive industry by creating a thin layer of a ceramic coating on lighter alloys such as aluminum for different parts like engine blocks. Of course in a hot and corrosive environment such as an engine, the main concern would be corrosion and wear effects on the engine. The goal of this research is to study the effect of different factors such as solution type, power input variations and coating thickness on wear resistance of aluminum Al 319.
Technical Paper

Surface Effect of a PEO Coating on Friction at Different Sliding Velocities

In order to reduce the weight of an automotive engine, an aluminum (Al) alloy engine block with cast iron liner has been successfully used to replace the gray cast iron engine. For newly emerging Al linerless engine in which the low surface hardness of the aluminum alloy has to be overcome, a few surface processing technologies are used to protect the surface of cylinders. Among them, plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) thermal spraying coating is becoming popular. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is also proposed for increasing the wear resistance of aluminum alloy and reducing the friction between the cylinder and piston. In this work, a PEO coating with a thickness of ∼20 μm was prepared, and a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to study the tribological behavior of the coating at oil lubricant conditions. Different surface roughness of the coating and a large range of the sliding speeds were employed for the tests.
Technical Paper

Outside-Engine Wear Study of Ceramic Coated Cylinder Wall Tribo-System

This research focuses on study of feasibility of using ceramic oxide coatings on the cylinder wall of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks. Coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath and composed of both alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and have shown promising wear resistance. Composition and acidity level of the electrolyte creates a variation of surface roughness, coating hardness and thickness which has direct influence on the wear behavior of the sliding surfaces. The effect of load bearing and coating morphology on coefficient of friction was studied. SEM images of the substrate showed no predominant wear behavior or delamination. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were also measured. This study shows the importance of surface structure on oil retention and wear rate. Coarser coatings can be desirable under starved oil condition since they show lower coefficient of friction.
Technical Paper

Load and Lubricating Oil Effects on Friction of a PEO Coating at Different Sliding Velocities

Friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for large amount of the friction losses in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Therefore, any effort to minimize such a friction will also result in higher efficiency, lower fuel consumption and reduced emissions. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is considered as a hard ceramic coating which can provide a dimpled surface for oil retention to bear the wear and reduce the friction from sliding piston rings. In this work, a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to generate the boundary, mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes. Five different lubricating oils and two different loads were applied to do the tribotests and the COFs of a PEO coating were studied. The results show that the PEO coating indeed had a lower COF in a lower viscosity lubricating oil, and a smaller load was beneficial to form the mixed and hydrodynamic lubricating regimes earlier.
Journal Article

Investigation into Mixed and Hydrodynamic Frictions of PEO Coatings and Cast Iron

A linerless aluminum (Al) engine block has potential to reduce the weight of an automotive engine and improve the fuel economy. However, the Al cylinder surface of an aluminum engine block is not usually strong enough to withstand the sliding wear against piston rings. A few surface processing technologies are used to protect the surface of cylinders. Among them, a thermal spraying coating, such as plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) is already popular. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is also proposed for increasing the wear resistance of aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys and reducing the friction between the cylinder and piston. In this work, two different PEO coatings with a thickness of around 23 μm were prepared on an Al-Si alloy A356, and a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to study the tribological behavior of the coatings at oil lubricant conditions. A cast iron sample was also used to do similar tribological tests for comparison.
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Roughness and Sliding Velocity on Tribological Properties of an Oxide-Coated Aluminum Alloy

Aluminum engines have been successfully used to replace heavy gray cast engines to lighten the car's weight and reduce the fuel consumption. To overcome the aluminum alloys' poor wear resistance, cast iron liners and thermal spraying coatings were used as cylinder bore materials for wear protection. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique had also been proposed to produce an oxide coating on aluminum cylinder bore. The oxide coating can have a low coefficient of friction (COF) and minimum wear shown in the lab tests. To conserve more fuel, the stopping and restarting system was introduced when the vehicle was forced to stop immediately for a short time. When the engine was forced to stop and restart, the reciprocating speed of the piston was very slow, and the friction between the piston and the cylinder was high. In this research, a pin-on-disc tribometer was used to investigate tribological behavior of the oxide coating on an aluminum alloy.
Technical Paper

Design of As-Cast High Strength Al-Si-Cu-Ni-Sr Alloys Using the Taguchi Method

In the present study, a design of experiment (DOE) technique, the Taguchi method, was used to develop as-cast high strength aluminum alloys with element additions of Si, Cu, Ni and Sr. The Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study all the designed factors with a minimum of experiments at a relatively low cost. The element factors chosen for this study were Si, Cu, Ni and Sr content in the designed aluminum-based alloys. For each factor, three different levels of weight percentages were selected (Si: 6, 9, 12%, Cu: 3, 5, 7%, Ni: 0.5, 1, 1.5% and Sr: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03%). Tensile properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation at failure were selected as three individual responses to evaluate the engineering performance of the designed alloys. The results of the factor response analysis were used to derive the optimal level combinations.