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Journal Article

Smart Soot Sensor for Particulate Filter OBD

In the frame of tighter emission requirements and environmental protection, future standards will soon lead to the use of an OBD soot sensor to monitor DPF leakage. Such a sensor will first be introduced in the US by MY 2015 and then in Europe for Euro 6.2 in 2017. The resistive ceramic sensing technology has been selected by most OEM as the most appropriate. The sensor collects the soot in a time cumulative manner and has an internal heater to clean the ceramic before each measurement sequence. The actual challenge of the hardware is to design a wide band collecting system with a high sensitivity and repeatability circuit processing. Electricfil has overcome major drawbacks of the resistive technology with an innovative sensor tip, with filtration features and a boosting electronic scheme. This sensor integrates internal diagnostic capability at power on and during operation.
Technical Paper

SCR for Passenger Car: the Ammonia-Storage Issue on a Fe-ZSM5 Catalyst

A comprehensive experimental approach has been developed for a Fe-ZSM5 micro-porous catalyst, through a collaborative project between IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). Tests have first been conducted on a synthetic gas bench and yielded estimated values for the amount of NH3 stored on a catalyst sample. These data have further been compared to those obtained from an engine test bench, in running conditions representative of the entire operating range of the engine. 15 operating points have been chosen, considering the air mass flow and the exhaust temperature, and tested with different NH3/NOx ratios. Steady-state as well as transient conditions have been studied, showing the influence of three main parameters on the reductant storage characteristics: exhaust temperature, NO2/NOx ratio, and air mass flow.
Technical Paper

Generating Thermal Conditions to Regenerate a DPF: Impact of the Reductant on the Performances of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

The influence of the type of fuel and the feeding means to a DOC, in order to regenerate a DPF, was investigated. Diesel fuel in cylinder late post-injection was compared to the injection in the exhaust line, through an exhaust port injector, of diesel fuel, B10 (diesel fuel containing 10% of esters) and gasoline. Diesel fuel exhaust injection resulted in a deteriorated conversion efficiency, while the incorporation of esters to the diesel fuel was demonstrated to have no influence. Gasoline exhaust injection led to less HC slip than diesel fuels. Temperature dynamics resulting from injection steps showed taught that the shorter the hydrocarbons (within the tested fuels), the slower the response. These differences can be caught by simple models, leading to interesting opportunities for the model-based control of the DPF inlet temperature during active regenerations.
Technical Paper

About Cross-Sensitivities of NOx Sensors in SCR Operation

Meeting the upcoming NOx emissions standards is a major challenge for the lean-burn engines, thus requiring a highly efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment. Currently, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) appears to be the most promising technology, especially when operated with two kinds of reductants: ammonia (generally derived from urea) and ethanol. In order to reach high conversion levels while avoiding the overinjection of the reductant, a very accurate model-based control assisted with at least one NOx sensor is required. This study focuses on the sensitivity of NOx sensors to the main nitrogenous species encountered: ammonia, isocyanic acid (HNCO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The cross-sensitivity to ammonia is the only one to be already described in literature and already used in the urea-SCR control systems to limit the risks of ammonia-slip. However, HNCO can also be found downstream of a catalyst during urea-SCR if the urea delivery or the catalyst are deficient.