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Journal Article

Visualization and Analysis of LSPI Mechanism Caused by Oil Droplet, Particle and Deposit in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0761
In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of preignition occurrence in highly boosted SI engine at low speed and high load operating conditions, directphotography of preignition events and light induced fluorescence imaging of lubricant oil droplets during preignition cycles were applied. An endoscope was attached to the cylinder head of the modified production engine. Preigntion events were captured using high-speed video camera through the endoscope. As a result, several types of preignition sources could be found. Preignition caused by glowing particles and deposit fragments could be observed by directphotography. Luminous flame was observed around the piston crevice area during the exhaust stroke of preignition cycles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixture Distributions on Combustion Characteristics in a HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0061
It has been widely known that thermal and fuel stratifications of in-cylinder mixture are effective to reduce in-cylinder pressure rise rate during high load HCCI operations. In order to optimize a combustion chamber design and combustion control strategy for HCCI engines with wide operational range, it is important to know quantitatively the influence of the temperature and fuel concentration distributions on ignition and heat release characteristics. At the same time, it is important to know the influence of in-cylinder flow and turbulence on the temperature and fuel concentration distributions. In this study, a numerical simulation of HCCI combustion were conducted to investigate the effects of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and the distributions of temperature on ignition and combustion characteristics in HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Stratification of Swirl Intensity in the Axial Direction for Control of Turbulence Generation During the Compression Stroke

1991-02-01
910261
Control of turbulence during the compression stroke is suggested by both theoretical calculations and experimental results obtained with an LDV measurement in a motored engine. The authors have found experimentally that when an axial distribution of swirl intensity exists, a large-scale annular vortex is formed inside the cylinder during the compression stroke and this vortex generates and transports turbulence energy. A numerical calculation is adopted to elucidate this phenomenon. Then, an axial stratification of swirl intensity is found to generate a large-scale annular vortex during the compression stroke by an interaction between the piston motion and the axial pressure gradient. The initial swirl profile is parametrically varied to assess its effect on the turbulence parameters. Among calculated results, turbulence energy is enhanced strongest when the swirl intensity is highest at the piston top surface and lowest at the bottom surface of the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Proposition of a Stratified Charge System by Using In-Cylinder Gas Motion

1995-10-01
952455
A new idea for controlling the in-cylinder mixture formation in SI engines is proposed. This concept was developed by applying the results of numerical calculations. Fuel that is directly injected into the cylinder is transferred toward the cylinder head to form a mixture stratification by using the in-cylinder gas motion that is generated by the interaction between the swirl and squish flows inside a combustion chamber. At first, the flow characteristics were measured in the whole in-cylinder space using an LDV system. Also, numerical calculations of the in-cylinder flow were made using measured data as the initial conditions. Secondly, the local equivalence ratio at several points inside the combustion chamber was measured by using a fast gas sampling device.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation to Understand the Cause and Sequence of LSPI Phenomena and Suggestion of CaO Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0755
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Thermal Efficiency of Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Natural Gas Engine by Optimization of Combustion System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0782
To understand the mechanism of the combustion by torch flame jet in a gas engine with pre-chamber and also to obtain the strategy of improving thermal efficiency by optimizing the structure of pre-chamber including the diameter and number of orifices, the combustion process was investigated by three dimensional numerical simulations and experiments of a single cylinder natural gas engine. As a result, the configuration of orifices was found to affect the combustion performance strongly. With the same orifice diameter of 1.5mm, thermal efficiency with 7 orifices in pre-chamber was higher than that with 4 orifices in pre-chamber, mainly due to the reduction of heat loss by decreasing the impingement of torch flame on the cylinder linear. Better thermal efficiency was achieved in this case because the flame propagated area increases rapidly while the flame jets do not impinge on the cylinder wall intensively.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification Using Twin-Tumble Intake Flows to Extend Lean Limit in Super-Lean Gasoline Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1664
To drastically improve thermal efficiency of a gasoline spark-ignited engine, super-lean burn is a promising solution. Although, studies of lean burn have been made by so many researchers, the realization is blocked by a cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. In this study, based on the causes of cycle-to-cycle variation clarified by the authors’ previous study, a unique method to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variation is proposed and evaluated. That is, a bulk quench at early expansion stroke could be reduced by making slight fuel stratification inside the cylinder using the twin-tumble of intake flows. As a result, the lean limit was extended with keeping low NOx and moderate THC emissions, leading to higher thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Extension of Operating Range of a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine using the Blowdown Supercharging System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0896
The objective of this study is to develop a practical technique to achieve HCCI operation with wide operation range. To attain this objective, the authors previously proposed the blowdown supercharge (BDSC) system and demonstrated the potential of the BDSC system to extend the high load HCCI operational limit. In this study, experimental works were conducted with focusing on improvement of combustion stability at low load operation and the reduction in cylinder to cylinder variation in ignition timing of multi-cylinder HCCI operation using the BDSC system. The experiments were conducted using a slightly modified production four-cylinder gasoline engine with compression ratio of about 12 at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. The test fuel used was commercial gasoline which has RON of 91. To improve combustion stability at low load operation, the valve actuation strategy for the BDSC system was newly proposed and experimentally examined.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Performance of a Boosted HCCI Gasoline Engine with Blowdown Supercharge System

2013-10-15
2013-32-9172
HCCI combustion can realize low NOx and particulate emissions and high thermal efficiency. Therefore, HCCI combustion has a possibility of many kinds of applications, such as an automotive powertrain, general-purpose engine, motorcycle engine and electric generator. However, the operational range using HCCI combustion in terms of speed and load is restricted because the onset of ignition and the heat release rate cannot be controlled directly. For the extension of the operational range using either an external supercharger or a turbocharger is promising. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the intake pressure on the HCCI high load limit and HCCI combustion characteristics with blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system. The intake pressure (Pin) and temperature (Tin) were varied as experimental parameters. The intake pressure was swept from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 200 kPa using an external mechanical supercharger.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Concept for DI Gasoline Combustion Using Enhanced Gas Motion

1998-02-23
980152
A direct injection gasoline engine system which employs a unique combustion system with enhanced gas motion is evaluated. Enhanced gas motion is produced by employing both a moderately strong swirl flow and a cavity in the piston. Advantages of this system are that the injection timing or spark timing need not be controlled severely and that since the injection timing can be set at near the intake BDC, time for evaporation can be gained to reduce soot emissions. Problems to be improved are that the Nox emissions level is worse than other lean burn systems and full load operation is not evaluated. According to the numerical calculations, the problems may be solved by enhancing the in-cylinder gas motion with axial stratification of swirl intensity at intake BDC; strong swirl near the cylinder head and weak swirl near the piston surface.
Journal Article

Effect of Fuel and Thermal Stratifications on the Operational Range of an HCCI Gasoline Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2010-04-12
2010-01-0845
In order to extend the HCCI high load operational limit, the effects of the distributions of temperature and fuel concentration on pressure rise rate (dP/dθ) were investigated through theoretical and experimental methods. The Blow-Down Super Charge (BDSC) and the EGR guide parts are employed simultaneously to enhance thermal stratification inside the cylinder. And also, to control the distribution of fuel concentration, direct fuel injection system was used. As a first step, the effect of spatial temperature distribution on maximum pressure rise rate (dP/dθmax) was investigated. The influence of the EGR guide parts on the temperature distribution was investigated using 3-D numerical simulation. Simulation results showed that the temperature difference between high temperature zone and low temperature zone increased by using EGR guide parts together with the BDSC system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Coolant Water and Intake Air Temperatures on Thermal Efficiency of Gasoline Engines

2017-11-05
2017-32-0116
An optimization of thermal management system in a gasoline engine is considered to improve thermal efficiency by minimizing the cost increase without largely changing the configuration of engine system. In this study, the influence of water temperature and intake air temperature on thermal efficiency were investigated using an inline four-cylinder 1.2L gasoline engine. In addition, one-dimensional engine simulations were conducted by using a software of GT-SUITE. Brake thermal efficiency for different engine speeds and loads could be quantitatively predicted with changing the cooling water temperature in the cylinder head. Then, in order to predict the improvement of the fuel consumption in actual use, vehicle mode running simulation and general-purpose engine transient mode simulation were carried out by GT-SUITE. As a result, it was found that by controlling the temperatures of the cooling water and intake gas, thermal efficiency can be improved by several percent.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Mixture Formation Process with a Swirl-Type Injector

2000-06-19
2000-01-2057
A swirl-type injector is commonly used for the gasoline direct injection IC engines. To control and optimize the engine combustion, analyses of mixture formation process inside the cylinder are quite important. In this study, an evaluation of a DDM (Discrete Droplet Model) including breakup and evaporation sub-models has been made by making comparisons between the calculation and measurement. In the calculation, two kinds of initial conditions were tested; one was from empirical expressions and the other was from calculated results using a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) model that had a feature to examine the free fluid surface of a liquid fuel spray. As a result, the authors have found that a DDM can basically explain the spray formation process. However, much further modification of the breakup model and initial conditions would be required to have a quantitatively good agreement between the calculation and measurement
Technical Paper

Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and In-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques

2017-10-08
2017-01-2213
Reduction in the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of combustion in internal combustion engines is required to reduce fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and improve drivability. CCV increases at low load operations and lean/dilute burn conditions. Specifically, the factors that cause CCV of combustion are the cyclic variations of in-cylinder flow, in-cylinder distributions of fuel concentration, temperature and residual gas, and ignition energy. However, it is difficult to measure and analyze these factors in a production engine. This study used an optically accessible single-cylinder engine in which combustion and optical measurements were performed for 45 consecutive cycles. CCVs of the combustion and in-cylinder phenomena were investigated for the same cycle. Using this optically accessible engine, the volume inside the combustion chamber, including the pent-roof region can be observed through a quartz cylinder.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of a Gasoline HCCI Engine Using the Blow-Down Super Charge System

2009-04-20
2009-01-0496
The objective of this study is to extend the high load operation limit of a gasoline HCCI engine. A new system extending the high load HCCI operation limit was proposed, and the performance of the system was experimentally demonstrated. The proposed system consists of two new techniques. The first one is the “Blow-down super charging (BDSC) system”, in which, EGR gas can be super charged into a cylinder during the early stage of compression stroke by using the exhaust blow-down pressure wave from another cylinder phased 360 degrees later/earlier in the firing order. The other one is “EGR guide” for generating a large thermal stratification inside the cylinder to reduce the rate of in-cylinder pressure rise (dP/dθ) at high load HCCI operation. The EGR guides consist of a half-circular part attached on the edge of the exhaust ports and the piston head which has a protuberant surface to control the mixing between hot EGR gas and intake air-fuel mixture.
Technical Paper

A Trial of Improving Thermal Efficiency by Active Piston Control -Speed Control Effect of Combustion Chamber Volume Variation on Thermal Efficiency-

2004-09-27
2004-32-0080
In reciprocating internal combustion engines, the piston stops in a moment at top dead center (TDC), so there exists a necessary time to proceed combustion. However more slowing piston motion around TDC, does it have a possibility to produce the following effects? The slowed piston motion may expedite combustion proceed and increase cylinder pressure. This may lead to an increase of degree of constant volume. As a result, thermal efficiency may be improved. In order to verify this idea, two types of engines were tested. The first engine attained high cylinder pressure as expected. The P-V diagram formed an almost ideal Otto cycle. However, this did not contribute to the improvement in the thermal efficiency. Then the second engine with further slower piston motion by active piston control was tested in order to examine the above reason.
Journal Article

A Study of Low Speed Preignition Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Gasoline Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1865
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
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