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Technical Paper

Visualization of the Heat Transfer Surface of EGR Cooler to Examine Soot Adhesion and Abruption Phenomena

2017-03-28
2017-01-0127
Among the emerging technologies in order to meet ever stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system is becoming one of the prerequisites particularly for diesel engines. Although EGR cooler is considered to be an effective measure for further performance enhancement, exhaust gas soot deposition may cause degradation of the cooling. To address this issue, the authors studied the visualization of the soot deposition and removal phenomena to understand its behavior. Based on thermophoresis theory, which indicates that the effect of thermophoresis depends on the temperature difference between the gas and the wall surface exposed to the gas, a visualization method using a heated glass window was developed. By using glass with the transparent conductive oxide: tin-doped indium oxide, temperature of the heated glass surface is raised.
Journal Article

Visualization and Analysis of LSPI Mechanism Caused by Oil Droplet, Particle and Deposit in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0761
In this study, in order to clarify the mechanism of preignition occurrence in highly boosted SI engine at low speed and high load operating conditions, directphotography of preignition events and light induced fluorescence imaging of lubricant oil droplets during preignition cycles were applied. An endoscope was attached to the cylinder head of the modified production engine. Preigntion events were captured using high-speed video camera through the endoscope. As a result, several types of preignition sources could be found. Preignition caused by glowing particles and deposit fragments could be observed by directphotography. Luminous flame was observed around the piston crevice area during the exhaust stroke of preignition cycles.
Journal Article

Very Lean and Diluted SI Combustion Using a Novel Ignition System with Repetitive Pulse Discharges

2009-11-03
2009-32-0119
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with semiconductor switch at turn-off action is successfully applied to an ignition system of a small gasoline internal combustion engine. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges is investigated as an alternative to a conventional spark ignition system. The present study focuses on the extension of the operational limits for lean and diluted combustion using the repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. First, in order to investigate the flame kernel formation process when the repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges are used, the initial flame kernel is observed using Schlieren photography with a high speed camera. As a result, the flame kernel generated by repetitive pulse discharges is larger than by a conventional ignition system.
Journal Article

The Effects of Ignition Environment and Discharge Waveform Characteristics on Spark Channel Formation and Relationship between the Discharge Parameters and the EGR Combustion Limit

2015-09-01
2015-01-1895
In order to realize the high compression ratio and high dilution combustion toward improvement in thermal efficiency, the improvement in stability of ignition and initial phase of combustion under the high gas flow field is the major challenge. In terms of the shift on the higher power side of the operating point by downsizing and improvement of real world fuel consumption, the improvement of ignitability is increasingly expected in the wide operating range also including high load and high engine speed region. In this study, the effects of the gas pressure, gas flow velocity near the spark gap at ignition timing, and discharge current characteristics on spark channel formation were analyzed, focusing on restrike event and spark channel stretching in the spark channel formation process. And the relationship between the average discharge current until 1 ms and the EGR combustion limit was considered.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Flow and Mixture Distributions on Combustion Characteristics in a HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0061
It has been widely known that thermal and fuel stratifications of in-cylinder mixture are effective to reduce in-cylinder pressure rise rate during high load HCCI operations. In order to optimize a combustion chamber design and combustion control strategy for HCCI engines with wide operational range, it is important to know quantitatively the influence of the temperature and fuel concentration distributions on ignition and heat release characteristics. At the same time, it is important to know the influence of in-cylinder flow and turbulence on the temperature and fuel concentration distributions. In this study, a numerical simulation of HCCI combustion were conducted to investigate the effects of the in-cylinder flow and turbulence, and the distributions of temperature on ignition and combustion characteristics in HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine with a Pilot Flame Ignition System

2001-12-01
2001-01-1844
A Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine ( DISC-RE ) with a pilot flame ignition system has been studied to find the possibility of simultaneous reductions of fuel consumption rate and HC exhaust gas emissions. Firstly, combustion characteristics in a model combustion chamber, which simulates the DISC-RE were examined from the viewpoints of calculation and experiment. The high speed photography and the indicated pressure analysis were experimentally performed while numerical calculations of the mixture formation and combustion processes were also carried out. As a result, it has been found that the combustion using the pilot flame ignition system is much activated and a better ignitability is attained under lean mixtures than using a spark ignition system. Secondly, a single rotor with 650 cc displacement DISC-RE was built as a prototype. Combustion characteristics and its performance were tested using a combustion analyzer.
Technical Paper

Performance Tests of Reverse Uniflow-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0040
Conventional two-stroke engines have defects such as unstable combustion, high fuel consumption rate and high HC emissions. In order to overcome the defects, a direct fuel injection system and a novel scavenging system were adopted. The authors tested a newly developed reverse uniflow-type two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine that was designed by numerical simulations. In comparison with the base engine at low engine speed, HC emission was decreased by up to 80%, and BSFC was reduced by around 40%. Power and BSFC were superior to those of a latest port-injection four-stroke engine. Furthermore, it was found that engine performance of exhaust gas emissions, fuel economy or output power can be selectively optimized by switching homogeneous and stratified combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analyses of Mixture Formation Process Using a Fan-shaped DI Gasoline Spray: Examinations on Effects of Crosswind and Wall Impingement

2009-04-20
2009-01-1502
The analysis of spray characteristics is important to examine the combustion characteristics of DI (Direct Injection) gasoline engines because the fuel-air mixture formation is controlled by spray characteristics and in-cylinder gas motion. However, the mixture formation process has not been well clarified yet. In this study, the characteristics of a fan-shaped spray caused from a slit-type injector, such as the droplet size, its velocity and the droplet distribution were simultaneously measured on a 2D plane by using improved ILIDS (Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing) method. ILIDS method is an optical measurement technique using interference fringes by illuminating a transparent spherical particles with a coherent laser light. In the measurement of the wall-impinging spray, effects of the distance to the wall and the wall temperature on the spray characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation to Understand the Cause and Sequence of LSPI Phenomena and Suggestion of CaO Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0755
The authors investigated the reasons of how a preignition occurs in a highly boosted gasoline engine. Based on the authors' experimental results, theoretical investigations on the processes of how a particle of oil or solid comes out into the cylinder and how a preignition occurs from the particle. As a result, many factors, such as the in-cylinder temperature, the pressure, the equivalence ratio and the component of additives in the lubricating oil were found to affect the processes. Especially, CaCO3 included in an oil as an additive may be changed to CaO by heating during the expansion and exhaust strokes. Thereafter, CaO will be converted into CaCO3 again by absorbing CO2 during the intake and compression strokes. As this change is an exothermic reaction, the temperature of CaCO3 particle increases over 1000K of the chemical equilibrium temperature determined by the CO2 partial pressure.
Technical Paper

Numerical Examinations on the Effect of Active Piston-Movement Control

2004-09-27
2004-32-0065
In order to improve thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines, a novel method to increase degree of constant volume was considered. Because the combustion speed is not infinity as assumed in Otto cycle but limited, it is necessary to decrease the piston-movement around TDC so as to increase degree of constant volume. At first, experimental study was made to confirm this. A test engine which has longer expansion stroke than compression stroke and enables a slow piston-movement during combustion period was built. The experimental data indicated an increase in degree of constant volume, but did not show an increase in thermal efficiency. In order to clarify this reason, numerical simulations are conducted in this paper. As a result, the gain due to the increase in degree of constant volume caused by piston-motion during combustion was found not exceeding the loss by increased heat loss.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Mixture Preparation in a Reverse Uniflow-Type Two-Stroke Gasoline DI Engine

2001-12-01
2001-01-1815
The authors have been engaged in developing a new-generation two-stroke gasoline engine which could be employed ultimately for automobiles. By investigating the defects of the Schnurle-type two-stroke gasoline engine, a reverse uniflow-type direct injection engine has been developed and built. The newly introduced system employs stratified charge combustion in light to medium load conditions by using the technology already developed for the four-stroke direct injection gasoline engines while it can supply the maximum power output by using a super-charger and attaining homogeneous combustion. Engine performance is being tested experimentally. In order to analyze the performance test results, numerical analysis of in-cylinder phenomena, such as gas-exchange, gas motion, fuel spray formation, and mixture formation is carried out in this paper.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion and Flow Inside a Small Rotary Engine for Developing an Unmanned Helicopter

2007-10-30
2007-32-0098
For a disaster relief and automatic inspections, an unmanned helicopter is strongly expected. To develop this, a very high power density source is required. A Wankel-type rotary engine can be the best candidate for the power source. In this study, the development of a very small rotary engine with a displacement of 30 cc is targeted. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, gas exchange and stable ignition, a multi dimensional simulation inside the combustion chamber was carried out. At first, the effect of volumetric efficiency on the maximum power is mentioned. Secondly, the effect of scavenging efficiency is discussed. Thirdly, a blow off through a plug hole is described. The position of plug hole was found important to reduce the blow off amount. Finally, the effect of combustion speed on the engine performance is predicted. As a result, the proposed design will be tested using a proto-type engine.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Local Gas Temperature at Autoignition Conditions Inside the Combustion Chamber Using a Two-Wire Thermocouple

2006-04-03
2006-01-1344
The phenomenon of autoignition is an important aspect of HCCI and knock, hence reliable information on local gas temperature in a combustion chamber must be obtained. Recently, several studies have been conducted by using laser techniques such as CARS. It has a high spatial resolution, but has proven difficult to apply in the vicinity of combustion chamber wall and requires special measurement skills. Meanwhile, a thermocouple is useful to measure local gas temperature even in the vicinity of wall. However, a traditional one-wire thermocouple is not adaptable to measure the in-cylinder gas temperature due to slow response. The issue of response can be overcome by adopting a two-wire thermocouple. The two-wire thermocouple is consisted of two fine wire thermocouples with different diameter hence it is possible to determine the time constant using the raw data from each thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Breakup Modeling of a Diesel Spray by Making Comparisons with 2D Measurement Data

2007-07-23
2007-01-1898
In this study, the characteristics of diesel spray droplets, such as the velocity and the diameter were simultaneously measured by using an improved ILIDS (Interferometric Laser Imaging for Droplet Sizing) method on a 2D plane to evaluate the droplet breakup modeling. In numerical analysis, DDM (Discrete Droplet Model) was employed with sub-models such as droplet breakup, droplet drag force and turbulence. Experiments have been performed with an accumulator type unit-injector system and a constant-volume high-pressure vessel under the condition of quiescent ambient gas. The injection pressure and ambient gas pressure were set up to 100 MPa and 0.1 / 1 MPa, respectively. The nozzle orifice diameter was 0.244 mm with a single hole. The measurement region was chosen at 40 ∼ 60 mm from the nozzle-tip. Numerical analysis of diesel sprays was conducted and the results were compared to the measured results.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Improvement of LSPI Phenomena and Study of Combustion Strategy in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range

2015-04-14
2015-01-0756
LSPI is an important issue to enable and enhance the effect of downsizing in SI engines. Experimental work was carried out by using 4 cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine, attaching the extra supercharger to get a higher boost pressure. Many parameters of driving condition, engine specification and lubricants were studied and some of them were extracted as the major items which affect the possibility of LSPI. Coolant temperature and Calcium (Ca) additive to lubricant had strong effect on the frequency of LSPI. Combustion strategy of strong miller cycle and LPEGR were also studied and compared in very high BMEP condition. Finally IMEPg of 3MPa at 1500rpm was achieved by using a single cylinder test engine equipped with 2-stage mechanically supercharged intake system.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Thermal Efficiency of Lean Burn Pre-Chamber Natural Gas Engine by Optimization of Combustion System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0782
To understand the mechanism of the combustion by torch flame jet in a gas engine with pre-chamber and also to obtain the strategy of improving thermal efficiency by optimizing the structure of pre-chamber including the diameter and number of orifices, the combustion process was investigated by three dimensional numerical simulations and experiments of a single cylinder natural gas engine. As a result, the configuration of orifices was found to affect the combustion performance strongly. With the same orifice diameter of 1.5mm, thermal efficiency with 7 orifices in pre-chamber was higher than that with 4 orifices in pre-chamber, mainly due to the reduction of heat loss by decreasing the impingement of torch flame on the cylinder linear. Better thermal efficiency was achieved in this case because the flame propagated area increases rapidly while the flame jets do not impinge on the cylinder wall intensively.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis in a Diesel Engine Based on a Heat Flux Measurement Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0115
To investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine, a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient in a combustion chamber of a diesel engine was investigated based on heat flux measured by the authors in the previous study(8) using the rapid compression and expansion machine. In the correlation defined in the present study, thermodynamically estimated two-zone temperatures in the burned zone and the unburned zone are applied. The characteristic velocity given in the correlation is related to the speed of spray flame impinging on the wall during the fuel injection period. After the fuel injection period, the velocity term of the Woschni’s equation is applied. It was shown that the proposed correlation well expresses heat transfer phenomena in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification Using Twin-Tumble Intake Flows to Extend Lean Limit in Super-Lean Gasoline Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1664
To drastically improve thermal efficiency of a gasoline spark-ignited engine, super-lean burn is a promising solution. Although, studies of lean burn have been made by so many researchers, the realization is blocked by a cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. In this study, based on the causes of cycle-to-cycle variation clarified by the authors’ previous study, a unique method to reduce the cycle-to-cycle variation is proposed and evaluated. That is, a bulk quench at early expansion stroke could be reduced by making slight fuel stratification inside the cylinder using the twin-tumble of intake flows. As a result, the lean limit was extended with keeping low NOx and moderate THC emissions, leading to higher thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Extension of Operating Range of a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine using the Blowdown Supercharging System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0896
The objective of this study is to develop a practical technique to achieve HCCI operation with wide operation range. To attain this objective, the authors previously proposed the blowdown supercharge (BDSC) system and demonstrated the potential of the BDSC system to extend the high load HCCI operational limit. In this study, experimental works were conducted with focusing on improvement of combustion stability at low load operation and the reduction in cylinder to cylinder variation in ignition timing of multi-cylinder HCCI operation using the BDSC system. The experiments were conducted using a slightly modified production four-cylinder gasoline engine with compression ratio of about 12 at constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. The test fuel used was commercial gasoline which has RON of 91. To improve combustion stability at low load operation, the valve actuation strategy for the BDSC system was newly proposed and experimentally examined.
Technical Paper

Extension of Lean and Diluted Combustion Stability Limits by Using Repetitive Pulse Discharges

2010-04-12
2010-01-0173
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified.
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