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Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Heat Release Modeling Framework for Gasoline Compression-Ignition Engines with Multiple Injection Events

2019-09-09
2019-24-0083
A zero-dimensional heat release model was developed for compression ignition engines. This type of model can be utilized for parametric studies, off-line optimization to reduce experimental efforts as well as model-based control strategies. In this particular case, the combustion model, in a simpler form, will be used in future efforts to control the combustion in compression ignition engines operating on gasoline-like fuels. To allow for a realistic representation of the in-cylinder combustion process, a spray model has been employed to allow for the quantification of fuel distribution as well as turbulent kinetic energy within the injection spray. The combustion model framework is capable of reflecting premixed as well as mixing controlled combustion. Fuel is assigned to various combustion events based on the air-fuel mixture within the spray.
Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

2019-04-02
2019-01-1145
Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode).
Technical Paper

Transient Efficiency, Performance, and Emissions Analysis of a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Pick-up Truck

2006-10-16
2006-01-3430
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers. There are several challenges that must be overcome in order to establishing a “hydrogen economy”, including the development of a practical, efficient, and cost-effective power conversion device. Using hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is a huge step toward developing a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. This paper summarizes the testing of a hydrogen powered pick-up truck on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle is powered by a port-injected 8-cylinder engine with an integrated supercharger and intercooler. The 4-wheel drive chassis dynamometer is equipped with a hydrogen delivery, metering and safety system as well as hydrogen specific instrumentation. This instrumentation includes numerous sensors, includes a wide-band lambda sensor and an exhaust gas hydrogen analyzer. This analyzer quantifies the amount of unburned hydrogen in the exhaust indicating the completeness of the combustion.
Journal Article

Time-Resolved X-Ray Radiography of Spark Ignition Plasma

2016-04-05
2016-01-0640
Understanding the short-lived structure of the plasma that forms between the electrodes of a spark plug is crucial to the development of improved ignition models for SI engines. However, measuring the amount of energy deposited in the gas directly and non-intrusively is difficult, due to the short time scales and small length scales involved. The breakdown of the spark gap occurs at nanosecond time scales, followed by an arc phase lasting a few microseconds. Finally, a glow discharge phase occurs over several milliseconds. It is during the arc and glow discharge phases that most of the heat transfer from the plasma to the electrodes and combustion gases occurs. Light emission can be used to measure an average temperature, but micron spatial resolution is required to make localized measurements.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines in a Future Mobility Scenario

2003-06-23
2003-01-2267
Focus is pointed on the highly favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) with regard to its combustion characteristics in internal combustion engines. Thereby it will be shown in how far the performance of next generation hydrogen engines can be improved by implementing a direct fuel injection system instead of the conventional port injection approach. Results from numerical as well as from experimental investigations will be used to clearly give a vision of the overall future potential of hydrogen for combustion engines in comparison to fuel cell systems.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Blending Hydrogen with Methane on Engine Operation, Efficiency, and Emissions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0474
Hydrogen is considered one of the most promising future energy carriers and transportation fuels. Because of the lack of a hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations, widespread introduction of vehicles powered by pure hydrogen is not likely in the near future. Blending hydrogen with methane could be one solution. Such blends take advantage of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and, at the same time, reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. In this paper, the authors analyze the combustion properties of hydrogen/methane blends (5% and 20% methane [by volume] in hydrogen equal to 30% and 65% methane [by mass] in hydrogen) and compare them to those of pure hydrogen as a reference. The study confirms that only minor adjustments in spark timing and injection duration are necessary for an engine calibrated and tuned for operation on pure hydrogen to run on hydrogen/methane blends.
Technical Paper

Study the Relationship between CP Specimen Width and the Stress Intensity Factor Value around Nugget

2015-04-14
2015-01-0553
SIF value around weld nugget changes when specimen width is different. To investigate the influence of specimen width on SIF value around weld nugget of coach peel specimen (CP), a finite element model was established in this paper. In this model, a contour integral crack was used, and the area around the nugget was treated as crack tip. Results indicated that when specimen width was below 50mm, SIF decreased rapidly with the increase of specimen width. When specimen width was larger than 50mm, SIF almost remained constant with the variation of specimen width. To further study the influences of nugget diameter and sheet thickness on the Width-SIF curves, CP specimens with different nugget diameters (5mm, 6mm and 7mm) and sheet thicknesses (1.2mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm) were established in ABAQUS. Simulation results of all CP specimens showed a similar relationship between specimen width and SIF.
Technical Paper

Study on Structural Lightweight of Key Auto-Body Parts in Energy Absorption Based on Crashworthiness Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1634
It has been the core problem in the automotive industry to realize vehicle lightweight, fuel economy and environmental protection. Weight reduction of body structure is playing a rather important role in lightening of a full vehicle. This paper presents the study, from the point of view of safety, of the structural lightweight of the front side rail and radiator support of a new multi-purpose vehicle (MPV). Frontal crash simulation is performed and comparison is shown with original crashworthiness performance of full vehicle, in deformed shape of parts, force response, original absorbed energy of full vehicle and deceleration of a key point in A-pillar. The study verifies the feasibility of this lightweight scheme, which is an exploration in the study on structural lightweight of auto-body and may offer a referential experience for the future work. Achieved weight reductions of the front side rail and radiator support are 9.11% and 22.88%, respectively.
Journal Article

Study of Basic Injection Configurations using a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1418
The application of hydrogen (H2) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for fuel cells as well as IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. The potential of hydrogen as an IC engine fuel can be optimized by direct injection (DI) as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently the engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. This paper studies a single-hole nozzle and examines the effects of injection strategy on engine efficiency, combustion behavior and NOx emissions. The experiments for this study are done on a 0.5 liter single-cylinder research engine which is specifically designed for combustion studies and equipped with a cylinder head that allows side as well as central injector location.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Guided Air System Design for a Low Reactivity Gasoline-Like Fuel under Partially-Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0751
In this study a detailed 1-D engine system model coupled with 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to investigate the air system design requirements for a heavy duty diesel engine operating with low reactivity gasoline-like fuel (RON70) under partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The production engine used as the baseline has a geometric compression ratio (CR) of 17.3 and the air system hardware consists of a 1-stage variable geometry turbine (VGT) with a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HP-EGR) loop. The analysis was conducted at six engine operating points selected from the heavy-duty supplemental emissions test (SET) cycle, i.e., A75, A100, B25, B50, B75, and C100. The engine-out NOx target was set at 1 g/hp-hr (1.34 g/kWh) to address a future hypothetical tailpipe NOx limit of 0.02 g/hp-hr (0.027 g/kWh) while an engine-out particulate matter (PM) target of 0.01 g/hp-hr (0.013 g/kWh) was selected to comply with existing EPA 2010 regulations.
Technical Paper

Reduced Gasoline Surrogate (Toluene/n-Heptane/iso-Octane) Chemical Kinetic Model for Compression Ignition Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0191
Toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) (mixture of toluene, iso-octane and heptane) is a suitable surrogate to represent a wide spectrum of real fuels with varying octane sensitivity. Investigating different surrogates in engine simulations is a prerequisite to identify the best matching mixture. However, running 3D engine simulations using detailed models is currently impossible and reduction of detailed models is essential. This work presents an AramcoMech reduced kinetic model developed at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for simulating complex TPRF surrogate blends. A semi-decoupling approach was used together with species and reaction lumping to obtain a reduced kinetic model. The model was widely validated against experimental data including shock tube ignition delay times and premixed laminar flame speeds. Finally, the model was utilized to simulate the combustion of a low reactivity gasoline fuel under partially premixed combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Prospects on Fuel Economy Improvements for Hydrogen Powered Vehicles

2008-10-06
2008-01-2378
Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
Technical Paper

Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Evaluation of a Supercharged, Hydrogen-Powered, 4-Cylinder Engine

2007-01-23
2007-01-0016
This paper presents the results of efficiency, emissions, and performance testing of a supercharged, hydrogen-powered, four-cylinder engine. Tests were run at various speeds, loads, and air/fuel ratios in order to identify advantageous operating regimes. The tests revealed that a maximum thermal brake efficiency of 37% could be achieved and that certain operating regimes could achieve NOx emissions as low as 1 ppm without aftertreatment. Measurement of cylinder pressure traces in all four cylinders allowed a detailed assessment of cylinder-cylinder deviation. Several measures to further increase hydrogen engine performance in order to reach the goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy are being discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

2014-10-13
2014-01-2694
Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Thermal Efficiency of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with E85 Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0557
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NOx and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high temperature combustion with reduced amounts of EGR appears more practical. Previous studies with 93 AKI gasoline demonstrated that the port and direct injection strategy exhibited the best performance, but the premature combustion event prevented further increase in the premixed gasoline fraction and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Optical Evolution of Gaseous Jets in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0675
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0578
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Combustion in a Lean Burn Gasoline Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0029
This research effort focuses on lean-burn combustion in gasoline internal combustion engines. Gasoline is largely known to be characterized by narrow flammability range, which makes the use of ultra-lean mixtures very challenging. In order to fully explore the gasoline lean burn potential, a promising strategy should combine advanced intake geometries, injection strategies, and ignition technologies. In this paper, a CFD methodology is developed in order to provide proper insight into lean-burn gasoline combustion. A baseline homogenous/lean case is analyzed and numerical results are validated against engine data. Two critical issues are addressed. First, a relatively large detailed mechanism is validated against the experimental data for extreme operating conditions (low pressure values, lean mixtures). The large cycle-to-cycle variation characterizing lean combustion is shown experimentally.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of Gasoline Compression Ignition at Cold Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0778
Achieving robust ignitability for compression ignition of diesel engines at cold conditions is traditionally challenging due to insufficient fuel vaporization, heavy wall impingement, and thick wall films. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has shown good potential to offer enhanced NOx-soot tradeoff with diesel-like fuel efficiency, but it is unknown how the volatility and reactivity of the fuel will affect ignition under very cold conditions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impact of fuel physical and chemical properties on ignition under pressures and temperatures relevant to practical engine operating conditions during cold weather. In this paper, 0-D and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of GCI combustion at cold conditions were performed.
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