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Technical Paper

The Reduction of Mechanical and Thermal Loads in a High-Speed HD Diesel Engine Using Miller Cycle with Late Intake Valve Closing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0637
Mechanical load and thermal load are the two main barriers limiting the engine power output of heavy duty (HD) diesel engines. Usually, the peak cylinder pressure could be reduced by retarding combustion phasing while introducing the drawback of higher thermal load and exhaust temperature. In this paper, Miller cycle with late intake valve closing was investigated at high speed high load condition (77 kW/L) on a single cylinder HD diesel engine. The results showed the simultaneous reduction of mechanical and thermal loads. In the meanwhile, higher boosting pressure was required to compensate the Miller loss of the intake charge during intake and compression process. The combustion temperature, cylinder pressure, exhaust temperature and NOx emission were reduced significantly with Miller cycle at the operating condition. Furthermore, the combustion process, smoke number and fuel consumption were analysed.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Study of Swirl Ratio on Mixture Preparation with a Swirl Control Valve in a Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1790
Downsizing as a main-stream technology was widely used for design of future diesel engines in order to meet the increasingly stringent demands of emissions regulation and reduction of CO2 production. Design of intake system faces a considerable challenge accordingly. Discharge coefficient and swirl ratio as two main factors of intake port design have been widely investigated by researchers. However, these two parameters indicate a trade-off relationship. Therefore, it is difficult for a classical intake system to achieve a good balance between sufficient air charge and decent air-fuel radial mixing quality. A 1 L twin-intake-port single-cylinder diesel engine was studied in this paper. A swirl control valve designed to adjust the effective flow area of the filling port, was installed between the intake manifold and the intake filling port in order to achieve variation of swirl ratio. And there is no control valve for the intake spiral port.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study on CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

2007-04-16
2007-01-0196
Controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion and engine performance and emission characteristics have been intensively investigated in a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was obtained by residual gas trapping. This was achieved by using low-lift short-duration cams and early closing the exhaust valves. Effects of EVC (exhaust valve closure) and IVO (intake valve opening) timings, spark timing, injection timing, coolant temperature, compression ratio, valve lift and duration, on CAI combustion and emissions were investigated experimentally. The results show that the EVC timing, injection timing, compression ratio, valve lift and duration had significant influences on CAI combustion and emissions. Early EVC and injection timing, higher compression ratio and higher valve lift could enhance CAI combustion. IVO timing had minor effect on CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of In-Cylinder Flow for Fuel Stratification in a Three-Valve Twin-Spark-Plug SI Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0635
In-cylinder flow was optimised in a three-valve twin-spark-plug SI engine in order to obtain good two-zone fuel fraction stratification in the cylinder by means of tumble flow. First, the in-cylinder flow field of the original intake system was measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results showed that the original intake system did not produce large-scale in-cylinder flow and the velocity value was very low. Therefore, some modifications were applied to the intake system in order to generate the required tumble flow. The modified systems were then tested on a steady flow rig. The results showed that the method of shrouding the lower part of the intake valves could produce rather higher tumble flow with less loss of the flow coefficient than other methods. The optimised intake system was then consisted of two shroud plates on the intake valves with 120° angles and 10mm height. The in-cylinder flow of the optimised intake system was investigated by PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Analysis into Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Combustion Process for a High Power Density Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1855
Piston bowl geometry has important effects on diesel engine combustion. Especially for a high power density engine, much more fuel requires to burn across the cylinder in a short period after the top dead centre (TDC). Therefore the piston bowl geometry plays a critical role for the air/fuel mixing process and the combustion process. In this paper, a 3-D in-cylinder combustion modeling was carried out for a high power density engine. The ω type of bowl shape was described by seven independent parameters. Five of them are conducted to investigate their effects on the combustion process. The results show that the bowl diameter has significant effects on combustion both in the pre-mixing combustion period and in the diffusion combustion period. There exists an optimized bowl diameter value to obtain a highest indicated power. The re-entrant angle has an important effect on pre-mixing combustion and there also exists an optimized value to reach a highest indicated power.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Intake Flow of a Four-Valve Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2211
The intake process plays an important role in the operation of internal combustion engines. In the present study, a three-dimensional transient simulation of a four-valve diesel engine was performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model based on software CONVERGE. The mean velocity components in three directions through the intake valve curtain, the flow separation around the intake valves, the influences of inlet jet on turbulence flow field and cycle-to-cycle variation were investigated in this work. The result shows that the mean velocity distributes non-uniformly near the valve curtain at high valve lifts. In contrast, the mean velocity distribution is uniform at low valve lifts. It is found that the flow separation occurs at valve stem, valve seat and valve sealing through the outlet of the helical port. In contrast, flow separation is only observed in the valve seat through the outlet of the tangential port.
Technical Paper

Increasing a Diesel Engine Power Output by Combustion System Optimization

2013-10-14
2013-01-2530
Displacement downsize is an exciting technology for IC engines in recent years in order to reduce both toxic emissions and fuel consumption simultaneously. The key point of this technology is to increase power density so that a downsized engine has power output high enough to replace a bigger displacement one. This paper describes a research into the power output enhancement by combustion system optimization. This research work was conducted on a single-cylinder diesel engine with a displacement of 2.8L. The aim of the research is to increase engine power output from current 73kW to 150kW. The power output was firstly boosted to 92kW by virtue of increasing intake pressure, reducing intake flow resistance, optimizing cam profile, modifying fuel injection system and optimizing combustion parameters. As a result, a satisfied heat release pattern was obtained with the achievement of the power target.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Fuel Stratification in a Twin-Spark Three-Valve SI Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1354
In order to take advantage of different properties of fuel components or fractions, a new concept of fuel stratification has been proposed by the authors. This concept requires that two fractions of standard gasoline (e.g., light and heavy fractions) or two different fuels in a specially formulated composite be introduced into the cylinder separately through two separate intake ports. The two fuels will be stratified into two regions in the cylinder by means of strong tumble flows. In order to verify and optimize the fuel stratification, a two-tracer Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed and applied to visualize fuel stratification in a three-valve twin-spark SI engine. This was realized by detecting simultaneously fluorescence emissions from 3-pentanone in one fuel (hexane) and from N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) in the other fuel (iso-octane).
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engines Retrofitted to Spark-Ignition Operation Fueled with Natural Gas

2019-09-09
2019-24-0030
Natural gas is a promising alternative gaseous fuel due to its availability, economic, and environmental benefits. A solution to increase its use in the heavy-duty transportation sector is to convert existing heavy-duty compression ignition engines to spark-ignition operation by replacing the fuel injector with a spark plug and injecting the natural gas inside the intake manifold. The use of numerical simulations to design and optimize the natural gas combustion in such retrofitted engines can benefit both engine efficiency and emission. However, experimental data of natural gas combustion inside a bowl-in-piston chamber is limited. Consequently, the goal of this study was to provide high-quality experimental data from such a converted engine fueled with methane and operated at steady-state conditions, exploring variations in spark timing, engine speed and equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition Effects in a CI Engine Converted to SI Natural Gas Operation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1137
Low-carbon fuels such as natural gas (NG) have the potential to lower the demand of petroleum-based fuels, reduce engine-out emissions, and increase IC engine thermal efficiency. One of the most rapid and efficient use of NG in the transportation sector would be as a direct replacement of the diesel fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines without any major engine modifications to the combustion chamber such as new pistons and/or engine head. An issue is the large variation in NG composition with the location and age of the gas well across U.S., which would affect engine operation, as well as the technology integration with emissions after treatment systems. This study used a conventional CI engine modified for spark ignition (SI) NG operation to investigate the effects of methane and a C1-C4 alkane blend on main combustion parameters like in-cylinder pressure, apparent heat release rate, IMEP, etc.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a Natural Gas Lean-Burn Spark Ignition Engine with Bowl-in-Piston Combustion Chamber

2019-04-02
2019-01-0559
On- and off-road heavy-duty diesel engines modified to spark-ignition natural gas operation can reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil and enhance national energy security. Engine conversion can be achieved through the addition of a gas injector in the intake manifold and of a spark plug in place of the diesel injector. This paper investigated combustion characteristics and engine performance at several lean-burn operating conditions that changed spark timing, mixture equivalence ratio, and engine speed, using methane as NG surrogate.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine Retrofitted to Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Operation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0124
Recent development in hydraulic fracking made natural gas (NG) to be a promising alternative gaseous fuel for heavy-duty diesel engines. The existing compression ignition (CI) engine can be retrofitted to NG spark ignition (SI) operation by replacing the diesel injector with a spark plug and fumigating NG into the intake manifold. However, the original diesel piston geometry (flat head and bowl-in-piston chamber) was usually retained to reduce modification cost. The goal of this study was to increase the understanding of the NG lean-burn characteristics in a diesel-like, fast-burn SI combustion chamber. The experimental platform can operate in conventional (i.e., all engine parts are metal) or in optical configuration (i.e., the stock piston and cylinder block are replaced with a see-through piston and an extended cylinder block). The optical data indicated a fast-propagated flame inside the piston bowl.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combination and Orientation of Intake Ports on Swirl Motion in Four-Valve DI Diesel Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1823
Two identical helical ports and two identical directed ports were arranged into four different kinds of port combinations: helical and helical, helical and directed, directed and directed, directed and helical. Each port can rotate freely around its valve axis. The swirl ratio and the flow coefficient for each combination of intake ports were tested on a steady flow rig when both ports were positioned in different orientations around its valve axis. Two parameters, the loss rate of mean flow coefficient and the loss rate of angular momentum, were defined to describe the degree of interference between the flows discharging from the two adjacent intake valves. Velocity distribution in the vicinity and circumference of the intake valves was measured using Hot Wire Anemometer to further study the intake flow interference for different port combinations.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Swirl Control Valve on the In-Cylinder Air Motion in a Four-Valve SI Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-2058
The effect of the Swirl Control Valve (SCV) on the in-cylinder flow characteristics was studied using LDA measurement in a single cylinder four-valve spark ignition engine with a SCV. Mean velocity, root-mean-square (rms) velocity fluctuation, and frequency structure of the velocity fluctuation were analyzed to illustrate flow features under the SCV open and closed conditions. The results show that when the SCV is open, large-scale flow structure in the cylinder is mainly tumble vortex, which will distort and break up during the late stage of the compression stroke. The rms velocity fluctuation increases during the compression process and reaches its maximum at certain crank angle before TDC. Larger scale eddies and lower frequency structures in the flow field become more near the end of compression process due to breakup of the tumble. The rms velocity fluctuation in the combustion chamber is roughly uniform at the end of the compression process.
Technical Paper

Effect of the Depth of Valve Avoiding Pit on Combustion Process for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0725
In diesel engines, valve avoiding pit (VAP) is often designed on the top of the piston in order to avoid the interference between the valves and the piston during the engine operation. With the continued application of the downsized or high power density diesel engines, the depth of VAP has to be further deepened due to increased valve lift for more air flow into and out of the cylinder and decreased piston top clearance for less HC/CO and soot emissions. The more and more deepening of VAP changes the combustion chamber geometry, the top clearance height and the injector relative position to the piston crown. In this paper, a 3-D in-cylinder combustion model was used for a heavy duty diesel engine to investigate the effects of the depth of VAP on combustion process and emissions. Five depths of VAP were designed in this study. In order to eliminate the influence of compression ratio, the piston clearance height was adjusted for each VAP depth to keep the same compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Mixture and CAI Combustion in a GDI Engine with an Air-Assisted Injector

2006-04-03
2006-01-0206
The application of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) combustion in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is becoming of more interest due to its great potential of reducing both NOx emissions and fuel consumption. Injection timing has been known as an important parameter to control CAI combustion process. In this paper, the effect of injection timing on mixture and CAI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder GDI engine with an air-assisted injector. The liquid and vapour phases of fuel spray were measured using planar laser induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) technique. The result shows that early injection led to homogeneous mixture but late injection resulted in serious stratification at the end of compression. CAI combustion in this study was realized by using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During tests, the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2400rpm and A/F ratio from stoichiometric to lean limit.
Technical Paper

Effect of Geometric Structure of Cylinder Head on the Combustion Process in a Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0692
Due to increasingly stringent emission and fuel consumption regulations, diesel engines for vehicle are facing more and more technical challenges. Engine downsizing technology is the most promising measures to deal with these challenges at present. With the enhancement of power density, a small engine displacement with a high turbocharging technique becomes popular. In order to increase the intake mass flow rate on a downsizing diesel engine, the tilting axis of intake valve was chosen to enlarge the intake valve diameter and decrease the arc radius of intake ports. Thus cylinder head had to be redesigned to meet this demand. Geometry of cylinder head made a notable effect in organization of in-cylinder flow, fuel-air mixing quality and further combustion characteristics. 3-D CFD was a convenient and economical tool to explore effects of geometry of cylinder head on the combustion process.
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