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Technical Paper

Visualization Experiment in a Transparent Engine With Pure and Mixed Normal Paraffin Fuels

2004-06-08
2004-01-2018
In the previous study design of two-component normal paraffin fuel was attempted considering the components and blending ratio. Only the thermodynamic analysis of combustion and analysis of emission characteristics were performed to evaluate the design performance. In this study mixture formation behavior and combustion phenomena of pure and mixed n-paraffin fuels were investigated by direct visualization in an AVL engine with bottom view piston. The experiments included laser-illuminated high-speed photography of the fuel injection phase and combustion phase to investigate physical differences. The results obtained for the proposed fuels are compared with the results of conventional diesel fuel. It was found that the two component normal paraffin fuels with similar thermo physical properties have very similar spray development pattern but evaporation rates are different.
Technical Paper

The Cold Flow Performance and the Combustion Characteristics with Ethanol Blended Biodiesel Fuel

2005-10-24
2005-01-3707
The purpose of this study is to improve low-temperature flow-properties of biodiesel fuels (BDF) by blending with ethanol and to analyze the combustion characteristics in a diesel engine fueled with BDF/ethanol blended fuel. Because ethanol has a lower solidifying temperature, higher oxygen content, lower cetane number, and higher volatility than BDF, ethanol blending would have a large effect on cold flow performance, mixture formation, ignition, combustion, and exhaust emissions. The engine experiments in the study were performed with a diesel engine and blends of BDF and ethanol at different blending ratios. The cold flow performance of the blended fuels was evaluated by determining the fuel cloud point. The experimental results show that the ethanol blending lowers the cloud point of the blended fuel and significantly reduces smoke emissions from the engine without deteriorating other emissions or thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Study on Regeneration of Diesel Particle Trapper by Electrical Self-Heating Type Filter

1992-02-01
920140
The cordierite filter has been widely studied because of it's inherent, high capacities in the collection efficiency and heat-resistance. During the regeneration process of a cordierite filter, failure of ignition or incomplete burning propagation occurs, and additionally melts or cracks develop sometimes. In this study, the problems stated above are considered from a new standpoint, and a regeneration method that does not strictly depend on accumulated soot quantity is discussed. A filter made of SiC (Silicon carbide) possesses the requisite electric resistance and it's possible to heat it uniformly by using electricity. Accumulated soot can be uniformly incinerated not by burning propagation but by simultaneous ignition and burning of all accumulated soot. Silicon carbide has a higher resistance to heat than cordierite. Therefore, a self-heating filter made of SiC makes it possible to regenerate the filter in a wider range of accumulated soot.
Technical Paper

SOF Component of Lubricant Oil on Diesel PM in a High Boosted and Cooled EGR Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0123
The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx and PM for a Heavy Duty Diesel Using 50% EGR Rate in Single Cylinder Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1120
For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

2009-11-02
2009-01-2740
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measuring System for Engine Exhaust Solid Particle Number Emission - Performance and Vehicle Tests

2006-04-03
2006-01-0865
The prototype solid particle counting system (SPCS) has been used to study solid particle emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles. As recommended by the PMP draft proposal, exhaust is diluted by a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS). The SPCS takes the sample from the CVS tunnel. Transient test cycles such as EPA FTP 75, EPA HWFET (EPA Highway Fuel Economy Cycle), and NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) were tested. The repeatability of the instrument was evaluated on the diesel vehicle for three continuous days. The instrument exhibits good repeatability. The differences for the EPA ftp 75, the EPA HWFET, and the NEDC in three continuous tests are ± 3.5%. The instrument is very sensitive as well and detects the driving differences. A large number of solid particles are found during the hard acceleration from both the gasoline and the diesel vehicles. Solid particle emissions decrease quickly at deceleration and when vehicles approach constant speed.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether Applying EGR with Supercharging

2000-06-19
2000-01-1809
This research investigates engine performance and the possibility of reducing exhaust emissions by using Dimethyl Ether (DME). There are high expectations for DME as a new alternative fuel for diesel engines for heavy-duty vehicles. In this experiment, a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with displacement of 1.05 liter and a compression ratio of 18:1 was used as a base engine. Common rail type DME fuel injection equipment for the single cylinder engine experiment was installed, and direct injection in the cylinder of DME was tried. Results indicated that high injection pressure, high swirl ratio, and supercharging using multi-hole injectors are effective for combustion promotion in the DME fueled diesel engine (DME engine). The output of the DME engine using supercharging with an intercooler and EGR was higher than that of a diesel engine. By increasing the EGR rate Nox emission was reduced to about 1/3 that of the diesel engine. Smoke was not completely emitted.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine System for Application of Biodiesel Fuel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2028
Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because biodiesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, biodiesels yield an increase in NOx emission from conventional diesel engine, compared with diesel fuel case. Therefore, some strategies are needed for meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. In this study, rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was applied to diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst. NOx reduction rate of NSR catalyst was drastically decreased by using RME, even if injection quantity of RME for rich spike was enhanced. However, an increase in EGR rate could reduce NOx emission without the deterioration in smoke and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Next-Generation Environmentally Friendly Vehicles Development and Commercialization Project (3rd Stage) in Japan

2013-03-10
2012-01-2085
As alternatives to heavy-duty vehicles, this project seeks to promote the development of Next-Generation EFVs, which will present a solution to the severe air pollution problem particularly in big cities, and drastically improve exhaust gas emissions and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in order to lessen the contribution to global warming. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) started the Next-Generation Environmentally Friendly Vehicles Development and Commercialization Project in 2002. MLIT at that time entrusted this project to National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL). NTSEL as a core research organization organized a cooperative system with automobile manufacturers, suppliers, universities, academic experts, that is to say, “industry-academic-government” and launched the development activities.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction on Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3608
Direct injection natural gas engines need to produce in the mixing process between the fuel jet and the air in the cylinder a “stratified” fuel-air mixture, with an easily ignitable composition near the spark plug at the time of ignition. Stratified-charge engines have a tendency to produce high NOx emissions due to the high temperature of burning areas at the start of combustion since the fuel-air mixture is not uniform. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce NOx emissions from direct injection natural gas engines. The objective of this study is to investigate measures to reduce emissions, especially NOx emissions, from direct injection natural gas engines. A single cylinder test engine was equipped with a newly developed high-pressure electromagnetic injector and a spark plug.
Technical Paper

Modeling Atomization and Vaporization Processes of Flash-Boiling Spray

2004-03-08
2004-01-0534
Flash-boiling occurs when a fuel is injected to a combustion chamber where the ambient pressure is lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel. It has been known that flashing is a favorable mechanism for atomizing liquid fuels. On the other hand, alternative fuels, such as gaseous fuels and oxygenated fuels, are used to achieve low exhaust emissions in recent years. In general, most of these alternative fuels have high volatility and flash-boiling takes place easily in fuel spray, when they are injected into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine under high pressure. In addition, fuel design concept the multicomponent fuel with high and low volatility fuels has been proposed in the previous study in order to control the spray and combustion processes in internal combustion engine. It is found that the multicomponent fuel produce flash-boiling with an increase in the initial fuel temperature.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Commercial Vehicles Fuelled with Biodiesel

2010-10-25
2010-01-2276
The application of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for petroleum diesel fuel is very effective for the reduction of CO₂ emission, because biodiesel is produced from renewable biomass resources. In Japan, neat biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil has often been applied to commercial vehicles. However, it is possible that the difference of fuel properties between conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel causes the problems on exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engine. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the effect of biodiesel fuelling on exhaust emissions from commercial vehicles. Light-duty garbage trucks and heavy-duty diesel buses which were actually fueled with biodiesel in Kyoto, Japan, were used for test vehicles in this study. The exhaust emissions from these vehicles during JE05 mode tests were compared between biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil and conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Behavior of Mixed Fuels having Different Component Cetane Number and Boiling Point

2003-05-19
2003-01-1868
To clarify the effect of fuel properties on diesel exhaust emissions, direct injection of two component fuels with approximately zero aromatic content and sulfur were attempted in a diesel engine. Fuels were prepared using paraffins having different cetane numbers and boiling points. Parameters considered are the Average Boiling Point (ABP) by volume and the difference of component characteristics for the same ABP. The results indicate that the trade off relation between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions depends significantly on ABP or density and is independent of the fuel component. On the other hand, components of the mixed fuels have significant influence on SOF and THC emissions. Fuels having higher amount of low boiling point components emit higher THC. Mixtures of low boiling point-high cetane number fuel and high boiling point-low cetane number fuel or fuel that contains normal paraffins only emit higher SOF.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3397
A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Real- World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Fueled with FAME, HVO and BTL using PEMS

2014-10-13
2014-01-2823
Widespread use of biofuels for automobiles would greatly reduce CO2 emissions and increase resource recycling, contributing to global environmental conservation. In fact, activities for expanding the production and utilization of biofuels are already proceeding throughout the world. For diesel vehicles, generally, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) made from vegetable oils is used as a biodiesel. In recent years, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has also become increasingly popular. In addition, biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel, which can be made from any kinds of biomass by gasification and Fischer-Tropsch process, is expected to be commercialized in the future. On the other hand, emission regulations in each country have been tightened year by year. In accordance with this, diesel engines have complied with the regulations with advanced technologies such as common-rail fuel injection system, high pressure turbocharger, EGR and aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1966
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions from diesel engine. In general, high octane number and volatility fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because very lean mixture must be formed during ignition delay of the fuel. However, it is necessary to improve fuel injection systems, when these fuels are used in diesel engine. The purpose of the present study is the achievement of HCCI combustion in DI diesel engine without the large-scale improvements of engine components. Various high octane number fuels are mixed with diesel fuel as a base fuel, and the mixed fuels are directly applied to DI diesel engine. At first, the cylinder pressure and heat release rate of each mixed fuel are analyzed. The ignition delay of HCCI operation decreases with an increase in the operation load, although that of conventional diesel operation does not almost varied.
Technical Paper

Effective Usage of LNT in High Boosted and High EGR Rate of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1066
Lean NOx trap (LNT) and Urea-SCR system are effective aftertreatment systems as NOx reduction device in diesel engines. On the other hand, DPF has already been developed as PM reduction device and it has been used in various vehicles. LNT can absorb and reduce NOx emission in wide range exhaust temperatures, from 150°C to 400°C, and the size of LNT component can be compact in comparison with Urea-SCR system because LNT uses the diesel fuel as a reducing agent and it is needless to install the reducing agent tank in the vehicle. In this study, authors have shown that the NOx conversion rate of LNT is high in the case of extremely low NOx concentration from the engine. Also, the effects of LNT and DPF were examined using the Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine, which has low NOx level before aftertreatment and has been finished as Japanese national project.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Properties of Biodiesel on Its Combustion and Emission Characteristics

2011-08-30
2011-01-1939
The use of biofuel is essential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. This paper highlights the use of biodiesel as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission from the diesel engine of heavy-duty vehicles. Biodiesel is fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) obtained through ester exchange reaction by adding methanol to oil, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil, palm oil, etc. The CO₂ emission from combustion of biodiesel is defined to be equivalent to the CO₂ volume absorbed by its raw materials or plants in their course of growth. On the other hand, however, biodiesel is known to increase the NOx emission when compared with operating with conventional diesel fuel, then suppressing this increase is regarded as a critical issue. This study is intended to identify the fuel properties of biodiesel free from increase in the NOx emission.
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