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Technical Paper

Vehicle Velocity Prediction and Energy Management Strategy Part 2: Integration of Machine Learning Vehicle Velocity Prediction with Optimal Energy Management to Improve Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1212
An optimal energy management strategy (Optimal EMS) can yield significant fuel economy (FE) improvements without vehicle velocity modifications. Thus it has been the subject of numerous research studies spanning decades. One of the most challenging aspects of an Optimal EMS is that FE gains are typically directly related to high fidelity predictions of future vehicle operation. In this research, a comprehensive dataset is exploited which includes internal data (CAN bus) and external data (radar information and V2V) gathered over numerous instances of two highway drive cycles and one urban/highway mixed drive cycle. This dataset is used to derive a prediction model for vehicle velocity for the next 10 seconds, which is a range which has a significant FE improvement potential. This achieved 10 second vehicle velocity prediction is then compared to perfect full drive cycle prediction, perfect 10 second prediction.
Technical Paper

V2V Communication Based Real-World Velocity Predictions for Improved HEV Fuel Economy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1000
Studies have shown that obtaining and utilizing information about the future state of vehicles can improve vehicle fuel economy (FE). However, there has been a lack of research into whether near-term technologies can be utilized to improve FE and the impact of real-world prediction error on potential FE improvements. In this study, a speed prediction method utilizing simulated vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication with real-world driving data and a drive cycle database was developed to understand if incorporating near-term technologies could be utilized in a predictive energy management strategy to improve vehicle FE. This speed prediction method informs a predictive powertrain controller to determine the optimal engine operation for various prediction durations. The optimal engine operation is input into a validated high-fidelity fuel economy model of a Toyota Prius.
Technical Paper

Towards Improving Vehicle Fuel Economy with ADAS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0593
Modern vehicles have incorporated numerous safety-focused Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in the last decade including smart cruise control and object avoidance. In this paper, we aim to go beyond using ADAS for safety and propose to use ADAS technology to enable predictive optimal energy management and improve vehicle fuel economy. We combine ADAS sensor data with a previously developed prediction model, dynamic programming optimal energy management control, and a validated model of a 2010 Toyota Prius to explore fuel economy. First, a unique ADAS detection scope is defined based on optimal vehicle control prediction aspects demonstrated to be relevant from the literature. Next, during real-world city and highway drive cycles in Denver, Colorado, a camera is used to record video footage of the vehicle environment and define ADAS detection ground truth. Then, various ADAS algorithms are combined, modified, and compared to the ground truth results.
Technical Paper

The Importance of HEV Fuel Economy and Two Research Gaps Preventing Real World Implementation of Optimal Energy Management

2017-01-10
2017-26-0106
Optimal energy management of hybrid electric vehicles has previously been shown to increase fuel economy (FE) by approximately 20% thus reducing dependence on foreign oil, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Mono Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions. This demonstrated FE increase is a critical technology to be implemented in the real world as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) rise in production and consumer popularity. This review identifies two research gaps preventing optimal energy management of hybrid electric vehicles from being implemented in the real world: sensor and signal technology and prediction scope and error impacts. Sensor and signal technology is required for the vehicle to understand and respond to its environment; information such as chosen route, speed limit, stop light locations, traffic, and weather needs to be communicated to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Hill Planning and Route Type Identification Prediction Signal Quality on Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Economy

2016-04-05
2016-01-1240
Previous research has demonstrated an increase in Fuel Economy (FE) using an optimal controller based on limited foreknowledge using methods such as Engine Equivalent Minimization Strategy (ECMS) and Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) with stochastic error in the prediction signal considerations. This study seeks to quantify the sensitivity of prediction-derived vehicle FE improvements to prediction signal quality assuming optimal control. In this research, a hill pattern and route type identification scenario control subjected to varying prediction signal quality is selected for in depth study. This paper describes the development of a baseline Toyota Prius Hybrid Vehicle (HV) simulation models, real world drive cycles and real-world disturbances, and an optimal controller incorporating a prediction of vehicle power requirements.
Technical Paper

Enabling Prediction for Optimal Fuel Economy Vehicle Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1015
Vehicle control using prediction based optimal energy management has been demonstrated to achieve better fuel economy resulting in economic, environmental, and societal benefits. However, research focusing on prediction derivation for use in optimal energy management is limited despite the existence of hundreds of optimal energy management research papers published in the last decade. In this work, multiple data sources are used as inputs to derive a prediction for use in optimal energy management. Data sources include previous drive cycle information, current vehicle state, the global positioning system, travel time data, and an advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) that can identify vehicles, signs, and traffic lights. To derive the prediction, the data inputs are used in a nonlinear autoregressive artificial neural network with external inputs (NARX).
Technical Paper

Economic and Efficient Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Modeling Using an Artificial Neural Network

2018-04-03
2018-01-0315
High accuracy hybrid vehicle fuel consumption (FC) and emissions models used in practice today are the product of years of research, are physics based, and bear a large computational cost. However, it may be possible to replace these models with a non-physics based, higher accuracy, and computationally efficient versions. In this research, an alternative method is developed by training and testing a time series artificial neural network (ANN) using real world, on-road data for a hydraulic hybrid truck to predict instantaneous FC and emissions. Parameters affecting model fidelity were investigated including the number of neurons in the hidden layer, specific training inputs, dataset length, and hybrid system status. The results show that the ANN model was computationally faster and predicted FC within a mean absolute error of 0-0.1%. For emissions prediction the ANN model had a mean absolute error of 0-3% across CO2, CO, and NOx aggregate predicted concentrations.
Technical Paper

Application of Pre-Computed Acceleration Event Control to Improve Fuel Economy in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0997
Application of predictive optimal energy management strategies to improve fuel economy in hybrid electric vehicles is an active subject of research. Acceleration events during a drive cycle provide particularly attractive opportunities for predictive optimal energy management because of their high energy cost and limited variability, which enables optimal control trajectories to be computed in advance. In this research, dynamic-programming derived optimal control matrices are implemented during a drive cycle on a validated model of a 2010 Toyota Prius to simulate application of pre-computed control to improve fuel economy over a baseline model. This article begins by describing the development of the vehicle model and the formulation of optimal control, both of which are simulated over the New York City drive cycle to establish baseline and upper-limit fuel economies. Then, optimal control strategies are computed for acceleration events in the drive cycle.
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