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Journal Article

Sample Size Reduction Based on Historical Design Information and Bayesian Statistics

2013-09-24
2013-01-2440
Numerous test data have been generated in many testing institutions over the years and the historical information from previous similar designs and operating conditions can shed light on the current and future designs since they would share some common features when the changes are not drastic. To effectively utilize the historical information for current and future designs, two steps are necessary: (1) finding an approach to consistently correlate the test data; (2) utilizing Bayesian statistics, which can provide a rigorous mathematical tool for extracting useful information from the historical data. In this paper, a procedure for test sample size reduction is proposed based on historical fatigue S-N test data and Bayesian statistics. First, the statistical information is extracted from a large amount of fatigue test data collected over the years.
Journal Article

Probabilistic Life and Damage Assessment of Components under Fatigue Loading

2015-09-29
2015-01-2759
This study presents a probabilistic life (failure) and damage assessment approach for components under general fatigue loadings, including constant amplitude loading, step-stress loading, and variable amplitude loading. The approach consists of two parts: (1) an empirical probabilistic distribution obtained by fitting the fatigue failure data at various stress range levels, and (2) an inverse technique, which transforms the probabilistic life distribution to the probabilistic damage distribution at any applied cycle. With this approach, closed-form solutions of damage as function of the applied cycle can be obtained for constant amplitude loading. Under step-stress and variable amplitude loadings, the damage distribution at any cycle can be calculated based on the accumulative damage model in a cycle-by-cycle manner. For Gaussian-type random loading, a cycle-by-cycle equivalent, but a much simpler closed-form solution can be derived.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Isothermal, Anisothermal, and High-Temperature Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Life Assessment and CAE Implementations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0370
Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle exhaust components and systems. The probabilistic life assessment approaches, including analytical, experimental, and simulation, CAE implementation in particular, are attracting significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, the state-of-the-art probabilistic life assessment methods for vehicle exhausts under combined thermal and mechanical loadings are reviewed and investigated. The loading cases as experienced by the vehicle exhausts are first categorized into isothermal fatigue, anisothermal fatigue, and high-temperature thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) based on the failure mechanisms. Subsequently, the probabilistic life assessment procedures for each category are delineated, with emphasis on product validation.
Technical Paper

Potential Failure Modes and Accelerating Test Strategy of Burner

2012-04-16
2012-01-0523
Driven by diesel engine emission regulation, more emission aftertretment products have been under development by Tenneco to address the Particular Matter (PM) and NOx reduction needs. The T.R.U.E. (Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust) Clean active thermal management system is one of the examples to reduce PM. The system is designed to increase exhaust temperatures for DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) regeneration. This product is exposed to high temperature and high oxidation. Therefore, thermal fatigue, creep, oxidation and the interaction become critical mechanism to be considered for its durability. One of the key challenges to validate this product is to find a way of accelerated testing for thermal, creep, and oxidation as well as for vibration. In this paper, accelerated durability test strategy for high temperature device like T.R.U.E Clean is addressed.
Technical Paper

Path-Length Based Statistical Analysis of Random Multi-Axial Fatigue Loading Histories

2011-04-12
2011-01-0784
A statistic fatigue life assessment procedure is presented in this paper for estimating fatigue damage under stationary Gaussian multi-axial loadings with narrow-band frequency. The fatigue damage is determined by using the Miner-Palmgren rule in connection with a recently developed path-length based multi-axial cycle counting and fatigue life assessment method. In this procedure, the path length is determined by averaging sinusoidal waves with uniformly distributed phase angles while the cycles are estimated from the observation of peak counting results of stress components. Numerically simulated random loading paths with different degrees of non-proportionality are used here to compare the proposed statistical method with its time domain counterpart. Possible further improvement in this research direction is also indicated.
Journal Article

High-Temperature Life Assessment of Exhaust Components and the Procedure for Accelerated Durability and Reliability Testing

2012-09-24
2012-01-2058
Fatigue, creep, oxidation, or their combinations have long been recognized as the principal failure mechanisms in many high-temperature applications such as exhaust manifolds and thermal regeneration units used in commercial vehicle aftertreatment systems. Depending on the specific materials, loading, and temperature levels, the role of each damage mechanism may change significantly, ranging from independent development to competing and combined creep-fatigue, fatigue-oxidation, creep-fatigue-oxidation. Several multiple failure mechanisms based material damage models have been developed, and products to resist these failure mechanisms have been designed and produced. However, one of the key challenges posed to design engineers is to find a way to accelerate the durability and reliability tests of auto exhaust in component and system levels and to validate the product design within development cycle to satisfy customer and market's requirements.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures with the Linear Traction Stress Analysis Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0524
Structural stress methods are now widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures and structures with stress concentrations. The structural stress concept is based on the assumption of a global stress distribution at critical locations such as weld toes or weld throats, and there are several variants of structural stress approaches available. In this paper, the linear traction stress approach, a nodal force based structural stress approach, is reviewed first. The linear traction stress approach offers a robust procedure for extracting linear traction stress components by post-processing the finite element analysis results at any given hypothetical crack location of interest. Pertinent concepts such as mesh-insensitivity, master S-N curve, fatigue crack initiation and growth mechanisms are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Design Curve Construction for Test Data with Linear/Linearized and Universal Slope Characteristics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0427
Fatigue testing and related fatigue life assessment are essential parts of the design and validation processes of vehicle components and systems. Fatigue bench test is one of the most important testing methods for durability and reliability assessment, and its primary function is to construct design curves based on a certain amount of repeated tests, with which recommendations on product design can be advised. How to increase the accuracy of predictions from test results, the associated life assessment, and to reduce the cost through reducing test sample size is an active and continuous effort. In this paper the current engineering practices on constructing design curves for fatigue test data are reviewed first.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Stainless Steel Sheet Specimens at Extremely High Temperatures

2014-04-01
2014-01-0975
Active regeneration systems for cleaning diesel exhaust can operate at extremely high temperatures up to 1000°C. The extremely high temperatures create a unique challenge for the design of regeneration structural components near their melting temperatures. In this paper, the preparation of the sheet specimens and the test set-up based on induction heating for sheet specimens are first presented. Tensile test data at room temperature, 500, 700, 900 and 1100°C are then presented. The yield strength and tensile strength were observed to decrease with decreasing strain rate in tests conducted at 900 and 1100°C but no strain rate dependence was observed in the elastic properties for tests conducted below 900°C. The stress-life relations for under cyclic loading at 700 and 1100°C with and without hold time are then investigated. The fatigue test data show that the hold time at the maximum stress strongly affects the stress-life relation at high temperatures.
Journal Article

Failure Mode Effects and Fatigue Data Analyses of Welded Vehicle Exhaust Components and Its Applications in Product Validation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0374
Vehicle exhaust components and systems under fatigue loading often show multiple failure modes, which should be treated, at least theoretically, with rigorous advanced bi-modal and multi-modal statistical theories and approaches. These advanced methods are usually applied to mission-critical engineering applications such as nuclear and aerospace, in which large amounts of test data are often available. In the automotive industry, however, the sample size adopted in the product validation is usually small, thus the bi-modal and multi-modal phenomena cannot be distinguished with certainty.
Technical Paper

Equilibrium Mechanism Based Linear Curve Fitting Method and Its Application

2011-04-12
2011-01-0785
The equilibrium mechanism, which can be considered as the basis of least squares method for linear curve fitting, is investigated in this paper. Both conventional methods, such as vertical offsets method, and total least squares methods, such as perpendicular offsets method, are examined. It is found that both methods have the equilibrium bases. However, the conventional methods may give inaccurate prediction if using vertical offsets method to fit data with variation in horizontal direction or using horizontal offsets method to fit data with variation in vertical direction while the perpendicular method can give best fit solution to data with variation in both vertical and horizontal directions. The application of these methods is also presented in fatigue S-N curve data analysis and two-parameter Weibull distribution in exhaust component fatigue life prediction.
Journal Article

Durability/Reliability Analysis, Simulation, and Testing of a Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust Emission Control Systems

2012-09-24
2012-01-1951
Durability and reliability performance is one of the most important concerns of a recently developed Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust (T.R.U.E-Clean®) for exhaust emission control. Like other ground vehicle systems, the T.R.U.E-Clean® system experiences cyclic loadings due to road vibrations leading to fatigue failure over time. Creep and oxidation cause damage at high temperature conditions which further shortens the life of the system and makes fatigue life assessment even more complex. Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly assess the durability/reliability of the system in the early development stage. However, reliable and validated simplified engineering methods with rigorous mathematical and physical bases are still urgently needed to accurately manage the margin of safety and decrease the cost, whereas iterative testing is expensive and time consuming.
Technical Paper

Development of Probabilistic Fatigue Life Distribution Functions with Lower and Upper Bounds

2017-03-28
2017-01-0354
A probabilistic distribution function roughly consists of two parts: the middle part and the tails. The fatigue life distribution at a stress/load level is often described with two-parameter lognormal or Weibull distribution functions, which are more suitable for modeling the mean (middle) behaviors. The domains of the conventional probabilistic distribution functions are often unbounded, either infinite small (0 for the two-parameter Weibull) or infinite large or both. For most materials in low- and medium-cycle fatigue regimes, the domains of fatigue lives are usually bounded, and the inclusion of the bounds in a probabilistic model is often critical in some applications, such as product validation and life management. In this paper, four- and five-parameter Weibull distribution functions for the probabilistic distributions with bounds are developed. Finally, the applications of these new models in fatigue data analysis and damage assessment are provided and discussed.
Technical Paper

Design Curve Construction Based on Two-Stress Level Test Data

2012-04-16
2012-01-0069
A design curve, such as a fatigue design S-N curve, is required in engineering design processes. The design curve is usually constructed by analyzing test data, which often exhibit relatively large scatter. For assumed linear test data, two-stress level test plan is commonly used for accelerated life testing (ALT) and subsequent design curve construction. In this paper, based on the two-stress level test plan, a tolerance limit approach is adopted to develop a simple design curve construction procedure. The predicted results from the new method are compared with that of other methods. The advantage of the new method is demonstrated by analyzing the fatigue S-N test data of exhaust components. The determination of minimum sample size is also discussed with a worked table and a graph.
Technical Paper

Corrosion-Fatigue Modeling and Materials Performance Ranking

2018-04-03
2018-01-1409
Corrosion-fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have long been recognized as the major degradation and failure mechanisms of engineering materials under combined mechanical loading and corrosive environments. How to model and characterize these failure phenomena and how to screen, rank, and select materials in corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking resistance is a significant challenge in the automotive industry and many engineering applications. In this paper, the mathematical structure of a superposition-theory based corrosion-fatigue model is investigated and possible closed-form and approximate solutions are sought. Based on the model and the associated solutions and test results, screening and ranking of the materials in fatigue, corrosion-fatigue are discussed.
Journal Article

Components Durability, Reliability and Uncertainty Assessments Based on Fatigue Failure Data

2014-09-30
2014-01-2308
Road vibrations cause fatigue failures in vehicle components and systems. Therefore, reliable and accurate damage and life assessment is crucial to the durability and reliability performances of vehicles, especially at early design stages. However, durability and reliability assessment is difficult not only because of the unknown underlying damage mechanisms, such as crack initiation and crack growth, but also due to the large uncertainties introduced by many factors during operation. How to effectively and accurately assess the damage status and quantitatively measure the uncertainties in a damage evolution process is an important but still unsolved task in engineering probabilistic analysis. In this paper, a new procedure is developed to assess the durability and reliability performance, and characterize the uncertainties of damage evolution of components under constant amplitude loadings.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Verity and Volvo Methods for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2013-09-24
2013-01-2357
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Materials for Exhaust Systems under Combined Mechanical and Corrosive Environment

2013-09-24
2013-01-2420
Corrosion resistance is an extremely important technical issue for long-term durability and reliability performance of exhaust components and systems. Failure mechanisms, such as corrosion, fatigue, corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, have long been recognized as the principal degradation and failure mechanisms of vehicle components and systems under combined mechanical and corrosive environmental conditions. The combination of fluid flow, introduced by components such as advanced injectors, and corrosive environment leads to corrosion-erosion failure mechanism. These failure mechanisms are strongly material, environment, and loading dependent. How to characterize, screen, rank and select the materials in corrosion resistance is a big challenge posed to materials scientists and engineers. In this paper, the common corrosion related failure mechanisms appearing in auto exhaust systems are reviewed first.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Ranking of Materials for Exhaust Systems Under Thermal-Cycling Condition

2013-04-08
2013-01-0512
There is a broad range of material choices for on-road and off-road exhaust systems. The final selection of the materials depends on the balance of engineering performance of the materials and the cost. Thermal-cycling resistance of exhaust materials is an extremely important criterion for the long-term durability and reliability performance of very high temperature exhaust components and systems. To optimize the thermal-cycling resistance and cost of those materials, a selection matrix must be established. Several material evaluation and selection matrices are already available, however, these are not sufficient to meet the industry needs. The current procedure of material selection is essentially based on the trial-and-error approach, which is not efficient in the current market environment. In this paper, a general rational approach for thermal-cycling resistance characterization and ranking is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Reliability Demonstration Methods Based on Three-Parameter Weibull Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0202
Life testing or test-to-failure method and binomial testing method are the two most commonly used methods in product validation and reliability demonstration. The two-parameter Weibull distribution function is often used in the life testing and almost exclusively used in the extended time testing, which can be considered as an accelerated testing method by appropriately extending the testing time but with significantly reduced testing samples. However, the fatigue data from a wide variety of sources indicate that the three-parameter Weibull distribution function with a threshold parameter at the left tail is more appropriate for fatigue life data with large sample sizes. The uncertainties introduced from the assumptions about the underlying probabilistic distribution would significantly affect the interpretation of the test data and the assessment of the performance of the accelerated binomial testing methods, therefore, the selection of a probabilistic model is critically important.
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