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Technical Paper

Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: A Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0569
Vehicle sideslip angle estimation is of great importance to the vehicle stability control as it could not be measured directly by ordinary vehicle-mounted sensors. As a result, researchers worldwide have carried out comprehensive research in estimating the vehicle sideslip angle. First, as the attitude would affect the acceleration information measured by the IMU directly, different kinds of vehicle attitude estimation methods with multi-sensor fusion are presented. Then, the estimation algorithms of the vehicle sideslip angle are classified into the following three aspects: kinematic model based method, dynamic model based method, and fusion method. The characteristics of different estimation algorithms are also discussed. Finally, the conclusion and development trend of the sideslip angle estimation are prospected.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Considering the Tire Pneumatic Trail Variation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0571
Vehicle sideslip angle is significant for electronic stability control devices and hard to estimate due to the nonlinear and uncertain vehicle and tire dynamics. In this paper, based on the two track vehicle dynamic model considering the tire pneumatic trail variation, the vehicle sideslip angle estimation method was proposed. First, the extra steering angle of each wheel caused by kinematics and compliance characteristics of the steering system and suspension system was analyzed. The steering angle estimation method was designed. Since the pneumatic trail would vary with different tire slip angle, distances between the center of gravity (COG) and front&rear axle also change with the tire slip angle. Then, based on the dynamic pneumatic trail and estimated steering angle, we modified the traditional two track vehicle dynamic model using a brush tire model. This model matches the vehicle dynamics more accurately.
Journal Article

Torque Vectoring Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Based on State Variable Feedback

2014-04-01
2014-01-0155
Torque Vectoring Control for distributed drive electric vehicle is studied. A handling improvement algorithm for normal cornering maneuvers is proposed based on state variable feedback control: Yaw rate feedback together with steer angle feedforward is employed to improve transient response and steady gain of the yaw rate, respectively. According to the feedback coefficient's influence on the transient response, an optimization function is proposed to obtain optimum feedback coefficients under different speeds. After maximum feedforward coefficients under different speeds are obtained from the constraint of the motor exterior characteristic, final feedforward coefficients are calculated according to an optimal steering characteristic. A torque distribution algorithm is presented to help the driver to speed up during the direct yaw moment control.
Technical Paper

Study of Stability Control for Electric Vehicles with Active Control Differential

2013-04-08
2013-01-0715
This article conducts a research on the active control differential (ACD) yaw moment stability control for central motor driven automobiles. By calculation, the active control differential yaw moment generation ability which is limited by the maximum differential twist ratio and the motor output torque is not enough compared with traditional Electronic Stability Program (ESP). A Matlab and CarSim joint simulation is applied on double lane change and sine wave steering input condition, through which the active control differential effect is analyzed. It is concluded that yaw moment control using active control differential has improved the steering sensitivity and yaw rate tracking effect to some extent in double lane change test and it also has been verified that it works effectively to keep the stability of the vehicle in sine wave test.
Technical Paper

Path Following Control for Skid Steering Vehicles with Vehicle Speed Adaption

2014-04-01
2014-01-0277
In this paper we present a path following control design for a six-wheel skid-steering vehicle. Contrary to the common approaches that impose non-holonomic constraints, a dynamic vehicle model is established based on a pseudo-static tire model, which uses tire slip to determine tire forces. Our control system admits a modular structure, where a motion controller computes the reference vehicle yaw rate and reference vehicle speed and a dynamics controller tracks these signals. A robust nonlinear control law is designed to track the reference wheel speeds determined by the dynamics controller with proved stability properties. Saturated control techniques are employed in designing the reference yaw rate, which ensures the magnitude of the reference yaw rate does not violate the constraint from the ground-tire adhesion. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed path following control design.
Technical Paper

Optimal Torque Allocation for Distributed Drive Electric Skid-Steered Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

2018-04-03
2018-01-0579
Steering of skid-steered vehicles without steering mechanism is realized by differential drive/brake torque generated from in-wheel motors at left and right sides. Compared to traditional Ackerman-steered vehicles, skid-steered vehicles consume much more energy while steering due to greater steering resistance. Torque allocation is critical to the distributed drive skid-steered vehicles, since it influences not only steering performance, but also energy efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles were analyzed, and a 2-DOF vehicle model was established, which is important for both motion tracking control and torque allocation. Furthermore, a hierarchical controller was proposed. Considering tire force characteristics and tire slip, the upper layer calculates the generalized force and desired yaw moment based on anti-windup PI (proportion-integral) control method.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Estimation of Vehicle Sideslip Angle Based on Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter

2010-04-12
2010-01-0117
An adaptive sideslip angle observer based on discrete extended Kalman filter (DEKF) is proposed in this paper and tire-road friction adaptation is also considered. The single track vehicle model with nonlinear tire characteristics is adopted. The tire parameters can be easily obtained through road test data without using special test rig. Afterwards, this model is discretized and the maximum value of tire-road friction is modeled as the third state variable. Through the measurement of vehicle lateral acceleration and yaw rate, the tire-road adhesion coefficient can be timely updated. Simulations with experimental data from road test and driving simulator have confirmed that DEKF has very high accuracy. The convergent speed of DEKF relies on the magnitude of lateral excitation.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pitch Control for Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0451
On the dual-motor electric vehicle, which is driven by two electric motors mounted on the front and rear axles respectively, longitudinal dynamic control and electro-dynamic braking can be achieved by controlling the torque of front and rear axle motors respectively. Suspension displacement is related to the wheel torque, thus the pitch of vehicle body can be influenced by changing the torque distribution ratio. The pitch of the body has a great influence on the vehicle comfort, which occurs mainly during acceleration and braking progress. Traditionally active suspension is adopted to control the pitch of body. Instead, in this paper an ideal torque distribution strategy is developed to limit the pitch during acceleration and braking progress. This paper first explores the relationship between the torque distribution and the body pitch through the real vehicle test, which reveals the feasibility of the vehicle comfort promotion by optimizing the torque distribution coefficient.
Technical Paper

Model Based Yaw Rate Estimation of Electric Vehicle with 4 in-Wheel Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0463
This paper describes a methodology to estimate yaw rate of a 4-wheel-drive electric vehicle, in which wheel driven torque can be independently controlled by electric motor. Without non-driven wheels it would be difficult to estimate the vehicle yaw rate precisely, especially when some of the four wheels have large slip ratio. Therefore, a model based estimation methodology is put forward, which uses four wheel speeds, steering wheel angle and vehicle lateral acceleration as input signals. Firstly the yaw rate is estimated through three different ways considering both vehicle kinematics and vehicle dynamics. Vehicle kinematics based method has good estimation accuracy even when the vehicle has large lateral acceleration. However, it can not provide satisfying results when the wheel has large slip ratio. In contrast, vehicle dynamics based method is not so sensitive to wheel slip ratio.
Technical Paper

Key Items in Tire Non-Steady State Test

2002-07-09
2002-01-2231
In the paper, the Flat Plank Tire Tester of Changchun Automobile Institute is introduced. This paper, according to practical experiences, generalizes some issues in the tire's non-steady state test. In the non-steady state test, it must be assured that the footprint centerline of tire coincides with that of slid platform, which guarantees no sliding motion between tire and slid platform during the movement. Due to tire taper effect and inhomogeneous tire material, when its side slip angle is zero, side force and aligning torque are not zeros, but have initial values. Here two approaches are discussed to eliminate the side force and aligning torque. Besides, other factors in the test are put forward for discussion. Eliminating the interference can obviously improve the test accuracy. This paper also provides test curves of both pure side slip angle input and pure yaw angle input.
Technical Paper

Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle Longitudinal Velocity Estimation with Adaptive Kalman Filter: Theory and Experiment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0439
Velocity is one of the most important inputs of active safety systems such as ABS, TCS, ESC, ACC, AEB et al. In a distributed drive electric vehicle equipped with four in-wheel motors, velocity is hard to obtain due to all-wheel drive, especially in wheel slipping conditions. This paper focus on longitudinal velocity estimation of the distributed drive electric vehicle. Firstly, a basic longitudinal velocity estimation method is built based on a typical Kalman filter, where four wheel speeds obtained by wheel speed sensors constitute an observation variable and the longitudinal acceleration measured by an inertia moment unit is chosen as input variable. In simulations, the typical Kalman filter show good results when no wheel slips; when one or more wheels slip, the typical Kalman filter with constant covariance matrices does not work well. Therefore, a gain matrix adjusting Kalman filter which can detect the wheel slip and cope with that is proposed.
Journal Article

Differential Drive Assisted Steering Control for an In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-1599
For an electric vehicle driven by four in-wheel motors, the torque of each wheel can be controlled precisely and independently. A closed-loop control method of differential drive assisted steering (DDAS) has been proposed to improve vehicle steering properties based on those advantages. With consideration of acceleration requirement, a three dimensional characteristic curve that indicates the relation between torque and angle of the steering wheel at different vehicle speeds was designed as a basis of the control system. In order to deal with the saturation of motor's output torque under certain conditions, an anti-windup PI control algorithm was designed. Simulations and vehicle tests, including pivot steering test, lemniscate test and central steering test were carried out to verify the performance of the DDAS in steering portability and road feeling.
Technical Paper

An Anti-Lock Braking Control Strategy for 4WD Electric Vehicle Based on Variable Structure Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0717
Based on the four-wheel-drive electric vehicle (4WD EV), a variable structure control (VSC) strategy is designed in this paper for the anti-lock braking control. With nonpeak friction coefficient as target, sign judgment method of switch function in this VSC strategy is improved and a new control algorithm is proposed. The improved VSC strategy is made robust to the parameters of the algorithm and verified by the computer simulation as well as the hard-in-loop test. The results show that the slip rate can be controlled to a point in the stable area near the optimal slip ratio and the control strategy can effectively realize the anti-lock braking control.
Technical Paper

A Steerable Curvature Approach for Efficient Executable Path Planning for on-Road Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0675
A rapid path-planning algorithm that generates drivable paths for an autonomous vehicle operating in structural road is proposed in this paper. Cubic B-spline curve is adopted to generating smooth path for continuous curvature and, more, parametric basic points of the spline is adjusted to controlling the curvature extremum for kinematic constraints on vehicle. Other than previous approaches such as inverse kinematics, model-based prediction postprocess approach or closed-loop forward simulation, using the kinematics model in each iteration of path for smoothing and controlling curvature leading to time consumption increasing, our method characterized the vehicle curvature constraint by the minimum length of segment line, which synchronously realized constraint and smooth for generating path. And Differ from the path of robot escaping from a maze, the intelligent vehicle traveling on road in structured environments needs to meet the traffic rules.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Dynamic Control Design with Conditional Integrators Applied to Unmanned Skid-steering Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1585
A dynamic controller is designed for unmanned skid-steering vehicle. The vehicle speed is controlled through driving torque of engine to achieve the desired vehicle speed and the steering is controlled through hydraulic braking on each side of the vehicle to achieve the desired yaw rate. Contrary to the common approaches by considering non-holonomic constraints, tire slip and saturation of actuators torque influencing the driving and braking are considered, based on the analysis of vehicle dynamic model and nonlinear tire model. Hence, with conditional integrators, the dynamic controller overcoming integral saturation is designed to ensure the accurate tracking for desired signals under influence of tire forces and constraint of actuators. In addition, the exponential kind filter is utilized to enhance the ability of smoothing noise of wheel speed. To perform small radius cornering maneuvers, a dynamic control strategy for steering when vehicle speed is zero is also designed.
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