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Journal Article

Vertical Takeoff and Landing Aircraft, VTOL Ground Effects

Abstract The ground-effect problems of loss of thrust and fountain-effect instabilities are quantified. Experiments to control and augment ground-effect lift and stability are presented, including jet momentum reflection and fountain redirection using various types of internal and external underbody ventral strakes. By strategically designing the vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) ventral surface, reflection of the impinging fountain momentum is possible so that instead of losing 10% thrust while in ground-effect, remarkably, thrust is augmented 10% or more to a considerable height above the ground, in addition to stabilizing random pitch and roll moments caused by fountain instability.
Journal Article

Using Numerical Simulation to Obtain Length of Constant Area Section in Scramjet Combustor

Abstract Constant area section length downstream to the fuel injection point is a crucial dimension of scramjet duct geometry. It has a major contribution in creating the maximum effective pressure inside the combustor that is required for propulsion. The length is limited by the thermal choking phenomenon, which occurs when heat is added in a flow through constant area duct. As per theory, to avoid thermal choking the constant area section length depends upon the inlet conditions and the rate of heat addition. The complexity related to mixing and combustion process inside the supersonic stream makes it difficult to predict the rate of heat addition and in turn the length. Recent efforts of simulating the reacting flow inside scramjet combustors are encouraging and can be useful in this regard. The presented work attempts to use simulation results of scramjet combustion for predicting the constant area section length for a typical scramjet combustor.
Journal Article

Understanding the Impact of Standardized SAE Waveform Parameter Variation on Artificial Lightning Plasma, Specimen Loading, and Composite Material Damage

Abstract Previous works have established strategies to model artificial test lightning plasma with specific waveform parameters and use the predicted plasma behavior to estimate test specimen damage. To date no computational works have quantified the influence of varying the waveform parameters on the predicted plasma behavior and resulting specimen damage. Herein test standard Waveform B has been modelled and the waveform parameters of “waveform peak,” “rise time,” and “time to reach the post-peak value” have been varied. The plasma and specimen behaviors have been modelled using the Finite Element (FE) method (a Magnetohydrodynamic FE multiphysics model for the plasma, a FE thermal-electric model for the specimen). For the test arrangements modelled herein, it has been found that “peak current” is the key parameter influencing plasma properties and specimen damage.
Journal Article

The Missing Link: Aircraft Cybersecurity at the Operational Level

Abstract Aircraft cybersecurity efforts have tended to focus at the strategic or tactical levels without a clear connection between the two. There are many excellent engineering tools already in widespread use, but many organizations have not yet integrated and linked them into an overarching “campaign plan” that connects those tactical actions such as process hazard analysis, threat modeling, and probabilistic methods to the desired strategic outcome of secure and resilient systems. This article presents the combined systems security engineering process (CSSEP) as a way to fill that gap. Systems theory provides the theoretical foundation on which CSSEP is built. CSSEP is structured as a control loop in which the engineering team is the controller of the design process. The engineering team needs to have an explicit process model on how systems should be secured, and a control algorithm that determines what control actions should be selected.
Journal Article

Technological Stability of the Liner in a Separable Metal Composite Pressure Vessel

Abstract The article considers one of the possible mechanisms of loading the solidity of a cylindrical metal composite high-pressure vessel (MC HPV). This mechanism manifests itself as delamination of a thin-walled metal shell (liner) from a more rigid composite shell causing local buckling. A similar effect can be detected in the manufacturing process of MC HPV, when the composite shell is formed by winding with tension a carbon fiber-reinforced plastic tape on the liner. Pressure transfer from the composite shell to the liner is carried out by the method of temperature analogy, that is, by cooling the composite shell, thermally insulated from the liner. To solve the problem of externally confined liner local buckling an approach is proposed, which is based on three points: the introduction of local technological deviations inherent in actual structures, the determination of the general stress-strain state, and a real-time deforming.
Journal Article

Study of Temperature Distribution and Parametric Optimization during FSW of AA6082 Using Statistical Approaches

Abstract In this article, Al-Mg-Si-Mn alloy (AA6082) is butt joined by employing friction stir welding (FSW). The mechanical and metallurgical properties of joints are analyzed by conducting tensile and microhardness testing, respectively. To measure the temperature at different locations, eight thermocouples (L-shaped k-type) are placed at equal distance from the centerline. Least square method attempts to calculate the temperature at the centerline of joints. The process parameters are also optimized using Taguchi’s five-level experimental design. The optimum process parameters are determined, employing ultimate tensile strength (UTS) as a response parameter. A statistical test “analysis of variance” is used to check the adequacy of the model. It has been observed that rotational speed and feed rate are the predominant factors for UTS and microhardness.
Journal Article

Stall Mitigation and Lift Enhancement of NACA 0012 with Triangle-Shaped Surface Protrusion at a Reynolds Number of 105

Abstract Transient numerical simulations are conducted over a NACA 0012 airfoil with triangular protrusions at a Reynolds number (Re) of 100000 using the γ-Reθ transition Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Protrusions of heights 0.5%c, 1%c, and 2%c are placed at one of the three locations, viz, the leading edge (LE), 5%c on the suction surface, and 5%c on the pressure surface, while the angle of attack (AOA) is varied between 0° and 20°. Results obtained from the time-averaged solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation indicate that the smaller protrusion placed at 5%c on the suction surface improves the post-stall lift coefficient by up to 59%, without altering the pre-stall characteristics. The improvement in time-averaged lift coefficients comes with enhanced flow unsteadiness due to vigorous vortex shedding.
Journal Article

Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in Optimization of Performance and Exhaust Emissions of RON 97, RON 98, and RON 100 (Motor Gasoline) and AVGAS 100LL (Aviation Gasoline) in Lycoming O-320 Engine

Abstract Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)’s 20 years of research and development with 200 unleaded blends and full-scale engine tests on 45 high-octane unleaded blends has not found a “drop-in” unleaded replacement for aviation gasoline (AVGAS) 100 low lead (100LL) fuel. In this study, analysis of compatibility via optimization of Lycoming O-320 engine fuelled with RON 97, RON 98, RON 100, and AVGAS was conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Test fuels were compositionally characterized based on Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis and were categorized based on types of Hydrocarbon (HC). Basic fuel properties of fuels in this research were analyzed and recorded. For optimization analysis, engine speed and fuel were considered as the input parameters.
Journal Article

Process Regulations and Mechanism of WEDM of Combustor Material

Abstract This study discusses the experimental investigation on WEDM of combustor material (i.e., nimonic 263). Experimentation has been executed by varying pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), peak current (Ip), and spark gap voltage (Sv). Material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR), and wire wear rate (WWR) are employed as process performance characteristics. Experiments are designed as per the box-Behnken design technique. Parametric optimization has also been performed using response surface methodology. Besides this, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and an optical microscope are utilized to characterize WEDMed and worn-out wire surfaces. It is observed that both surfaces contain micro-cracks, craters, spherical droplets, and a lump of debris. Furthermore, the mechanism of recast layer formation has been critically evaluated to apprehend a better understanding of the technique. The key features of the experimental procedure are also highlighted.
Journal Article

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Subsystem

Abstract Aircraft subsystem development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight-worthy system. The subsystem needs to be verified for a massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as part of the environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of subsystems with various kinds of power disturbances and to determine the ability of a subsystem to withstand PQ disturbances. The subsystem being designed should be reliable enough to handle PQ anomalies. A PQ test results in an enormous amount of data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test and can be identified as big data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as part of post-processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and that the functional performance of the subsystem is met.
Journal Article

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine Burning Soap-Derived Biokerosene/Jet A-1 Blends

Abstract There has been an increased interest as regards the use of biofuels in aviation gas turbine engines due to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along with fluctuating jet fuel prices. This work researches the use of soap-derived biokerosene (SBK) in aircraft engines. SBK is a promising biofuel option for emerging tropical countries as its production requires a relatively simple technology, and its feedstock sources are abundant in these countries. Blends of Jet A-1 with up to 20 vol.% SBK were tested on a 1S/60 Rover gas turbine engine over a range of brake powers to measure engine performance and emissions. The results were then compared to those of pure Jet A-1. It shows that the engine running on SBK/Jet A-1 blends and pure Jet A-1 have almost similar engine performance parameters including engine efficiency, specific fuel consumption (SFC), turbine inlet temperature (TIT), and exhaust gas temperature (EGT).
Journal Article

Parametric Studies on Airfoil-Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion System

Abstract From the fact that a propulsor consumes less power for a given thrust if the inlet air is slower, simulations are conducted for a propulsor imposed behind an airfoil as ideal boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsor to stand on the benefits of this configuration from the point of view of power and efficiency and to get a closer look on the mutual interaction between them. This interaction is quantified by the impact on three main sets of parameters, namely, power consumption, boundary layer properties, and airfoil performance. The position and size of the propulsor have great influence on the flow around the airfoil. Parametric studies are carried out to understand their influence. BLI propulsor directly affects the power saving and all of the pressure-dependent parameters, including lift and drag. For the present case, power saving reached 14.4% compared to the propeller working in freestream.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Effects of G-Jitter on Buoyant Laminar Diffusion Flame

Abstract Numerical prediction of a confined, co-flowing, laminar jet diffusion flame has been investigated under sinusoidal “g-jitter” to describe the flame structure; this type of flame-body force interaction is typical of a microgravity environment such as in the spacecraft. We introduced g-jitter in the direction orthogonal to the fuel and air inflow. We show that the lower frequencies (0.1-0.5 Hz) of sinusoidal g-jitter significantly affected the flame geometry and behavior. The majority of the flame structure was found to oscillate directly in response to the imposed g-jitter. It has also been observed that nonlinearity in the response behaviors is more prominent in the reaction zone of the flame.
Journal Article

Modeling of Ducted-Fan and Motor in an Electric Aircraft and a Preliminary Integrated Design

Abstract Electric ducted-fans with high power density are widely used in hybrid aircraft, electric aircraft, and VTOL vehicles. For the state-of-the-art electric ducted-fan, motor cooling restricts the power density increase. A motor design model based on the fan hub-to-tip ratio proposed in this article reveals that the thermal coupling effect between fan aerodynamic design and motor cooling design has great potential to increase the power density of the motor in an electric propulsion system. A smaller hub-to-tip ratio is preferred as long as the power balance and cooling balance are satisfied. Parametric study on a current 6 kW electric ducted-fan system shows that the highest motor power density could be increased by 246% based on the current technology. Finally, a preliminary design was obtained and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the model.
Journal Article

Microturbine Blade Cooling

Abstract The main technical barrier to commercial use of microturbines is its low efficiency, not exceeding 15%. Efficiency and specific power are as high as the Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT), generally limited to 950°C in microturbines, as its tiny rotors make internal blade cooling impossible. This work uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to develop an external cooling system of the blades of a microturbine by incorporating a compressor into the disk to blow air over the blades’ walls. The engine used as the basis of the work is the FD-3/64. The work was divided into two steps. In the first, Step 1, the reactive flow in the combustor was simulated to obtain the boundary conditions for Step 2. In Step 2, the flow through the turbine wheel during rotation is simulated. Four rotor models were simulated.
Journal Article

Mathematical Model of Heat-Controlled Accumulator (HCA) for Microgravity Conditions

Abstract It is reasonable to use a two-phase heat transfer loop (TPL) in a thermal control system (TCS) of spacecraft with large heat dissipation. One of the key elements of TPL is a heat-controlled accumulator (HCA). The HCA represents a volume which is filled with vapor and liquid of a single working fluid without bellows. The pressure in a HCA is controlled by the heater. The heat and mass transfer processes in the HCA can proceed with a significant nonequilibrium. This has implications on the regulation of TPL. This article presents a mathematical model of nonequilibrium heat and mass transfer processes in an HCA for microgravity conditions. The model uses the equations of mass and energy conservation separately for the vapor and liquid phases. Interfacial heat and mass transfer is also taken into account. It proposes to use the convective component k for the level of nonequilibrium evaluation.
Journal Article

Limitations of Two-Stage Turbocharging at High Flight Altitudes

Abstract High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used for high flight altitudes, which enable low drag and fast flight with minimal fuel consumption. Two-stage turbocharging is necessary to sustain sea-level power at high flight altitudes. In this study, the limitations of two-stage turbocharging at high flight altitudes typical for HALE UAVs are analyzed for the first time. The obtained results show that the minimum available engine power increases as the altitude rises. This will limit the ability of the aircraft to descend rapidly. Furthermore, at high altitudes, if a lower operating point is required for a fast descent, further recovery to full power for climbing or cruising could be unavailable. In the latter cases, a lower altitude must be reached before full power would be available again. A basic algorithm for the assessment and analysis of the limitations of UAV engines with two-stage turbochargers operating at high altitudes is suggested.
Journal Article

Lightweight Carbon Composite Chassis for Engine Start Lithium Batteries

Abstract The supersession of metallic alloys with lightweight, high-strength composites is popular in the aircraft industry. However, aviation electronic enclosures for large format batteries and high power conversion electronics are still primarily made of aluminum alloys. These aluminum enclosures have attractive properties regrading structural integrity for the heavy internal parts, electromagnetic interference (EMI) suppression, electrical bonding for the internal cells, and/or electronics and failure containment. This paper details a lightweight carbon fiber composite chassis developed at Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) Securaplane, with a copper metallic mesh co-cured onto the internal surfaces resulting in a 50% reduction in weight when compared to its aluminum counterpart. In addition to significant weight reduction, it provides equal or improved performance with respect to EMI, structural and flammability performance.
Journal Article

Landing Response Analysis on High-Performance Aircraft* Using Estimated Touchdown States

Abstract A novel use of state estimation methods as initial input for a landing response analysis is proposed in this work. Six degrees of freedom (DOF) non-linear landing response model is conceived by considering longitudinal dynamics of aircraft as a rigid body with heave-and-pitch motions coupled onto a bicycle landing gear † arrangement. The DOF for each landing gear consist of vertical and longitudinal motions of un-sprung mass, considering strut bending flexibility. The measurement data for state estimation is obtained for three landing cases using non-linear flight mechanics model interfaced with pilot-in-loop simulation. State estimation methods such as Upper Diagonal Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (UD-AEKF) with fuzzy-based adaptive tuning and Un-scented Kalman Filter (UKF) were adapted for landing maneuver problem. On the basis of estimation error metrics, aircraft state from UKF is considered during onset of touchdown.
Journal Article

Improving the Modelling of Dissociating Hydrogen Nozzles

Abstract While the design of nozzles for diatomic gases is very well established and covered by published works, the case of a diatomic gas dissociating to monatomic along a nozzle is a novel subject that needs a proper mathematical description. These novel studies are relevant to the definition of nozzles for gas-core Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) that are receiving increased attention for the potential advantages they may deliver versus current generation rockets. The article thus reviews the design of the nozzles of gas-core NTR that use hydrogen as the propellant. Propellant temperatures are expected to reach 9,000-15,000 K. Above 1500 K, hydrogen begins to dissociate at low pressures, and around 3000 K dissociation also occurs at high pressures. At a given temperature, the lower the gas pressure the more molecules dissociate, and H2 → H + H. The properties of the gas are a function of the mass fractions of diatomic and monatomic hydrogen x H2 and x H = 1 − x H2.