Understanding the Origin of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Using Large-Eddy Simulation: Similarities and Differences between a Homogeneous Low-Revving Speed Research Engine and a Production DI Turbocharged Engine
Abstract A numerical study using large-eddy simulations (LES) to reproduce and understand sources of cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) in spark-initiated internal combustion engines (ICEs) is presented. Two relevantly different spark-ignition (SI) units, that is, a homogeneous-charge slow-speed single-cylinder research unit (the transparent combustion chamber (TCC)-III, Engine 1) and a stratified-charge high-revving speed gasoline direct injection (GDI) (Engine 2) one, are analyzed in fired operations. Multiple-cycle simulations are carried out for both engines and LES results well reproduce the experimentally measured combustion CCV. A correlation study is carried out, emphasizing the decisive influence of the early flame period variability (1% of mass fraction burnt (MFB1)) on the entire combustion event in both ICEs. The focus is moved onto the early flame characteristics, and the crucial task to determine the dominant causes of its variability (if any) is undertaken.